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1. WO2020157773 - COMPOSITION DE SOL À BASE DE POUSSIÈRE DE ROCHE

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[ EN ]

ROCK-DUST BASED SOIL COMPOSITION

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to soil compositions. More particularly, this invention relates to preparation of rock-dust based soil compositions.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

The rock-dust is a byproduct of rock crushing in quarrying industry. There are various known applications of rock-dust such as for filling holes, bedding paving stones and for mixing with concrete. However, its use in increasing the soil fertility and its positive effects on plants have not been explored in detail.

In the last few decades, the use of chemical fertilizers has increased tremendously due to its nature of making available the nutrients immediately to the plants. However, the down-side of using the chemical fertilizers include deterioration of the soil health, over fertilization, toxic build-ups in soil, etc.

Though the use of rock-dust in soil has been disclosed, the available state-of-art does not provide a comprehensive ratio of soil composition comprising of rock-dust, organic waste and any other additives to arrive at a ready soil composition which provides all the required nutrients to the plants.

More particularly, the rock-dust as such cannot be used as a replacement for chemical fertilizers as the rock-dust lacks the required levels of phosphorous, potassium and nitrogen (three main ingredients for plant growth).

In view of the foregoing, there is a need for a soil composition free of chemical additives that has all essential ingredients required for arriving at a soil composition which can be used for variety of soil applications including but not limited to gardening purposes.

The above-mentioned shortcomings, disadvantages and problems are addressed herein and which will be understood by reading and studying the following

specification.

OBJECT OF THE INVENTION

An object of the present invention is to make available the soil composition to provide essential nutrients required for plant growth.

An object of the present invention is to provide a soil composition which provides a balanced amount of nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium along with other important trace micronutrients.

Another object of the present invention is to provide a soil composition which comprehensively has all the required nutrients and reduce the dependence on independent additives for any specific nutrient requirement.

Another object of the present invention is providing of a soil composition wherein the rock-dust is used as a major component of the soil composition.

Another object of the present invention is to additional additives such as a sea-shell powder, etc., to provide trace nutrients.

Yet another object of the present invention is to use decomposed organic waste as an additive to the rock-dust based soil composition to provide essential nutrients to the plants.

Another object of the present invention is to additional additives such as a sea-weed powder, etc.

Another object of the present invention is to provide a ready-use soil composition with all the required nutrients for plants growth for variety of purposes such agricultural, soil conditioning, gardening purposes, etc.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention discloses a rock-dust based soil composition and method of preparation thereof. Further the present composition for increasing soil fertility, the composition includes additive A and additive B. The additive A is rock dust. The additive B is selected from a group comprising cow dung, coir peat, sea shell and vermicompost. The additive A and additive B are mixed in 16: 1 ratio. The additive A has antibacterial and antifungal properties and the additive B has antibacterial, antifungal and antialgal properties. Also, the present invention discloses a method for preparing composition for increasing soil fertility, the method includes selecting additive A, selecting additive B and mixing the additive A and the additive B in a predefined ratio, wherein, the predefined ratio of mixing the additive A and the additive B is 16: 1.

The foregoing has outlined, in general, the various aspects of the invention and is to serve as an aid to better understand the more detailed description which is to follow. In reference to such, there is to be a clear understanding that the present invention is not limited to the method or application if use detailed and illustrated herein. It is intended that any other advantages and objects of the present invention that become apparent or obvious from the detailed descriptions or illustration contained herein are within the scope of the present invention.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS

Figure 1 discloses the GC-MS chromatogram of methanolic extract of rock dust.

Figure 2 discloses the GC-MS chromatogram of methanolic extract of cow dung.

Figure 3 discloses the GC-MS chromatogram of methanolic extract of sea shell.

Figure 4 discloses the GC-MS chromatogram of methanolic extract of coir peat.

Figure 5 discloses the GC-MS chromatogram of methanolic extract of vermicompost. Figure 6 discloses the okra plants grown in different soil amendments.

Figure 7 discloses Okra plants grown in field with different soil amendments.

Figure 8 discloses Okra plants grown in field with different soil amendments.

Figure 9 discloses okra plants grown in different soil amendments.

Figure 10 discloses stem length of okra plants grown in different soil amendments.

Figures 11 discloses number of leaves I okra plants grown in different soil amendments.

Figures 12 discloses petiole length of okra plants grown in different soil amendments.

Figures 13 discloses stem girth of okra plants grown in different soil amendments.

Figure 14 discloses midrib length of okra plant grown I different soil amendments

Figure 15 discloses total crop yield (gms) of okra plants grown in different soil amendments.

Figure 16 discloses HPLC chromatogram of standard IAA hormone.

Figure 17 discloses HPLC chromatogram of okra plant leaves grown in rock dust amendment.

Figure 18 discloses HPLC chromatogram of okra plant leaves grown in cow dung.

Figure 19 discloses HPLC chromatogram of okra plant leaves grown in sea shell.

Figure 20 discloses HPLC chromatogram of okra plant leaves grown in coir peat.

Figure 21 discloses HPLC chromatogram of okra plant leaves grown in vermicompost.

Figure 22 discloses HPLC chromatogram of okra plant leaves grown in rock dust and cow dung.

Figure 23 discloses HPLC chromatogram of okra plant leaves grown in rock dust and seashell.

Figure 24 discloses HPLC chromatogram of okra plant leaves grown in rock dust and coir peat.

Figure 25 discloses HPLC chromatogram of okra plant leaves grown in rock dust and vermicompost.

Figure 26 discloses HPLC chromatogram of okra plant leaves grown without soil amendment.

Figure 27 discloses Bradford standard graph.

Figure 28 discloses SDS page analysis of total leaf proteins extracted from okra plants grown in different soil amendment of pot culture.

Figure 29 discloses SDS page analysis of total leaf proteins extracted from okra plants grown in different soil amendment of pot culture.

Figure 30 discloses BSA standard graph.

Figure 31 discloses two electrophoretic analysis of leaf proteome of okra plant grown without soil amendment.

Figure 32 discloses two dimensional electrophorectic analysis of leaf proteome of okra plant grown in rock dust and sea shell amendment in 16: 1 ratio

Figure 33 discloses two dimensional electrophorectic analysis of leaf proteome of okra plant grown in rock dust and vermicompost amendment in 16: 1 ratio.

Figure 34 discloses effects of soil amendments on chorophyll and carotenoid content in leaves of okra plant.

Figure 35 discloses effects of soil amendments on chorophyll and carotenoid content in leaves of okra plant of field studies.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The specification may refer to “an”, “one” or “some” embodiment(s) in several locations. This does not necessarily imply that each such reference is to the same embodiment(s), or that the feature only applies to a single embodiment. Single features of different embodiments may also be combined to provide other embodiments.

As used herein, the singular forms “a”, “an” and “the” are intended to include the plural forms as well, unless expressly stated otherwise. It will be further understood that the terms “includes”, “comprises”, “including” and/or “comprising” when used in this specification, specify the presence of stated features, integers, steps, operations, elements and/or components, but do not preclude the presence or addition of one or more other features integers, steps, operations, elements, components, and/or groups thereof. As used herein, the term “and/or” includes any and all combinations and arrangements of one or more of the associated listed items.

Unless otherwise defined, all terms (including technical and scientific terms) used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this disclosure pertains. It will be further understood that terms, such as those defined in commonly used dictionaries, should be interpreted as having a meaning that is consistent with their meaning in the context of the relevant art and will not be interpreted in an idealized or overly formal sense unless expressly so defined herein.

It is evident that the secret for a plant growth and yield lies in the soil composition that possess both required amount of nutrients as well as minerals in balanced ratio. For example, mixing of organic compost in the soil renders it rich in nutrients however for a healthy soil structure there is also a requirement of minerals. In the absence of required minerals, the plant growth and yield are deficient of the essential minerals.

The present invention overcomes the above drawbacks by providing a soil composition which can restore the health of soil through the process of remineralization. This process is achieved through addition of rock-dust to the soil composition.

The present invention relates to soil compositions. More particularly, this invention relates to preparation of rock-dust based soil compositions. The present invention comprising:

additive A; and

additive B,

wherein, additive A is rock dust. The additive B is selected from a group comprising cow dung, coir peat, sea shell and vermicompost. The additive A and additive B are mixed in 16: 1 ratio. The additive A has antibacterial and antifungal properties. The additive B has antibacterial, antifungal and antialgal properties.

In another embodiment of the present invention the present invention discloses a method for preparing composition for increasing soil fertility, the method comprising:

selecting additive A;

selecting additive B; and

mixing the additive A and the additive B in a predefined ratio,

wherein, the predefined ratio of mixing the additive A and the additive B is 16: 1. The additive A is rock dust. The additive B is selected from a group comprising cow dung, coir peat, sea shell and vermicompost.

In yet another embodiment of the present invention, the present invention comprising: additive A; and

additive B,

wherein, additive A is rock dust. The additive B is selected from a group comprising cow dung, coir peat, sea shell and vermicompost. The additive A and additive B are mixed in 4: 1 ratio. The additive A has antibacterial and antifungal properties. The additive B has antibacterial, antifungal and antialgal properties.

In yet another embodiment of the present invention the present invention discloses a method for preparing composition for increasing soil fertility, the method comprising:

selecting additive A;

selecting additive B; and

mixing the additive A and the additive B in a predefined ratio,

wherein, the predefined ratio of mixing the additive A and the additive B is 4: 1. The additive A is rock dust. The additive B is selected from a group comprising cow dung, coir peat, sea shell and vermicompost.

The rock-dust is basically a finely crushed powder of rock containing micronutrients and trace elements which are essential to the life cycle of plants along with increasing the capabilities of the plants to absorb microbes to flourish.

In yet another embodiment, the predefined ratio of mixing the additive A and the additive B is 8: 1

In yet another embodiment, the predefined ratio of mixing the additive A and the additive B is 10: 1

The rock minerals act as a base for a healthy soil which exhibits qualities such as improved plant structure, increased resistance to pests and diseases, etc. Further though the rock-dust is rich in minerals such as calcium and trace elements like iron and manganese, it however deficient of required amounts of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus (N-P-K). To overcome the above problem, the present invention proposes use of organic waste to meet the nutrient requirements of the plants.

Firstly, the major component of the soil composition disclosed in the present invention comprising of rock-dust. The rock-dust can be readily sourced from the local quarries in the form of residue, tailing or other non-voluble waste material after the extraction and processing of rocks to form fine particles of less than 4.75mm. Presently, the quarry rock-dust is used mostly as a surface finishing material, manufacturing of hollow-bricks, etc. The present invention discloses use of the same as a soil composition in addition with organic waste and other additives.

The use of organic waste in soil is traditionally known to play a vital role in recycling the essential plant nutrients, sustaining soil health, etc. The organic waste can be from wide range of sources such as municipal waste, bio-waste, food waste, sewage sludge, manure, etc. These organic wastes provide soil with required amounts of nitrogen, increased microbial activity, regulate pH, water holding capacity, microbial biomass, increased enzyme activity in soil, reduces toxicity of heavy metals and increases overall positive impact on soil physical, chemical and biological properties as well as stimulate plant growth and thus increase the yield of crops.

Apart from the use of rock-dust along with organic waste, the resultant soil composition might be still deficient of minor essential trace elements and nutrients. These can be overcome by providing additives to the rock-dust organic waste soil composition.

The additives can be from biological sources, organic sources and inorganic sources. The biological additives mainly comprising of beneficial microorganisms, the organic additives can be of a specific type of organic component (for example seaweed).

More particularly, the seaweed possesses various trace minerals and ready-to-use nutrients including nitrogen, potassium and magnesium along with hormones which enhances plant growth.

These additives are essentially used to increase the composting process, stimulate microbial activity, improve aeration, water holding capacity, regulate moisture content, regulate pH, balanced nutrient contents and availability, act as a stimulator for plant growth, etc.

Further the rock-dust based soil composition can also be mixed with sea-shell powder to increase the photo-synthetic efficiency of the plants and thereby resulting overall increase in yield of the plants.

Various applications of the resultant soil composition disclosed in the present invention includes its application for improving overall health of the soil, nursery gardening, ready-to-use soil for garden pots, environment recovery and in the urban environment such as lawns, green areas, creation of new soils, creation of artificial soil, as an additives to acidic soils, as an improved fertilizer in select cases, etc.

Further the rock-dust based soil composition disclosed in the present invention can also be made readily available for direct application to the plants without involvement of any additional requirement of steps or processes. For example, a person can readily buy the soil and use the same for gardening purposes which cuts down on the time and cost if the person has to source all the components of the soil composition separately and prepare the soil composition to make it suitable for various applications.

EXPERIMENTS:

Results

Table 1. Different treatments of soil amendments applied to okra plants In field studies

Table 4. Nutrient analysis report of rock dust.

Table 5. Comparison of rock dust with other amendments


Nutrient analysis of rock dust revealed the presence of iron and manganese in high concentrations when compared to other amendments. As iron and manganese are micronutrients which are required by plants in trace amounts high concentration may adversely atleet the plant growth.

5.2 GC-MS ANALYSIS

GC-MS analysis of methanolic extract of rock dust (Fig. 3) revealed the presence of 12 different compounds. 1-Octadecyne, Pseduosarsasapogenin-5,20-dien, beta. carotene and bicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-en-2-one, 3,8-dihydroxy-1-metboxy-7-(7-methoxy- 1,3-benzodioxcol have highest peak area of 16.549, 9.267, 8.481 and 6.305 respectively as mentioned in Table 6.

Figure 1 discloses the GC-MS chromatogram of methanolic extract of rock dust.

TLble 6. Compounds identified m imtha nolle extract of rock dust

Table 7. Activity of compounds identified in methanolic extract of rook dust

Figure 2 discloses the GC-MS chromatogram of methanolic extract of cow dung.

Methanolic extract of cow dung contains 15 different components. Methyl isolithocholate, 2-butyl-2,7-octadien -1-ol, 9, 19-cyclolanostan-3 -ol, acetate, (3.beta)- wss observed to have highest peak ares of 16.263, 9.934 and 5.151 respectively in Table 8.

Table 8. Compounds identified in methanloic extract of cow dung

Table 9. Activity of compounds identified in methanolic extract of cow dung

Figure 3 discloses the GC-MS chromatogram of methanolic extract of sea shell.

Six compounds were identified in methanolic extract of sea shell when compared to

all other soil amendaments sea shell was abserved to show only 6 compounds in the methanolic extract. 7-Hydroxy-3-(1,1-dimethylprop-2-enyl) coumarin showed the activity of anti-quorum molecule with peak area % of 5.170 shown in Table

10.

Table 10. Compounds identified in methenolic extract of sea shell

Table 11. Activity of compounds identified is methanolic extract of sea shell

Figure 4 discloses the GC-MS chromatogram of methanolic extract of coir peat.

GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 12 different compounds In methanolic extract of coir peat. Compounds identified with highest peak area % are as follows cholest-4-en-3-one, 26-(acetyloxy)- ( 12.471), 2R-Acetoxymethyl-1,3 ,3-trimethyl-4t- (3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-1t-cyclohexanol (11.514) and thunbergol (10.463).

Table 12. Compounds identified in methanolic extract of coir peat


Table 13. Activity of compounds ideofified in methanolic extract of coir peat

Figure 5 discloses the GC-MS chromatogram of methanolic extract of vermicompost. GC-MS analysis showed the presence of 16 compounds: Majority of the compounds

showed the antibacterial and antifungal activity as mentioned in table 15. Highest

peaks area % was observed for pentadecanoic acid (7.780) having antibacterial and

antifungal activity.

Table 14. Components identified in methanolic extract of vermicomposee.

Table 15. Activity of compounds identified in methanolic extract of vermicompost

POT CULTURE STUDIES

Figure 6 discloses Okra plants grown in field with different soil amendments.

Road dust, H-cow dung, iv-cow peat, v-vemicompost, dust +

cow dung, vii-rock dust + sea shell, vii- rock dust + cow iz-cook dust +

FIELD STUDIES

i. Front view of the experimental plue ii. Side view of the experimental plot

Figure 7 discloses Okra plants grown in field with different soil amendments.

Figure 8 discloses Okra plants grown in field with different soil amendments.

Figure 9 discloses okra plants grown in different soil amendments. The okra plant in figure 9 uses:

i-control, ii-rock dust, iii-cow dung, iv-ses shell, v-cow post, vi-vermicompost, vii-rock dust + cow dung, viii-rock dust + ses shell, ix-sock dust + coir peat and a rock

dust + vermicompost

PHYSICAL PARAMETERS OF THE OKRA PLANTS;

Physical parameters such as length of stem, number of leaves, stem girth, length of petiole and midrib length was measured m three randomly selected plants in each replicate of different treatments.

Table 16. Physical parameters of okra plants across different treatments


Figure 10 discloses stem length of okra plants grown in different soil amendments.

Figures 11 discloses number of leaves I okra plants grown in different soil amendments.

Figures 12 discloses petiole length of okra plants grown in different soil amendments.

Figures 13 discloses stem girth of okra plants grown in different soil amendments.

Figure 14 discloses midrib length of okra plant grown in different soil amendments.

Figure 15 discloses total crop yield (gms) of okra plants grown in different soil amendments.

Total crop yield was found to foe similar in T6 (vermicompost) and T4 (sea shell} as the sea shell and vermicompost has good NPK value and also rich in macro, micronutrients. Lowest yield was observed in T3 (cow dung) as release of nutrients from the cow dung can be a slow process.

Stem length was found to foe highest in T10 (rock dust + vermicompost) followed by T6 (vermicopost) as shown in Fig. 11 indicating that nutrients present in these amendments were easily available fo plants for growth and development Number of leaves was found fo be. highest in TS (coir peat) followed by T2 (rock dust) as shown in Fig. 12. Similar tread was observed for petiole length highest in T5 (eoir peat) as in number of leaves. Stem girth was found to be highest in T6 (vermicompost) due to better availability of macro and ntierontilrients to the plants. Lowest stem girth was found in control as shown in Fig, 14 indicating that the amendments used in this study were promoting plant development, T6 and T9 showed no significant difference in midrib length.

Figure 16 discloses HPLC chromatogram of standard IAA hormone.

Estimation of Plant hormone

Out of 10 treatments IAA was found only to be present in leaves of okra plant grown in cow dung soil amendment Concentration oflAA was found to he 592 ug/ml.

Figure 17 discloses HPLC chromatogram of okra plant leaves grown in rock dust amendment.

Figure 18 discloses HPLC chromatogram of okra plant leaves grown in cow dung.

Figure 19 discloses HPLC chromatogram of okra plant leaves grown in sea shell.

Figure 20 discloses HPLC chromatogram of okra plant leaves grown in coir peat.

Figure 21 discloses HPLC chromatogram of okra plant leaves grown in vermicompost.

Figure 22 discloses HPLC chromatogram of okra plant leaves grown in rock dust and cow dung.

Figure 23 discloses HPLC chromatogram of okra plant leaves grown in rock dust and seashell.

Figure 24 discloses HPLC chromatogram of okra plant leaves grown in rock dust and coir peat.

Figure 25 discloses HPLC chromatogram of okra plant leaves grown in rock dust and vermicompost.

Figure 26 discloses HPLC chromatogram of okra plant leaves grown without soil amendment.

Figure 27 discloses Bradford standard graph of total leaf proteome of okra plants grown in different soil amendments in pot culture studies.

Table 17. Concentration of leaf protein in okra plant grown in different soil amendments of pot culture


Figure 28 discloses SDS page analysis of total leaf proteins extracted from okra plants grown in different soil amendment of pot culture. The SDS page shows lane 1 protein marker, 2-rock dust, 3-cow dung, 4- sea shell, 5-coir peat, 6-vermicompost, 7-rock dust + cow dung.

The SDS-PAGB analysis of total leaf protein from okra plants grown in different soil amendment showed the presence of certain unique protein bauds in treatment rock dust + sea shell and rock dust + vermicompost of size 28 kDa and 25 kDa respectively as shown in Fig. 30. These uniquely expressed protein bands in SDS-PAGB in two treatments of pot culture were chosen to perform 2D gel dectrophoresis.

Figure 29 discloses SDS page analysis of total leaf proteins extracted from okra plants grown in different soil amendment of pot culture. The SDS page shows lane 1 protein marker, 2-rock dust+ sea shell, 3- rock dust+coir peat, 4-rock dust + vermicompost, 5-controll.

Figure 30 discloses BSA standard graph.

Table 18. Concentration of leaf protein in okra plant grown in different soil amendments of field studies

Figure 31 discloses two electrophoretic analysis of leaf proteome of okra plant grown without soil amendment.

Figure 32 discloses two dimensional electrophorectic analysis of leaf proteome of okra plant grown in rock dust and sea shell amendment in 16.1 ratio

Figure 33 discloses two dimensional electrophorectic analysis of leaf proteome of okra plant grown in rock dust and vermicompost amendment in 16.1 ratio.

2D gel electrophoresis onesdfoosteome of okra plants subjected to different treatment revealed the presence of differentially expressed protein in all the above treatments. These unique protein spots were sent for Mass spectrometry. Some of the proteins ware over expressed when compared to control and some proteins were unique in treatment when compared to control

Table 19. pI values and molecular weight of 2D gel spots

5.9 BIOCHEMICAL TESTS

5.9.1 ESTIMATION OF CHLOROPHYLL A, B AND CAROTENOIDS

Tabic 20. Chlorophyll and earotenoid content in leaves of okra plant of pot culture studies

Table 21. Chlorophyll and carotenoid content in leaves of okra ptent of field studies

Carotenoid concentration was found to be highest in okra plants grown without any soil amendment of both pot and field studies as shown in table 19 and 20, Chlorophyll b concentration was found to be highest in rock dust + coir peat amendment of both pot and field studies. There was no significant difference in concentration of chlorophyll a in all treatments. Rock dust + coir peat showed high concentration of chlorophyll a. Better water holding capacity and magnesium element in coir peat + rock dust can be reason for high chlorophyll concentration.

Although the embodiments herein are described with various specific embodiments, it will be obvious for a person skilled in the art to practice the invention with modifications. However, all such modifications are deemed to be within the scope of the claims. It is also to be understood that the following claims are intended to cover all of the generic and specific features of the embodiments described herein and all the statements of the scope of the embodiments which as a matter of language might be said to fall there between.