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1. (WO2019066798) INSTRUCTIONS FOR VECTOR UNSIGNED MULTIPLICATION AND ACCUMULATION OF UNSIGNED DOUBLEWORDS
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INSTRUCTIONS FOR VECTOR UNSIGNED MULTIPLICATION AND ACCUMULATION OF UNSIGNED

DOUBLEWORDS

FIELD OF INVENTION

[0001] The field of invention relates generally to computer processor architecture, and, more specifically, to instructions for vector unsigned multiplication and accumulation.

BACKGROUND

[0002] A (e.g., hardware) processor, or set of processors, executes instructions from an instruction set, e.g., the instruction set architecture (ISA). The instruction set is the part of the computer architecture related to programming, and generally includes the native data types, instructions, register architecture, addressing modes, memory architecture, and interrupt and exception handling.

[0003] Certain functions may include operations on vectors containing multiple fixed-sized data elements. The size of the vectors operated on by such functions can vary. Certain operations on a plurality of vectors may multiply each fixed-sized element from one vector with a corresponding fixed-sized element of another vector to produce a product for each pair of elements. As used herein, the term "corresponding" refers to vector elements that occupy a same relative position within their associated vectors. Certain functions may add multiple, e.g., two, such products, and accumulate the sum with a previous sum. In some embodiments, the accumulated sum is saturated. Existing instruction set architectures require multiple instructions to perform such functions.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0004] The present invention is illustrated by way of example and not limitation in the figures of the accompanying drawings, in which like references indicate similar elements and in which:

[0005] Figure 1 illustrates processing components for executing instructions for vector unsigned multiplication and accumulation, according to an embodiment;

[0006] Figure 2A is a block diagram illustrating execution of an instruction for vector unsigned multiplication and accumulation, according to an embodiment;

[0007] Figure 2B is a block diagram illustrating execution of an instruction for vector unsigned multiplication and accumulation, according to an embodiment;

[0008] Figure 3 is a block diagram illustrating execution of an instruction for vector unsigned multiplication and accumulation, according to an embodiment;

[0009] Figure 4 is a block diagram illustrating scaling of hardware to execute a vector unsigned multiplication and accumulation, according to some embodiments;

[0010] Figure 5A illustrates an embodiment of an execution flow of a processor executing a vector unsigned multiplication and accumulation instruction, according to an embodiment;

[0011] Figure 5B illustrates an embodiment of an execution flow of a processor executing a vector unsigned multiplication and accumulation instruction, according to an embodiment;

[0012] Figure 5C illustrates an embodiment of an execution flow of a processor executing a vector unsigned multiplication and accumulation instruction, according to an embodiment;

[0013] Figure 6 is a block diagram illustrating a format for instructions for vector unsigned multiplication and accumulation.

[0014] Figure 7A is a block diagram illustrating an exemplary specific vector friendly instruction format according to embodiments of the invention;

[0015] Figure 7B is a block diagram illustrating the fields of the specific vector friendly instruction format that make up the full opcode field according to one embodiment of the invention;

[0016] Figure 7C is a block diagram illustrating the fields of the specific vector friendly instruction format that make up the register index field according to one embodiment of the invention;

[0017] Figure 8 is a block diagram of a register architecture according to one embodiment of the invention;

[0018] Figure 9A is a block diagram illustrating both an exemplary in-order pipeline and an exemplary register renaming, out-of-order issue/execution pipeline according to embodiments of the invention;

[0019] Figure 9B is a block diagram illustrating both an exemplary embodiment of an in-order architecture core and an exemplary register renaming, out-of-order issue/execution architecture core to be included in a processor according to embodiments of the invention;

[0020] Figures 10A-B illustrate a block diagram of a more specific exemplary in-order core architecture, which core would be one of several logic blocks (including other cores of the same type and/or different types) in a chip;

[0021] Figure 10A is a block diagram of a single processor core, along with its connection to the on-die interconnect network and with its local subset of the Level 2 (L2) cache, according to embodiments of the invention;

[0022] Figure 10B is an expanded view of part of the processor core in Figure 10A according to embodiments of the invention;

[0023] Figure 11 is a block diagram of a processor that may have more than one core, may have an integrated memory controller, and may have integrated graphics according to embodiments of the invention;

[0024] Figures 12-15 are block diagrams of exemplary computer architectures;

[0025] Figure 12 shows a block diagram of a system in accordance with one embodiment of the present invention;

[0026] Figure 13 is a block diagram of a first more specific exemplary system in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

[0027] Figure 14 is a block diagram of a second more specific exemplary system in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;

[0028] Figure 15 is a block diagram of a System-on-a-Chip (SoC) in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention; and

[0029] Figure 16 is a block diagram contrasting the use of a software instruction converter to convert binary instructions in a source instruction set to binary instructions in a target instruction set according to embodiments of the invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0030] In the following description, numerous specific details are set forth. However, it is understood that embodiments of the invention may be practiced without these specific details. In other instances, well-known circuits, structures and techniques have not been shown in detail in order not to obscure the understanding of this description.

[0031] References in the specification to "one embodiment," "an embodiment," "an example embodiment," etc., indicate that the embodiment described may include a particular feature, structure, or characteristic, but every embodiment may not necessarily include the particular feature, structure, or characteristic. Moreover, such phrases are not necessarily referring to the same embodiment. Further, when a particular feature, structure, or characteristic is described in connection with an embodiment, it is submitted that it is within the knowledge of one skilled in the art to affect such feature, structure, or characteristic in connection with other embodiments whether or not explicitly described.

[0032] Embodiments herein disclose execution of a vector unsigned multiplication and accumulation instruction (such as VPDPWDUUQ) that multiplies unsigned doublewords in a first source vector register with unsigned words in a second source vector register, adds two of the resulting products, and accumulates the resulting sum with a previous sum. In some embodiments, the accumulated results are saturated. In some embodiments, an immediate is used to control which four of the eight words in the second vector register contribute to the resulting sum. A programmable status register provides status of saturation when saturation is supported.

[0033] Existing instruction set architectures require multiple instructions to implement vector unsigned multiplication and accumulation functionality— one to perform the multiplication of the vector elements, one to perform multiple two-way additions, and one to accumulate the resulting sum with the previous contents of the destination vector register.

[0034] Instead, disclosed embodiments achieve this functionality with a single instruction.

EXEMPLARY HARDWARE TO EXECUTE THE VPDPWDUUQ INSTRUCTION

[0035] Figure 1 illustrates an embodiment of an execution circuit to process a vector unsigned multiplication and accumulation instruction, such as VPDPWDUUQ. As illustrated, storage 103 stores a vector unsigned multiplication and accumulation instruction, such as VPDPWDUUQ instruction(s) 101, to be executed.

[0036] The vector unsigned multiplication and accumulation instruction is received by decode circuitry 105. For example, the decode circuitry 105 receives a VPDPWDUUQ instruction from fetch logic/circuitry (not shown). The fetched vector unsigned multiplication and accumulation instruction, VPDPWDUUQ instruction 101, includes fields for an opcode (such as

VPDPWDUUQ), a destination identifier, a first source identifier, a second source identifier, and an immediate. In some embodiments, the source[s] and destination are registers, and in other embodiments one or more are memory locations. More detailed embodiments of at least one instruction format will be described later. The decode circuitry 105 decodes the fetched vector unsigned multiplication and accumulation instruction into one or more operations. In some embodiments, this decoding includes generating a plurality of micro-operations to be performed by execution circuitry (such as execution circuitry 109). The decode circuitry 105 also decodes instruction prefixes and suffixes (if used).

[0037] In some embodiments, register renaming, register allocation, and/or scheduling circuitry

107 provides functionality for one or more of: 1) renaming logical operand values to physical operand values (e.g., a register alias table in some embodiments), 2) allocating status bits and flags to the decoded instruction, and 3) scheduling the decoded vector unsigned multiplication and accumulation instruction for execution on execution circuitry out of an instruction pool (e.g., using a reservation station in some embodiments).

[0038] Registers (such as included in register architecture 800, described below) and/or memory

108 store data as operands of the instruction to be operated on by execution circuitry. Exemplary register types include packed data registers, general purpose registers, and floating point registers.

[0039] Execution circuitry 109 executes the decoded vector unsigned multiplication and accumulation (VPDPWDUUQ) instruction. Exemplary detailed execution circuitry is shown in Figures 2A-B and Figure 3. The execution of the decoded vector unsigned multiplication and accumulation (VPDPWDUUQ) instruction causes the execution circuitry to generate a low order sum by adding products of two lower double word elements of the first identified source and either two lower fixed-sized word elements or two upper fixed-sized word elements of a lower half of the second identified source, based on the immediate, to generate a high-order sum by adding products of two upper double word elements of the first identified source and either two lower fixed-sized word elements or two upper fixed-sized word elements of an upper half of the second identified source, based on the immediate; and to accumulate the low-order and high-order sums with previous low-order and high-order quad words of the identified destination.

[0040] Write back (retirement) circuitry 111 commits the result of the execution of the decoded vector unsigned multiplication and accumulation (VPDPWDUUQ) instruction. Write back (retirement) circuitry 111 is optional, at least insofar as it represents functionality that can occur at a different time, at a different stage of the processor's pipeline, or not at all.

[0041] Figure 2A is a block diagram illustrating execution of a 32x16 vector unsigned multiplication and accumulation instruction (VPDPWDUUQ), according to an embodiment. In the illustrated embodiment, execution circuit 205 is to execute a decoded vector unsigned multiplication and accumulation instruction 200, such as VPDPWDUUQ DST, SRC1, SRC2, IMM8. Examples of the fetch circuitry to fetch the instruction from code storage, decode circuitry to decode the instruction, and additional circuitry such as for register renaming and allocation, are shown at least in Figure 1 and Figure 9A-B, and are not repeated here.

[0042] As shown, vector unsigned multiplication and accumulation instruction 200 (VPDPWDUUQ) includes first and second source identifiers, SRC1 and SRC2, a destination identifier, DST, and an immediate, EVIM8. The identified first source 201, second source 203, and destination 235 are 128-bit vector registers. In other embodiments, not shown, the first source, second source, and destination are 256-bit or 512-bit vector registers, or 64-bit general purpose registers that can be included in a register architecture, such as register architecture 800 of Figure 8.

[0043] In operation, execution circuit 205 is to generate a low-order sum 221 by adding products of two lower fixed-sized double word elements, DW0 and DW1, of the first identified source 201 and either two lower fixed-sized word elements, W0 and Wl, or two upper fixed-sized word elements, W2 and W3, of a lower half of the second identified source 203, the selection being based on bit [0] of the immediate, IMM8. Execution circuit 205 is further to generate high-order sum 223 by adding products of two upper fixed-sized double word elements, DW2 and DW3, of the first identified source 201 and either two lower fixed-sized word elements, W4 and W5, or two upper fixed-sized word elements, W6 and W7, of an upper half of the second identified source 203, the selection being based on bit [0] of the immediate, IMM8. Accumulation circuits 225 and 227 zero-extend the low-order and high-order sums to 64 bits, the size of one of two quad words in the destination register. Accumulation circuits 225 and 227 then accumulate the zero-extended

low-order and high-order sums with previous low-order and high-order quad words of DST 235 to generate low-order and high-order results 229 and 231.

[0044] In some embodiments, the vector unsigned multiplication and accumulation instruction is extended to support saturation by accumulation circuits 225 and 227. To extend the instruction to support saturation, for example, a ' S' can be added to the opcode such that the opcode becomes "VPDPWDUUQS." A saturation exception can be generated if saturation is supported. Saturation exceptions that occurred can be reported using status register 233, a software-accessible register used by the execution circuit 205 to report occurrence of saturation. In some embodiments, status register 233 includes a mask bit that, when set, disables the exception. The status register 233, in some embodiments, is reset when written to. In some embodiments, status register 233 is part of a Multimedia Extensions Control and Status Register (MXCSR) defined as part of a processor's instruction set architecture.

[0045] Figure 2B is a block diagram illustrating execution of a 32x16 vector unsigned multiplication and accumulation, according to an embodiment. In the illustrated embodiment, execution circuit 245 is to execute a decoded vector unsigned multiplication and accumulation instruction 240, such as VPDPWDUUQ DST, SRC1, SRC2, IMM8. Examples of the fetch circuitry to fetch the instruction from code storage, decode circuitry to decode the instruction, and additional circuitry such as for register renaming and allocation, are shown at least in Figure 1 and Figure 9A-B, and are not repeated here.

[0046] As shown, instruction 240 (VPDPWDUUQ) includes first and second source identifiers, SRC1 and SRC2, a destination identifier, DST, and an immediate, IMM8. The identified first source 241, second source 243, and destination 259 are 64-bit general purpose registers. In other embodiments, not shown, the first source, second source, and destination are 128-bit or 256-bit or 512-bit vector registers that can be included in a register architecture, such as register architecture 800 of Figure 8.

[0047] In operation, execution circuit 245 is to generate a selected sum 251 by adding products of two double word elements, DWO and DWl, of the first identified source 241 and either two lower fixed-sized word elements, W0 and Wl, or two upper fixed-sized word elements, W2 and W3, of the second identified source 243, the selection being based on bit [0] of the immediate, IMM8.

Accumulation circuit 253 zero-extends the selected sum 251 to 64 bits, the size of the quad word in the destination register. Accumulation circuit 253 then accumulates the zero-extended selected sum with the previous quad word of DST 259 to generate a result to be written to DST 259.

[0048] In some embodiments, the vector unsigned multiplication and accumulation instruction is extended to support saturation by accumulation circuit 253. To extend the instruction to support saturation, for example, a 'S' can be added to the opcode. A saturation exception can be generated if saturation is supported. Saturation exceptions that occurred can be reported using status register 255, a software-accessible register used by the execution circuit 245 to report occurrence of saturation.

[0049] Figure 3 is a block diagram illustrating execution of a 32x16 vector unsigned multiplication and accumulation, according to an embodiment. In the illustrated embodiment, execution circuit 302 is to execute a decoded vector unsigned multiplication and accumulation instruction 300, such as VPDPWDUUQ DST, SRC1, SRC2, IMM8. Examples of the fetch circuitry to fetch the instruction from code storage, decode circuitry to decode the instruction, and additional circuitry such as for register renaming and allocation, are shown at least in Figure 1 and Figure 9A-B, and are not repeated here.

[0050] As shown, instruction 300 (VPDPWDUUQ) includes first and second source identifiers, SRC1 and SRC2, a destination identifier, DST, and an immediate, IMM8. The identified first source 304, second source 306, and destination 330 are 128-bit vector registers. In other embodiments, the source and destination registers have 64 bits or 256 bits, or 512 bits. As shown, the identified first source vector contains four doublewords, the identified second source vector contains eight words, and the identified destination contains two quad words.

[0051] In operation, execution circuit 302 uses optional input mux 308 to route the four doublewords of the first identified source and the eight words of the second identified source to eight 32x16 multipliers 310A-310H, the outputs of which are summed, as described with respect to Figure 2A, to generate low-order sum 312 and low-order sum 316, one of which is selected by multiplexer 320, controlled by bit [0] of the immediate. Similarly, outputs of multipliers 310A-310H are summed, as described with respect to Figure 2A, to generate high-order sum 314 and high-order sum 318, one of which is selected by multiplexer 322, controlled by bit [0] of the

immediate. The selected low-order and high-order sums are zero-extended to 64 bits and accumulated 324 and 328 with previous low-order accumulation and high-order quad words stored in the low-order quad and the high-order quad words of destination vector register, DST 330. Optional input mux 308 is optional, as indicated by dashed borders, insofar as it can be omitted, in which case the double-words of SRCl 304 and the words of SRC2 306 are directly mapped to the 32x16 multipliers 310A-31 OH.

[0052] Note that first source 304, second source 306, and destination 320 are shown as being organized by little endian ordering, with the lower-order elements on the right. In other embodiments, big endian ordering is applied.

[0053] In some embodiments, the vector unsigned multiplication and accumulation instruction is extended to support saturation by accumulation circuits 324 and 328. To extend the instruction to support saturation, for example, a 'S' can be added to the opcode. A saturation exception can be generated if saturation is supported. Saturation exceptions that occurred can be reported using software-accessible status register 326.

EXEMPLARY SCALING OF HARDWARE TO EXECUTE A VPDPWDUUQ INSTRUCTION

[0054] Figure 4 is a block diagram illustrating scaling of hardware to execute a 32x16 vector unsigned multiplication and accumulation, such as VPDPWDUUQ, according to some embodiments.

[0055] In some embodiments, the default fixed-sized element sizes to be operated on in response to the VPDPWDUUQ DST, SRCl, SRC2, IMM8 instruction are 32-bit doublewords of the first source register and 16-bit words of the second source register, regardless of the size of the source and destination vector registers.

[0056] In some embodiments, the source and destination vector registers are each 128-bit registers, and the hardware included in execution circuit 405.1 suffices to execute the instruction: execution circuits 405.2-M are not needed, and, if 128 bits is the maximum supported vector size, need not be included. When the source and destination registers are 128-bit vector registers, multiplication circuit 407.1 is to perform eight 32x16 multiplications on four doublewords of SRCl 401.1 and eight corresponding pairs of elements of SRC2 403.1. Adders 409, 411, 413, and 415 generate

four sums, two of which are selected by multiplexers 417 and 419, controlled by bit [0] of the immediate, IMM8, to generate low order sum 421 and high-order sum 423, which are zero-extended and accumulated by accumulation circuits 425 and 427 to generate low-order result 429 and high-order result 431, which are accumulated with the prior contents of QWO and QW1 of the destination register, DST 435.1.

[0057] In some embodiments, the source and destination vector registers are each 256 bits wide, and the execution circuit 405.1 is to be doubled such that multiplication circuits included in 405.1 and 405.2 execute sixteen 32x16 multiplications on eight doublewords of SRC1 401.1 and 401.2, and sixteen words of SRC2 403.1 and 403.2. If 256 bits is the maximum supported vector size, execution circuits 405.3-M need not be included.

[0058] In some embodiments, the source and destination vector registers are each 512 bits wide, and the execution circuit 405.1 is to be quadrupled such that the multiplication circuits included in 405.1-M execute thirty-two 32x16 multiplications on sixteen doublewords of SRC1 401.1-M and thirty-two words of SRC2 403.1-M.

[0059] Scaling can also go in the other direction, to reduce the execution hardware. In some embodiments, the source and destination registers are each 64-bit general purpose registers, and the hardware is scaled such that multiplication circuits 407.1 execute four (4) 32x16 multiplications on two doublewords of SRC1 401.1 and four words of SRC2 403.1. If 64-bits is the maximum supported vector size, not all of the hardware in execution circuit 405.1 is needed. Figure 2B and its related description provide an example of executing a VPDPWDUUQ instruction on 64-bit registers, requiring only four 32x16 multiplications.

[0060] Various implementations of the multiplication circuit 407.1 may be used in various embodiments. In some embodiments, for example, multiple 4x4 multipliers are used to implement 32x16 multiplication.

[0061] In some embodiments that execute the vector unsigned multiplication and accumulation instruction 400 on 256-bit or 512-bit vectors, rather than to replicate the hardware, the execution circuit 405.1 operates using eight 32x16 multipliers at time, and takes two cycles or four cycles to produce 256-bit or 512-bit results to store in the destinations, respectively. Similarly, in some embodiments, even less hardware in multiplication circuit 407.1 is used multiple times over

multiple clock cycles; for example, half of the multipliers are used twice to multiply four doublewords of SRC 1 401.1 and eight words of SRC2 403.1.

[0062] In some embodiments, the decoded vector unsigned multiplication and accumulation instruction 400 includes a vector size identifier (discussed below) to specify the number of bits— 64, 128, 256, or 512— in each source and destination register. In some embodiments, the vector size is derived from the type of vector register identified by the source and destination identifiers. In some embodiments, the identified vectors are 128-bit vectors by default.

EXEMPLARY METHOD OF EXECUTION OF THE VPDPWDUUQ INSTRUCTION

[0063] Figure 5A illustrates an embodiment of an execution flow of a processor executing a VPDPWDUUQ instruction. For example, the processor components of Figure 1, a pipeline as detailed below, etc. performs this method.

[0064] At 501, an instruction is fetched by fetch circuitry. For example, a VPDPWDUUQ instruction is fetched. The VPDPWDUUQ instruction includes fields for an opcode, a destination identifier, first and second source identifiers, and an immediate. In some embodiments, the instruction is fetched from an instruction storage. The source identifiers and destination identifier each identifies a 128-bit, 256-bit, or 512-bit packed data vector register, or a 64-bit general purpose register.

[0065] The opcode of the VPDPWDUUQ instruction indicates a Vector Packed (VP) Dot Product (DP) where one of the sources is a Word (W) and one of the sources is a Double word (D), both sources are unsigned (UU), and the output is a quad word (Q). In different embodiments, different opcodes may be selected to convey the same vector unsigned multiplication and accumulation instruction.

[0066] The fetched instruction is decoded at 503. For example, the fetched VPDPWDUUQ instruction is decoded by decode circuitry such as that detailed herein.

[0067] At 505, the decoded instruction is executed by execution circuitry (hardware) such as that detailed herein. For the VPDPWDUUQ instruction, the execution circuitry is to: generate a low-order sum by adding products of two lower double word elements of the first identified source and either two lower fixed-sized word elements or two upper fixed-sized word elements of a lower half of the second identified source, the selection being based on the immediate, generate a high-order sum by adding products of two upper double word elements of the first identified source and either two lower fixed-sized word elements or two upper fixed-sized word elements of an upper half of the second identified source, the selection being based on the immediate, and accumulate the low-order and high-order sums with previous low-order and high-order quad words of the identified destination.

[0068] Figure 5B illustrates an embodiment of an execution flow of a processor executing a VPDPWDUUQ instruction. For example, the processor components of Figure 1, a pipeline as detailed below, etc. performs this method.

[0069] At 521, an instruction is fetched by fetch circuitry. For example, a VPDPWDUUQ instruction is fetched. The VPDPWDUUQ instruction includes fields for an opcode, a destination identifier, first and second source identifiers, and an immediate. In some embodiments, the instruction is fetched from an instruction storage. The source identifiers and destination identifier each identifies a 128-bit, 256-bit, or 512-bit packed data vector register, or a 64-bit general purpose register.

[0070] The opcode of the VPDPWDUUQ instruction indicates a Vector Packed (VP) Dot Product (DP) where one of the sources is a Word (W) and one of the sources is a Double word (D), both sources are unsigned (UU), and the output is a quad word (Q). In different embodiments, different opcodes may be selected to convey the same vector unsigned multiplication and accumulation instruction.

[0071] The fetched instruction is decoded at 523. For example, the fetched VPDPWDUUQ instruction is decoded by decode circuitry such as that detailed herein.

[0072] At 525, the decoded instruction is executed by execution circuitry (hardware) such as that detailed herein. For the VPDPWDUUQ instruction, the execution circuitry is, on each corresponding pair of first and second quadwords of the identified first and second sources, to: generate a sum of products of two doublewords of the first quadword and either two lower words or two upper words of the second quadword, based on the immediate, zero-extend the sum to a quadword-sized sum, and accumulate the quadword-sized sum with a previous value of a destination quadword in a same relative register position as the first and second quadwords.

[0073] Figure 5C illustrates an embodiment of an execution flow of a processor executing a VPDPWDUUQ instruction. For example, the processor components of Figure 1, a pipeline as detailed below, etc. performs this method.

[0074] At 551, an instruction is fetched by fetch circuitry. For example, a VPDPWDUUQ instruction is fetched. The VPDPWDUUQ instruction includes fields for an opcode, a destination identifier, first and second source identifiers, and an immediate. In some embodiments, the instruction further includes a field for a writemask and/or a field to specify a vector size. In some embodiments, the instruction is fetched from a code storage. The source identifiers and destination identifier identify general purpose registers, vector registers, or packed data vectors stored in memory. In some embodiments, the opcode of the VPDPWDUUQ instruction indicates a Vector Packed (VP) Dot Product (DP) where one of the sources is a Word (W) and one of the sources is a Double word (D) and both sources are unsigned (UU), and the output is a quad word (Q).

[0075] The fetched instruction is decoded at 553. For example, the fetched VPDPWDUUQ instruction is decoded by decode circuitry such as that detailed herein.

[0076] Data values associated with the source identifiers of the decoded instruction are optionally retrieved at 555 and the decoded instruction is scheduled (as needed) at 557. For example, when one or more of the source identifiers are memory locations, the data from the indicated memory location is retrieved. 555 and 557 are optional, at least insofar as they can be performed at a different time (e.g., earlier in the pipeline or prefetched) or by multiple different circuits.

[0077] At 559, the decoded instruction is executed by execution circuitry (hardware) such as that detailed herein. For the VPDPWDUUQ instruction, the execution causes execution circuitry to: generate a low-order sum by adding products of two lower double word elements of the first identified source and either two lower fixed-sized word elements or two upper fixed-sized word elements of a lower half of the second identified source, the selection being based on the immediate; generate a high-order sum by adding products of two upper double word elements of the first identified source and either two lower fixed-sized word elements or two upper fixed-sized word elements of an upper half of the second identified source, the selection being based on the immediate; and accumulate the low-order and high-order sums with previous low-order and high-order quad-sized elements of the identified destination.

[0078] In some embodiments, at 561, retirement/write back circuitry architecturally commits the destination register into the registers or memory and retires the instruction. 561 is optional, at least insofar as it can be performed at different times (e.g., buffering results for later execution).

EXEMPLARY FORMATS OF THE VPDPWDUUQ INSTRUCTION

[0079] An embodiment of a format for a VPDPWDUUQ instruction is OPCODE DST, SRCl, SRC2, EVIM8. In some embodiments, VPDPWDUUQ is the opcode mnemonic of the instruction. DST is a field to identify a destination, SRCl and SRC2 are fields for the sources, and IMM8 is an immediate.

[0080] Figure 6 is a block diagram illustrating a format for instructions for vector unsigned multiplication and accumulation, according to some embodiments. As shown, instruction 600 includes opcode 602 (VPDPWDUUQ*), destination identifier 604, first source identifier 606, second source identifier 608, immediate IMM8 610, optional vector size identifier 612, and optional write mask identifier 614 (optional instruction fields are shown in a box with dashed outline).

[0081] Opcode 602 in some embodiments is VPDPWDUUQ*. As shown, opcode 602 includes an asterisk ("*"), which signifies that optional suffixes or prefixes may be added to the opcode to control operations of the instruction. For example, in some embodiments, an optional vector size identifier is included as a prefix or suffix of the opcode. In some embodiments, an optional write mask identifier is included as a prefix or suffix of the opcode.

[0082] Destination identifier 604 specifies a 64-bit general purpose register, or a 128-bit, 256-bit, or 512-bit vector register, such as those included in a processor's register file. Figure 8 and its associated description describe an embodiment of a processor's register file.

[0083] First and second source identifiers, 606 and 608, each specifies a 64-bit general purpose register, or a 128-bit, 256-bit, or 512-bit vector register, such as those included in a processor's register file. The source and destination registers specified by the VPDPWDUUQ instruction are same-sized registers. Figure 8 and its associated description describe an embodiment of a processor's register file.

[0084] Immediate IMM8 610 is an immediate, such as an 8-bit immediate.

[0085] Optional vector size identifier 612, in some embodiments, is included in the opcode, such as a prefix or suffix, "G," "X," "Y," and "Z," corresponding to a size— 64 bits, 128 bits, 256 bits, or 512 bits, respectively— of the source and destination registers. In some embodiments, the default vector size is 128 bits, and an execution circuit, such as execution circuits 205 (Figure 2A), 245 (Figure 2B), or 302 (Figure 3), is used to execute the VPDPWDUUQ instruction.

[0086] In some embodiments, the vector size is 256 bits, and circuitry in addition to that of execution circuits 205 (Figure 2A) or 302 (Figure 3) is used to operate on the lower 128 bits and upper 128 bits of the first and second source registers. For example, twice the number of 32x16 multipliers, 310A-310H, are used to execute the VPDPWDUUQ instruction on 256-bit vector registers.

[0087] In some embodiments, the vector size is 512 bits, and circuitry in addition to that of execution circuits 205 (Figure 2A) or 302 (Figure 3) is used to operate on each of four (4) 128-bit portion of the first and second source registers. For example, four times the number of 32x16 multipliers, 310A-310H, are used to execute the VPDPWDUUQ instruction on 512-bit vector registers.

[0088] Exemplary instruction formats are further illustrated and described below with reference to Figure 7A to Figure 7C, which illustrate an exemplary AVX instruction format, including a VEX prefix 702, real opcode field 730, Mod R/M byte 740, SIB byte 750, displacement field 762, and EVIM8 772. Comparing Figure 6 to Figures 7A-C, first source identifier 606 in some embodiments of AVX instruction format, occupies the Reg field 744, second source identifier 608 occupies the R/M field 746, and destination identifier 604 occupies the VEX.vvvv field 720.

[0089] In some embodiments, the VPDPWDUUQ instruction includes a field for a writemask identifier operand (k) (e.g., VPDPWDUUQ{k} DSTREG, SRC1, SRC2, FMM8). A writemask is used to conditionally control per-element operations and updating of results. Depending upon the implementation, the writemask uses merging or zeroing masking. Instructions encoded with a predicate (writemask, write mask, or k register) operand use that operand to conditionally control per-element computational operation and updating of result to the identified destination. The predicate operand is known as the opmask (writemask) register. In some embodiments, the opmask is a set of architectural registers of size 64-bit. Note that from this set of architectural registers, only kl through k7 can be addressed as predicate operand. kO can be used as a regular source or destination but cannot be encoded as a predicate operand. Note also that a predicate operand can be used to enable memory fault-suppression for some instructions with a memory operand (source or destination). As a predicate operand, the opmask registers contain one bit to govern the operation/update to each data element of a vector register. In general, opmask registers can support instructions with element sizes: single-precision floating-point (float32), integer double word(int32), double-precision floating-point (float64), integer quadword (int64). The length of a opmask register, MAX KL, is sufficient to handle up to 64 elements with one bit per element, i.e. 64 bits. For a given vector length, each instruction accesses only the number of least significant mask bits that are needed based on its data type. An opmask register affects an instruction at per-element granularity. So, any numeric or non-numeric operation of each data element and per-element updates of intermediate results to the identified destination are predicated on the corresponding bit of the opmask register. In most embodiments, an opmask serving as a predicate operand obeys the following properties: 1) the instruction's operation is not performed for an element if the corresponding opmask bit is not set (this implies that no exception or violation can be caused by an operation on a masked-off element, and consequently, no exception flag is updated as a result of a masked-off operation); 2) a destination element is not updated with the result of the operation if the corresponding writemask bit is not set; instead, the destination element value must be preserved (merging-masking) or it must be zeroed out (zeroing-masking); 3) for some instructions with a memory operand, memory faults are suppressed for elements with a mask bit of 0. Note that this feature provides a versatile construct to implement control-flow predication as the mask in effect provides a merging behavior for vector register destinations. As an alternative, the masking can be used for zeroing instead of merging, so that the masked out elements are updated with 0 instead of preserving the old value. The zeroing behavior is provided to remove the implicit dependency on the old value when it is not needed.

[0090] In embodiments, encodings of the instruction include a scale-index-base (SIB) type memory addressing operand that indirectly identifies multiple indexed destination locations in memory. In one embodiment, an SIB type memory operand may include an encoding identifying a base address register. The contents of the base address register may represent a base address in memory from which the addresses of the particular destination locations in memory are calculated. For example, the base address may be the address of the first location in a block of potential destination locations for an extended vector instruction. In one embodiment, an SIB type memory operand may include an encoding identifying an index register. Each element of the index register may specify an index or offset value usable to compute, from the base address, an address of a respective destination location within a block of potential destination locations. In one embodiment, an SIB type memory operand may include an encoding specifying a scaling factor to be applied to each index value when computing a respective destination address. For example, if a scaling factor value of four is encoded in the SIB type memory operand, each index value obtained from an element of the index register may be multiplied by four and then added to the base address to compute a destination address.

[0091] In one embodiment, an SIB type memory operand of the form vm32{x, y, z} may identify a vector array of memory operands specified using SIB type memory addressing. In this example, the array of memory addresses is specified using a common base register, a constant scaling factor, and a vector index register containing individual elements, each of which is a 32-bit index value. The vector index register may be a 128-bit register (e.g., XMM) register (vm32x), a 256-bit (e.g., YMM) register (vm32y), or a 512-bit (e.g., ZMM) register (vm32z). In another embodiment, an SIB type memory operand of the form vm64{x, y, z} may identify a vector array of memory operands specified using SIB type memory addressing. In this example, the array of memory addresses is specified using a common base register, a constant scaling factor, and a vector index register containing individual elements, each of which is a 64-bit index value. The vector index register may be a 128-bit register (e.g., XMM) register (vm64x), a 256-bit (e.g., YMM) register (vm64y) or a 512-bit (e.g., ZMM) register (vm64z).

INSTRUCTION SETS

[0092] An instruction set includes one or more instruction formats. A given instruction format defines various fields (number of bits, location of bits) to specify, among other things, the operation to be performed (opcode) and the operand(s) on which that operation is to be performed. Some instruction formats are further broken down though the definition of instruction templates (or subformats). For example, the instruction templates of a given instruction format may be defined

to have different subsets of the instruction format's fields (the included fields are typically in the same order, but at least some have different bit positions because there are less fields included) and/or defined to have a given field interpreted differently. Thus, each instruction of an ISA is expressed using a given instruction format (and, if defined, in a given one of the instruction templates of that instruction format) and includes fields for specifying the operation and the operands. For example, an exemplary ADD instruction has a specific opcode and an instruction format that includes an opcode field to specify that opcode and operand fields to select operands (sourcel/destination and source2); and an occurrence of this ADD instruction in an instruction stream will have specific contents in the operand fields that select specific operands.

EXEMPLARY INSTRUCTION FORMATS

[0093] Embodiments of the instruction(s) described herein may be embodied in different formats. Additionally, exemplary systems, architectures, and pipelines are detailed below. Embodiments of the instruction(s) may be executed on such systems, architectures, and pipelines, but are not limited to those detailed.

VEX INSTRUCTION FORMAT

[0094] VEX encoding allows instructions to have more than two operands, and allows SEVID vector registers to be longer than 128 bits. The use of a VEX prefix provides for three-operand (or more) syntax. For example, previous two-operand instructions performed operations such as A = A + B, which overwrites a source operand. The use of a VEX prefix enables operands to perform nondestructive operations such as A = B + C.

[0095] Figure 7A illustrates an exemplary AVX instruction format including a VEX prefix 702, real opcode field 730, Mod R/M byte 740, SIB byte 750, displacement field 762, and EVIM8 772. Figure 7B illustrates which fields from Figure 7A make up a full opcode field 774 and a base operation field 741. Figure 7C illustrates which fields from Figure 7A make up a register index field 744.

[0096] VEX Prefix (Bytes 0-2) 702 is encoded in a three-byte form. The first byte is the Format Field 790 (VEX Byte 0, bits [7:0]), which contains an explicit C4 byte value (the unique value used for distinguishing the C4 instruction format). The second-third bytes (VEX Bytes 1-2)

include a number of bit fields providing specific capability. Specifically, REX field 705 (VEX Byte 1, bits [7-5]) consists of a VEX.R bit field (VEX Byte 1, bit [7] - R), VEX.X bit field (VEX byte 1, bit [6] - X), and VEX.B bit field (VEX byte 1, bit [5] - B). Other fields of the instructions encode the lower three bits of the register indexes as is known in the art (rrr, xxx, and bbb), so that Rrrr, Xxxx, and Bbbb may be formed by adding VEX.R, VEX.X, and VEX.B. Opcode map field 715 (VEX byte 1, bits [4:0] - mmmmm) includes content to encode an implied leading opcode byte. W Field 764 (VEX byte 2, bit [7] - W) - is represented by the notation VEX.W, and provides different functions depending on the instruction. The role of VEX.vvvv 720 (VEX Byte 2, bits [6:3]-vvvv) may include the following: 1) VEX.vvvv encodes the first source register operand, specified in inverted (Is complement) form and is valid for instructions with 2 or more source operands; 2) VEX.vvvv encodes the destination register operand, specified in Is complement form for certain vector shifts; or 3) VEX.vvvv does not encode any operand, the field is reserved and should contain 1111b. If VEX.L 768 Size field (VEX byte 2, bit [2]-L) = 0, it indicates 128 bit vector; if VEX.L = 1, it indicates 256 bit vector. Prefix encoding field 725 (VEX byte 2, bits [1 :0]-pp) provides additional bits for the base operation field 741.

[0097] Real Opcode Field 730 (Byte 3) is also known as the opcode byte. Part of the opcode is specified in this field.

[0098] MOD R/M Field 740 (Byte 4) includes MOD field 742 (bits [7-6]), Reg field 744 (bits [5-3]), and R/M field 746 (bits [2-0]). The role of Reg field 744 may include the following: encoding either the destination register operand or a source register operand (the rrr of Rrrr), or be treated as an opcode extension and not used to encode any instruction operand. The role of R/M field 746 may include the following: encoding the instruction operand that references a memory address, or encoding either the destination register operand or a source register operand.

[0099] Scale, Index, Base (SIB) - The content of Scale field 750 (Byte 5) includes SS 752 (bits [7-6]), which is used for memory address generation. The contents of SIB.xxx 754 (bits [5-3]) and SIB.bbb 756 (bits [2-0]) have been previously referred to with regard to the register indexes Xxxx and Bbbb.

[0100] The Displacement Field 762 and the immediate field (FMM8) 772 contain data.

EXEMPLARY REGISTER ARCHITECTURE

[0101] Figure 8 is a block diagram of a register architecture 800 according to one embodiment of the invention. In the embodiment illustrated, there are 32 vector registers 810 that are 512 bits wide; these registers are referenced as zmmO through zmm31. The lower order 256 bits of the lower 16 zmm registers are overlaid on registers ymm0-15. The lower order 128 bits of the lower 16 zmm registers (the lower order 128 bits of the ymm registers) are overlaid on registers xmmO-15.

[0102] General-purpose registers 825 - in the embodiment illustrated, there are sixteen 64-bit general-purpose registers that are used along with the existing x86 addressing modes to address memory operands. These registers are referenced by the names RAX, RBX, RCX, RDX, RBP, RSI, RDI, RSP, and R8 through R15.

[0103] Scalar floating point stack register file (x87 stack) 845, on which is aliased the MMX packed integer flat register file 850 - in the embodiment illustrated, the x87 stack is an eight-element stack used to perform scalar floating-point operations on 32/64/80-bit floating point data using the x87 instruction set extension; while the MMX registers are used to perform operations on 64-bit packed integer data, as well as to hold operands for some operations performed between the MMX and XMM registers.

[0104] Alternative embodiments of the invention may use wider or narrower registers. Additionally, alternative embodiments of the invention may use more, less, or different register files and registers.

EXEMPLARY CORE ARCHITECTURES, PROCESSORS, AND COMPUTER

ARCHITECTURES

[0105] Processor cores may be implemented in different ways, for different purposes, and in different processors. For instance, implementations of such cores may include: 1) a general purpose in-order core intended for general-purpose computing; 2) a high performance general purpose out-of-order core intended for general-purpose computing; 3) a special purpose core intended primarily for graphics and/or scientific (throughput) computing. Implementations of different processors may include: 1) a CPU including one or more general purpose in-order cores intended for general-purpose computing and/or one or more general purpose out-of-order cores intended for general-purpose computing; and 2) a coprocessor including one or more special purpose cores intended primarily for graphics and/or scientific (throughput). Such different processors lead to different computer system architectures, which may include: 1) the coprocessor on a separate chip from the CPU; 2) the coprocessor on a separate die in the same package as a CPU; 3) the coprocessor on the same die as a CPU (in which case, such a coprocessor is sometimes referred to as special purpose logic, such as integrated graphics and/or scientific (throughput) logic, or as special purpose cores); and 4) a system on a chip that may include on the same die the described CPU (sometimes referred to as the application core(s) or application processor(s)), the above described coprocessor, and additional functionality. Exemplary core architectures are described next, followed by descriptions of exemplary processors and computer architectures. Detailed herein are circuits (units) that comprise exemplary cores, processors, etc.

EXEMPLARY CORE ARCHITECTURES

IN-ORDER AND OUT-OF-ORDER CORE BLOCK DIAGRAM

[0106] Figure 9A is a block diagram illustrating both an exemplary in-order pipeline and an exemplary register renaming, out-of-order issue/execution pipeline according to embodiments of the invention. Figure 9B is a block diagram illustrating both an exemplary embodiment of an in-order architecture core and an exemplary register renaming, out-of-order issue/execution architecture core to be included in a processor according to embodiments of the invention. The solid lined boxes in Figures 9A-B illustrate the in-order pipeline and in-order core, while the optional addition of the dashed lined boxes illustrates the register renaming, out-of-order issue/execution pipeline and core. Given that the in-order aspect is a subset of the out-of-order aspect, the out-of-order aspect will be described.

[0107] In Figure 9A, a processor pipeline 900 includes a fetch stage 902, a length-decode stage 904, a decode stage 906, an allocation stage 908, a renaming stage 910, a scheduling (also known as a dispatch or issue) stage 912, a register read/memory read stage 914, an execute stage 916, a write back/memory write stage 918, an exception handling stage 922, and a commit stage 924.

[0108] Figure 9B shows processor core 990 including a front end unit 930 coupled to an execution engine unit 950, and both are coupled to a memory unit 970. The core 990 may be a reduced instruction set computing (RISC) core, a complex instruction set computing (CISC) core, a very

long instruction word (VLIW) core, or a hybrid or alternative core type. As yet another option, the core 990 may be a special-purpose core, such as, for example, a network or communication core, compression engine, coprocessor core, general purpose computing graphics processing unit (GPGPU) core, graphics core, or the like.

[0109] The front end unit 930 includes a branch prediction unit 932 coupled to an instruction cache unit 934, which is coupled to an instruction translation lookaside buffer (TLB) 936, which is coupled to an instruction fetch unit 938, which is coupled to a decode unit 940. The decode unit 940 (or decoder) may decode instructions, and generate as an output one or more micro-operations, micro-code entry points, microinstructions, other instructions, or other control signals, which are decoded from, or which otherwise reflect, or are derived from, the original instructions. The decode unit 940 may be implemented using various different mechanisms. Examples of suitable mechanisms include, but are not limited to, look-up tables, hardware implementations, programmable logic arrays (PLAs), microcode read only memories (ROMs), etc. In one embodiment, the core 990 includes a microcode ROM or other medium that stores microcode for certain macroinstructions (e.g., in decode unit 940 or otherwise within the front end unit 930). The decode unit 940 is coupled to a rename/allocator unit 952 in the execution engine unit 950.

[0110] The execution engine unit 950 includes the rename/allocator unit 952 coupled to a retirement unit 954 and a set of one or more scheduler unit(s) 956. The scheduler unit(s) 956 represents any number of different schedulers, including reservations stations, central instruction window, etc. The scheduler unit(s) 956 is coupled to the physical register file(s) unit(s) 958. Each of the physical register file(s) units 958 represents one or more physical register files, different ones of which store one or more different data types, such as scalar integer, scalar floating point, packed integer, packed floating point, vector integer, vector floating point, status (e.g., an instruction pointer that is the address of the next instruction to be executed), etc. In one embodiment, the physical register file(s) unit 958 comprises a vector registers unit and a scalar registers unit. These register units may provide architectural vector registers, vector mask registers, and general purpose registers. The physical register file(s) unit(s) 958 is overlapped by the retirement unit 954 to illustrate various ways in which register renaming and out-of-order execution may be implemented (e.g., using a reorder buffer(s) and a retirement register file(s); using a future file(s), a history buffer(s), and a retirement register file(s); using a register maps and a pool of registers; etc.). The retirement unit 954 and the physical register file(s) unit(s) 958 are coupled to the execution cluster(s) 960. The execution cluster(s) 960 includes a set of one or more execution units 962 and a set of one or more memory access units 964. The execution units 962 may perform various operations (e.g., shifts, addition, subtraction, multiplication) and on various types of data (e.g., scalar floating point, packed integer, packed floating point, vector integer, vector floating point). While some embodiments may include a number of execution units dedicated to specific functions or sets of functions, other embodiments may include only one execution unit or multiple execution units that all perform all functions. Some embodiments include one or more digital signal processors (DSP) as part of execution units 962. The scheduler unit(s) 956 may schedule one or more micro-operations, micro-code entry points, microinstructions, other instructions, or other control signals derived from an instruction, to be performed by the DSP or by any of the number of execution units. The scheduler unit(s) 956, physical register file(s) unit(s) 958, and execution cluster(s) 960 are shown as being possibly plural because certain embodiments create separate pipelines for certain types of data/operations (e.g., a scalar integer pipeline, a scalar floating point/packed integer/packed floating point/vector integer/vector floating point pipeline, and/or a memory access pipeline that each have their own scheduler unit, physical register file(s) unit, and/or execution cluster - and in the case of a separate memory access pipeline, certain embodiments are implemented in which only the execution cluster of this pipeline has the memory access unit(s) 964). It should also be understood that where separate pipelines are used, one or more of these pipelines may be out-of-order issue/execution and the rest in-order.

[0111] The set of memory access units 964 is coupled to the memory unit 970, which includes a data TLB unit 972 coupled to a data cache unit 974 coupled to a level 2 (L2) cache unit 976. In one exemplary embodiment, the memory access units 964 may include a load unit, a store address unit, and a store data unit, each of which is coupled to the data TLB unit 972 in the memory unit 970. The instruction cache unit 934 is further coupled to a level 2 (L2) cache unit 976 in the memory unit 970. The L2 cache unit 976 is coupled to one or more other levels of cache and eventually to a main memory.

[0112] By way of example, the exemplary register renaming, out-of-order issue/execution core architecture may implement the pipeline 900 as follows: 1) the instruction fetch 938 performs the fetch and length decoding stages 902 and 904; 2) the decode unit 940 performs the decode stage 906; 3) the rename/allocator unit 952 performs the allocation stage 908 and renaming stage 910; 4) the scheduler unit(s) 956 performs the schedule stage 912; 5) the physical register file(s) unit(s) 958 and the memory unit 970 perform the register read/memory read stage 914; the execution cluster 960 perform the execute stage 916; 6) the memory unit 970 and the physical register file(s) unit(s) 958 perform the write back/memory write stage 918; 7) various units may be involved in the exception handling stage 922; and 8) the retirement unit 954 and the physical register file(s) unit(s) 958 perform the commit stage 924.

[0113] The core 990 may support one or more instructions sets (e.g., the x86 instruction set (with some extensions that have been added with newer versions); the MIPS instruction set of MIPS Technologies of Sunnyvale, CA; the ARM instruction set (with optional additional extensions such as NEON) of ARM Holdings of Sunnyvale, CA), including the instruction(s) described herein. In one embodiment, the core 990 includes logic to support a packed data instruction set extension (e.g., AVX1, AVX2), thereby allowing the operations used by many multimedia applications to be performed using packed data.

[0114] It should be understood that the core may support multithreading (executing two or more parallel sets of operations or threads), and may do so in a variety of ways including time sliced multithreading, simultaneous multithreading (where a single physical core provides a logical core for each of the threads that physical core is simultaneously multithreading), or a combination thereof (e.g., time sliced fetching and decoding and simultaneous multithreading thereafter such as in the Intel® Hyperthreading technology).

[0115] While register renaming is described in the context of out-of-order execution, it should be understood that register renaming may be used in an in-order architecture. While the illustrated embodiment of the processor also includes separate instruction and data cache units 934/974 and a shared L2 cache unit 976, alternative embodiments may have a single internal cache for both instructions and data, such as, for example, a Level 1 (LI) internal cache, or multiple levels of internal cache. In some embodiments, the system may include a combination of an internal cache

and an external cache that is external to the core and/or the processor. Alternatively, all of the cache may be external to the core and/or the processor.

SPECIFIC EXEMPLARY IN-ORDER CORE ARCHITECTURE

[0116] Figures 10A-B illustrate a block diagram of a more specific exemplary in-order core architecture, which core would be one of several logic blocks (including other cores of the same type and/or different types) in a chip. The logic blocks communicate through a high-bandwidth interconnect network (e.g., a ring network) with some fixed function logic, memory I/O interfaces, and other necessary I/O logic, depending on the application.

[0117] Figure 10A is a block diagram of a single processor core, along with its connection to the on-die interconnect network 1002 and with its local subset of the Level 2 (L2) cache 1004, according to embodiments of the invention. In one embodiment, an instruction decoder 1000 supports the x86 instruction set with a packed data instruction set extension. An LI cache 1006 allows low-latency accesses to cache memory into the scalar and vector units. While in one embodiment (to simplify the design), a scalar unit 1008 and a vector unit 1010 use separate register sets (respectively, scalar registers 1012 and vector registers 1014) and data transferred between them is written to memory and then read back in from a level 1 (LI) cache 1006, alternative embodiments of the invention may use a different approach (e.g., use a single register set or include a communication path that allow data to be transferred between the two register files without being written and read back).

[0118] The local subset of the L2 cache 1004 is part of a global L2 cache that is divided into separate local subsets, one per processor core. Each processor core has a direct access path to its own local subset of the L2 cache 1004. Data read by a processor core is stored in its L2 cache subset 1004 and can be accessed quickly, in parallel with other processor cores accessing their own local L2 cache subsets. Data written by a processor core is stored in its own L2 cache subset 1004 and is flushed from other subsets, if necessary. The ring network ensures coherency for shared data. The ring network is bi-directional to allow agents such as processor cores, L2 caches and other logic blocks to communicate with each other within the chip. Each ring data-path is 1024-bits wide per direction in some embodiments.

[0119] Figure 10B is an expanded view of part of the processor core in Figure 10A according to embodiments of the invention. Figure 10B includes an LI data cache 1006A part of the LI cache 1004, as well as more detail regarding the vector unit 1010 and the vector registers 1014. Specifically, the vector unit 1010 is a 16-wide vector processing unit (VPU) (see the 16-wide ALU 1028), which executes one or more of integer, single-precision float, and double-precision float instructions. The VPU supports swizzling the register inputs with swizzle unit 1020, numeric conversion with numeric convert units 1022A-B, and replication with replication unit 1024 on the memory input.

PROCESSOR WITH INTEGRATED MEMORY CONTROLLER AND GRAPHICS

[0120] Figure 11 is a block diagram of a processor 1100 that may have more than one core, may have an integrated memory controller, and may have integrated graphics according to embodiments of the invention. The solid lined boxes in Figure 11 illustrate a processor 1100 with a single core 1102 A, a system agent 1110, a set of one or more bus controller units 1116, while the optional addition of the dashed lined boxes illustrates an alternative processor 1100 with multiple cores 1102A-N, a set of one or more integrated memory controller unit(s) 1114 in the system agent unit 1110, and special purpose logic 1108.

[0121] Thus, different implementations of the processor 1100 may include: 1) a CPU with the special purpose logic 1108 being integrated graphics and/or scientific (throughput) logic (which may include one or more cores), and the cores 1102A-N being one or more general purpose cores (e.g., general purpose in-order cores, general purpose out-of-order cores, a combination of the two); 2) a coprocessor with the cores 1102A-N being a large number of special purpose cores intended primarily for graphics and/or scientific (throughput); and 3) a coprocessor with the cores 1102A-N being a large number of general purpose in-order cores. Thus, the processor 1100 may be a general-purpose processor, coprocessor or special-purpose processor, such as, for example, a network or communication processor, compression engine, graphics processor, GPGPU (general purpose graphics processing unit), a high-throughput many integrated core (MIC) coprocessor (including 30 or more cores), embedded processor, or the like. The processor may be implemented on one or more chips. The processor 1100 may be a part of and/or may be implemented on one or more substrates using any of a number of process technologies, such as, for example, BiCMOS, CMOS, or MOS.

[0122] The memory hierarchy includes one or more levels of cache 1104A-N within the cores 1102A-N, a set or one or more shared cache units 1106, and external memory (not shown) coupled to the set of integrated memory controller units 1114. The set of shared cache units 1106 may include one or more mid-level caches, such as level 2 (L2), level 3 (L3), level 4 (L4), or other levels of cache, a last level cache (LLC), and/or combinations thereof. While in one embodiment a ring based interconnect unit 1112 interconnects the integrated graphics logic 1108, the set of shared cache units 1106, and the system agent unit 1110/integrated memory controller unit(s) 1114, alternative embodiments may use any number of well-known techniques for interconnecting such units. In one embodiment, coherency is maintained between one or more cache units 1106 and cores 1102A-N.

[0123] In some embodiments, one or more of the cores 1 102A-N are capable of multi -threading. The system agent 1110 includes those components coordinating and operating cores 1102A-N. The system agent unit 1110 may include for example a power control unit (PCU) and a display unit. The PCU may be or include logic and components needed for regulating the power state of the cores 1102A-N and the integrated graphics logic 1108. The display unit is for driving one or more externally connected displays.

[0124] The cores 1102A-N may be homogenous or heterogeneous in terms of architecture instruction set; that is, two or more of the cores 1102A-N may be capable of execution the same instruction set, while others may be capable of executing only a subset of that instruction set or a different instruction set.

EXEMPLARY COMPUTER ARCHITECTURES

[0125] Figures 12-15 are block diagrams of exemplary computer architectures. Other system designs and configurations known in the arts for laptops, desktops, handheld PCs, personal digital assistants, engineering workstations, servers, network devices, network hubs, switches, embedded processors, digital signal processors (DSPs), graphics devices, video game devices, set-top boxes, micro controllers, cell phones, portable media players, hand held devices, and various other electronic devices, are also suitable. In general, a huge variety of systems or electronic devices capable of incorporating a processor and/or other execution logic as disclosed herein are generally suitable.

[0126] Referring now to Figure 12, shown is a block diagram of a system 1200 in accordance with one embodiment of the present invention. The system 1200 may include one or more processors 1210, 1215, which are coupled to a controller hub 1220. In one embodiment, the controller hub 1220 includes a graphics memory controller hub (GMCH) 1290 and an Input/Output Hub (IOH) 1250 (which may be on separate chips); the GMCH 1290 includes memory and graphics controllers to which are coupled memory 1240 and a coprocessor 1245; the IOH 1250 is couples input/output (I/O) devices 1260 to the GMCH 1290. Alternatively, one or both of the memory and graphics controllers are integrated within the processor (as described herein), the memory 1240 and the coprocessor 1245 are coupled directly to the processor 1210, and the controller hub 1220 in a single chip with the IOH 1250.

[0127] The optional nature of additional processors 1215 is denoted in Figure 12 with broken lines. Each processor 1210, 1215 may include one or more of the processing cores described herein and may be some version of the processor 1100.

[0128] The memory 1240 may be, for example, dynamic random access memory (DRAM), phase change memory (PCM), or a combination of the two. For at least one embodiment, the controller hub 1220 communicates with the processor(s) 1210, 1215 via a multi-drop bus, such as a frontside bus (FSB), point-to-point interface, or similar connection 1295.

[0129] In one embodiment, the coprocessor 1245 is a special-purpose processor, such as, for example, a high-throughput MIC processor, a network or communication processor, compression engine, graphics processor, GPGPU, embedded processor, or the like. In one embodiment, controller hub 1220 may include an integrated graphics accelerator.

[0130] There can be a variety of differences between the physical resources 1210, 1215 in terms of a spectrum of metrics of merit including architectural, microarchitectural, thermal, power consumption characteristics, and the like.

[0131] In one embodiment, the processor 1210 executes instructions that control data processing operations of a general type. Embedded within the instructions may be coprocessor instructions. The processor 1210 recognizes these coprocessor instructions as being of a type that should be executed by the attached coprocessor 1245. Accordingly, the processor 1210 issues these coprocessor instructions (or control signals representing coprocessor instructions) on a coprocessor bus or other interconnect, to coprocessor 1245. Coprocessor(s) 1245 accept and execute the received coprocessor instructions.

[0132] Referring now to Figure 13, shown is a block diagram of a first more specific exemplary system 1300 in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. As shown in Figure 13, multiprocessor system 1300 is a point-to-point interconnect system, and includes a first processor 1370 and a second processor 1380 coupled via a point-to-point interconnect 1350. Each of processors 1370 and 1380 may be some version of the processor 1100. In one embodiment of the invention, processors 1370 and 1380 are respectively processors 1210 and 1215, while coprocessor 1338 is coprocessor 1245. In another embodiment, processors 1370 and 1380 are respectively processor 1210 coprocessor 1245.

[0133] Processors 1370 and 1380 are shown including integrated memory controller (EVIC) units 1372 and 1382, respectively. Processor 1370 also includes as part of its bus controller units point-to-point (P-P) interfaces 1376 and 1378; similarly, second processor 1380 includes P-P interfaces 1386 and 1388. Processors 1370, 1380 may exchange information via a point-to-point (P-P) interface 1350 using P-P interface circuits 1378, 1388. As shown in Figure 13, EVICs 1372 and 1382 couple the processors to respective memories, namely a memory 1332 and a memory 1334, which may be portions of main memory locally attached to the respective processors.

[0134] Processors 1370, 1380 may each exchange information with a chipset 1390 via individual P-P interfaces 1352, 1354 using point to point interface circuits 1376, 1394, 1386, 1398. Chipset 1390 may optionally exchange information with the coprocessor 1338 via a high-performance interface 1392. In one embodiment, the coprocessor 1338 is a special-purpose processor, such as, for example, a high-throughput MIC processor, a network or communication processor, compression engine, graphics processor, GPGPU, embedded processor, or the like.

[0135] A shared cache (not shown) may be included in either processor or outside of both processors, yet connected with the processors via P-P interconnect, such that either or both processors' local cache information may be stored in the shared cache if a processor is placed into a low power mode.

[0136] Chipset 1390 may be coupled to a first bus 1316 via an interface 1396. In one embodiment, first bus 1316 may be a Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) bus, or a bus such as a PCI Express bus or another I/O interconnect bus, although the scope of the present invention is not so limited.

[0137] As shown in Figure 13, various I/O devices 1314 may be coupled to first bus 1316, along with a bus bridge 1318 which couples first bus 1316 to a second bus 1320. In one embodiment, one or more additional processor(s) 1315, such as coprocessors, high-throughput MIC processors, GPGPU's, accelerators (such as, e.g., graphics accelerators or digital signal processing (DSP) units), field programmable gate arrays, or any other processor, are coupled to first bus 1316. In one embodiment, second bus 1320 may be a low pin count (LPC) bus. Various devices may be coupled to a second bus 1320 including, for example, a keyboard and/or mouse 1322, communication devices 1327 and a storage unit 1328 such as a disk drive or other mass storage device which may include instructions/code and data 1330, in one embodiment. Further, an audio I/O 1324 may be coupled to the second bus 1316. Note that other architectures are possible. For example, instead of the point-to-point architecture of Figure 13, a system may implement a multidrop bus or other such architecture.

[0138] Referring now to Figure 14, shown is a block diagram of a second more specific exemplary system 1400 in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. Like elements in Figures 13 and 14 bear like reference numerals, and certain aspects of Figure 13 have been omitted from Figure 14 in order to avoid obscuring other aspects of Figure 14.

[0139] Figure 14 illustrates that the processors 1370, 1380 may include integrated memory and I/O control logic ("CL") 1472 and 1482, respectively. Thus, the CL 1472, 1482 include integrated memory controller units and include I/O control logic. Figure 14 illustrates that not only are the memories 1332, 1334 coupled to the CL 1372, 1382, but also that I/O devices 1414 are also coupled to the control logic 1372, 1382. Legacy I/O devices 1415 are coupled to the chipset 1390.

[0140] Referring now to Figure 15, shown is a block diagram of an SoC 1500 in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. Similar elements in Figure 11 bear like reference numerals. Also, dashed lined boxes are optional features on more advanced SoCs. In Figure 15, an interconnect unit(s) 1502 is coupled to: an application processor 1510 which includes a set of one or more cores 1102A-N, cache units 1104A-N, and shared cache unit(s) 1106; a system agent unit 1110; a bus controller unit(s) 1116; an integrated memory controller unit(s) 1114; a set or one or more coprocessors 1520 which may include integrated graphics logic, an image processor, an audio processor, and a video processor; an static random access memory (SRAM) unit 1530; a direct memory access (DMA) unit 1532; and a display unit 1540 for coupling to one or more external displays. In one embodiment, the coprocessor(s) 1520 include a special -purpose processor, such as, for example, a network or communication processor, compression engine, GPGPU, a high-throughput MIC processor, embedded processor, or the like.

[0141] Embodiments of the mechanisms disclosed herein may be implemented in hardware, software, firmware, or a combination of such implementation approaches. Embodiments of the invention may be implemented as computer programs or program code executing on programmable systems comprising at least one processor, a storage system (including volatile and non-volatile memory and/or storage elements), at least one input device, and at least one output device.

[0142] Program code, such as code 1330 illustrated in Figure 13, may be applied to input instructions to perform the functions described herein and generate output information. The output information may be applied to one or more output devices, in known fashion. For purposes of this application, a processing system includes any system that has a processor, such as, for example; a digital signal processor (DSP), a microcontroller, an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), or a microprocessor.

[0143] The program code may be implemented in a high level procedural or object oriented programming language to communicate with a processing system. The program code may also be implemented in assembly or machine language, if desired. In fact, the mechanisms described herein are not limited in scope to any particular programming language. In any case, the language may be a compiled or interpreted language.

[0144] One or more aspects of at least one embodiment may be implemented by representative instructions stored on a machine-readable medium which represents various logic within the processor, which when read by a machine causes the machine to fabricate logic to perform the techniques described herein. Such representations, known as "IP cores" may be stored on a

tangible, machine readable medium and supplied to various customers or manufacturing facilities to load into the fabrication machines that actually make the logic or processor.

[0145] Such machine-readable storage media may include, without limitation, non-transitory, tangible arrangements of articles manufactured or formed by a machine or device, including storage media such as hard disks, any other type of disk including floppy disks, optical disks, compact disk read-only memories (CD-ROMs), compact disk rewritable' s (CD-RWs), and magneto-optical disks, semiconductor devices such as read-only memories (ROMs), random access memories (RAMs) such as dynamic random access memories (DRAMs), static random access memories (SRAMs), erasable programmable read-only memories (EPROMs), flash memories, electrically erasable programmable read-only memories (EEPROMs), phase change memory (PCM), magnetic or optical cards, or any other type of media suitable for storing electronic instructions.

[0146] Accordingly, embodiments of the invention also include non-transitory, tangible machine-readable media containing instructions or containing design data, such as Hardware Description Language (HDL), which defines structures, circuits, apparatuses, processors and/or system features described herein. Such embodiments may also be referred to as program products.

EMULATION (INCLUDING BINARY TRANSLATION, CODE MORPHING, ETC.)

[0147] In some cases, an instruction converter may be used to convert an instruction from a source instruction set to a target instruction set. For example, the instruction converter may translate (e.g., using static binary translation, dynamic binary translation including dynamic compilation), morph, emulate, or otherwise convert an instruction to one or more other instructions to be processed by the core. The instruction converter may be implemented in software, hardware, firmware, or a combination thereof. The instruction converter may be on processor, off processor, or part on and part off processor.

[0148] Figure 16 is a block diagram contrasting the use of a software instruction converter to convert binary instructions in a source instruction set to binary instructions in a target instruction set according to embodiments of the invention. In the illustrated embodiment, the instruction converter is a software instruction converter, although alternatively the instruction converter may be implemented in software, firmware, hardware, or various combinations thereof. Figure 16

shows a program in a high level language 1602 may be compiled using a first compiler 1604 to generate a first binary code (e.g., x86) 1606 that may be natively executed by a processor with at least one first instruction set core 1616. In some embodiments, the processor with at least one first instruction set core 1616 represents any processor that can perform substantially the same functions as an Intel processor with at least one x86 instruction set core by compatibly executing or otherwise processing (1) a substantial portion of the instruction set of the Intel x86 instruction set core or (2) object code versions of applications or other software targeted to run on an Intel processor with at least one x86 instruction set core, in order to achieve substantially the same result as an Intel processor with at least one x86 instruction set core. The first compiler 1604 represents a compiler that is operable to generate binary code of the first instruction set 1606 (e.g., object code) that can, with or without additional linkage processing, be executed on the processor with at least one first instruction set core 1616. Similarly, Figure 16 shows the program in the high level language 1602 may be compiled using an alternative instruction set compiler 1608 to generate alternative instruction set binary code 1610 that may be natively executed by a processor without at least one first instruction set core 1614 (e.g., a processor with cores that execute the MIPS instruction set of MIPS Technologies of Sunnyvale, CA and/or that execute the ARM instruction set of ARM Holdings of Sunnyvale, CA). The instruction converter 1612 is used to convert the first binary code 1606 into code that may be natively executed by the processor without a first instruction set core 1614. This converted code is not likely to be the same as the alternative instruction set binary code 1610 because an instruction converter capable of this is difficult to make; however, the converted code will accomplish the general operation and be made up of instructions from the alternative instruction set. Thus, the instruction converter 1612 represents software, firmware, hardware, or a combination thereof that, through emulation, simulation or any other process, allows a processor or other electronic device that does not have a first instruction set processor or core to execute the first binary code 1606.

FURTHER EXAMPLES

[0149] Example 1 provides a processor including: fetch circuitry to fetch a vector unsigned multiplication and accumulation instruction having fields for an opcode, first and second source identifiers, a destination identifier, and an immediate, wherein the identified sources and

destination are same-sized registers, decode circuitry to decode the fetched instruction; and execution circuitry to execute the decoded instruction, on each corresponding pair of first and second quadwords of the identified first and second sources, to: generate a sum of products of two doublewords of the first quadword and either two lower words or two upper words of the second quadword, based on the immediate, zero-extend the sum to a quadword-sized sum, and accumulate the quadword-sized sum with a previous value of a destination quadword in a same relative register position as the first and second quadwords.

[0150] Example 2 includes the substance of the exemplary processor of Example 1, wherein, when the immediate has a predefined value, the generated sum uses the two upper word of the second quadword.

[0151] Example 3 includes the substance of the exemplary processor of Example 1, wherein the generated sum is represented by at least 48 bits.

[0152] Example 4 includes the substance of the exemplary processor of Example 1, wherein the identified sources and destination each includes a 64-bit general purpose register.

[0153] Example 5 includes the substance of the exemplary processor of Example 1, wherein the identified sources and destination each includes a 128-bit vector register.

[0154] Example 6 includes the substance of the exemplary processor of Example 1, wherein the identified sources and destination each includes a 256-bit vector register.

[0155] Example 7 includes the substance of the exemplary processor of Example 1, wherein the identified sources and destination each includes a 512-bit vector register.

[0156] Example 8 includes the substance of the exemplary processor of Example 1, wherein the identified sources and destination each includes one of a 64-bit general purpose register, 128-bit vector register, 256-bit vector register, and 512-bit vector register.

[0157] Example 9 includes the substance of the exemplary processor of any one of Examples 1-8, wherein the vector unsigned multiplication and accumulation instruction further includes a size identifier to specify the size of the same-sized registers.

[0158] Example 10 includes the substance of the exemplary processor of any one of Examples 1-8, wherein the vector unsigned multiplication and accumulation instruction further includes a write mask identifier to identify a write mask to conditionally control per-element computational operation and updating of results to the identified destination.

[0159] Example 11 provides a method including: fetching, by fetch circuitry, a vector unsigned multiplication and accumulation instruction having fields for an opcode, first and second source identifiers, a destination identifier, and an immediate, wherein the identified sources and destination are same-sized registers, decoding, by decode circuitry, the fetched instruction; and executing, by execution circuitry, the decoded instruction, on each corresponding pair of first and second quadwords of the identified first and second sources, to: generate a sum of products of two doublewords of the first quadword and either two lower words or two upper words of the second quadword, based on the immediate, zero-extend the sum to a quadword-sized sum, and accumulate the quadword-sized sum with a previous value of a destination quadword in a same relative register position as the first and second quadwords.

[0160] Example 12 includes the substance of the exemplary method of Example 11, wherein, when the immediate has a predefined value, the generated sum uses the two upper word of the second quadword.

[0161] Example 13 includes the substance of the exemplary method of Example 11, wherein the generated sum is represented by at least 48 bits.

[0162] Example 14 includes the substance of the exemplary method of Example 11, wherein the identified sources and destination each includes a 64-bit general purpose register.

[0163] Example 15 includes the substance of the exemplary method of Example 11, wherein the identified sources and destination each includes a 128-bit vector register.

[0164] Example 16 includes the substance of the exemplary method of Example 11, wherein the identified sources and destination each includes a 256-bit vector register.

[0165] Example 17 includes the substance of the exemplary method of Example 11, wherein the identified sources and destination each includes a 512-bit vector register.

[0166] Example 18 includes the substance of the exemplary method of Example 11, wherein the identified sources and destination each includes a register selected from the group consisting of a 64-bit general purpose register, 128-bit vector register, 256-bit vector register, and 512-bit vector register.

[0167] Example 19 includes the substance of the exemplary method of any one of Examples 11-18, wherein the vector unsigned multiplication and accumulation instruction further includes a size identifier to specify the size of the same-sized registers.

[0168] Example 20 includes the substance of the exemplary method of any one of Examples 11- 18, wherein the vector unsigned multiplication and accumulation instruction further includes a write mask identifier to identify a write mask to conditionally control per-element computational operation and updating of results to the identified destination.

[0169] Example 21 provides a system including: a memory; and a processor including: means for fetching a vector unsigned multiplication and accumulation instruction having fields for an opcode, first and second source identifiers, a destination identifier, and an immediate, wherein the identified sources and destination are same-sized registers, means for decoding the fetched instruction; and means for executing the decoded instruction, on each corresponding pair of first and second quadwords of the identified first and second sources, to: generate a sum of products of two doublewords of the first quadword and either two lower words or two upper words of the second quadword, based on the immediate, zero-extend the sum to a quadword-sized sum, and accumulate the quadword-sized sum with a previous value of a destination quadword in a same relative register position as the first and second quadwords.

[0170] Example 22 includes the substance of the exemplary system of Example 21, wherein, when the immediate has a predefined value, the generated sum uses the two upper word of the second quadword.

[0171] Example 23 includes the substance of the exemplary system of Example 21, wherein the generated sum is represented by at least 48 bits.

[0172] Example 24 includes the substance of the exemplary system of Example 21, wherein the identified sources and destination each includes a 64-bit general purpose register.

[0173] Example 25 includes the substance of the exemplary system of Example 21, wherein the identified sources and destination each includes a 128-bit vector register.

[0174] Example 26 includes the substance of the exemplary system of Example 21, wherein the identified sources and destination each includes a 256-bit vector register.

[0175] Example 27 includes the substance of the exemplary system of Example 21, wherein the identified sources and destination each includes a 512-bit vector register.

[0176] Example 28 includes the substance of the exemplary system of Example 21, wherein the identified sources and destination each includes a register selected from the group consisting of a 64-bit general purpose register, 128-bit vector register, 256-bit vector register, and 512-bit vector register.

[0177] Example 29 includes the substance of the exemplary system of any one of Examples 21-28, wherein the vector unsigned multiplication and accumulation instruction further includes a size identifier to specify the size of the same-sized registers.

[0178] Example 30 includes the substance of the exemplary system of any one of Examples 21-28, wherein the vector unsigned multiplication and accumulation instruction further includes a write mask identifier to identify a write mask to conditionally control per-element computational operation and updating of results to the identified destination.

[0179] Example 31 provides a non-transitory machine-readable medium having stored thereon instructions that, when executed by a processor, cause the processor to: fetch, by fetch circuitry, a vector unsigned multiplication and accumulation instruction having fields for an opcode, first and second source identifiers, a destination identifier, and an immediate, wherein the identified sources and destination are same-sized registers, decode, by decode circuitry, the fetched instruction; and execute, by execution circuitry, the decoded instruction, on each corresponding pair of first and second quadwords of the identified first and second sources, to: generate a sum of products of two doublewords of the first quadword and either two lower words or two upper words of the second quadword, based on the immediate, zero-extend the sum to a quadword-sized sum, and accumulate the quadword-sized sum with a previous value of a destination quadword in a same relative register position as the first and second quadwords.

[0180] Example 32 includes the substance of the exemplary non-transitory machine-readable medium of Example 31, wherein, when the immediate has a predefined value, the generated sum uses the two upper word of the second quadword.

[0181] Example 33 includes the substance of the exemplary non-transitory machine-readable medium of Example 31, wherein the generated sum is represented by at least 48 bits.

[0182] Example 34 includes the substance of the exemplary non-transitory machine-readable medium of Example 31, wherein the identified sources and destination each includes a 64-bit general purpose register.

[0183] Example 35 includes the substance of the exemplary non-transitory machine-readable medium of Example 31, wherein the identified sources and destination each includes a 128-bit vector register.

[0184] Example 36 includes the substance of the exemplary non-transitory machine-readable medium of Example 31, wherein the identified sources and destination each includes a 256-bit vector register.

[0185] Example 37 includes the substance of the exemplary non-transitory machine-readable medium of Example 31, wherein the identified sources and destination each includes a 512-bit vector register.

[0186] Example 38 includes the substance of the exemplary non-transitory machine-readable medium of Example 31, wherein the identified sources and destination each includes one of a 64-bit general purpose register, 128-bit vector register, 256-bit vector register, and 512-bit vector register.

[0187] Example 39 includes the substance of the exemplary non-transitory machine-readable medium of any one of Examples 31-38, wherein the vector unsigned multiplication and accumulation instruction further includes a size identifier to specify the size of the same-sized registers.

[0188] Example 40 includes the substance of the exemplary non-transitory machine-readable medium of any one of Examples 31-38, wherein the vector unsigned multiplication and accumulation instruction further includes a write mask identifier to identify a write mask to conditionally control per-element computational operation and updating of results to the identified destination.

[0189] Example 41 provides a processor including: fetch circuitry to fetch a vector unsigned multiplication and accumulation instruction having fields for an opcode, first and second source identifiers, a destination identifier, and an immediate, decode circuitry to decode the fetched instruction, execution circuitry to execute the decoded instruction to: generate a low-order sum by adding products of two lower double word elements of the first identified source and either two lower fixed-sized word elements or two upper fixed-sized word elements of a lower half of the second identified source, based on the immediate, generate a high-order sum by adding products of two upper double word elements of the first identified source and either two lower fixed-sized word elements or two upper fixed-sized word elements of an upper half of the second identified source, based on the immediate; and accumulate the low-order and high-order sums with previous low-order and high-order quad-sized elements of the identified destination.

[0190] Example 42 includes the substance of the exemplary processor of Example 41, wherein, when the immediate has a predefined value, the high-order sum and low-order sum use the two upper fixed size elements of the lower half and the upper half of the second identified source.

[0191] Example 43 includes the substance of the exemplary processor of any one of Examples 41-42, wherein the execution circuitry, before the accumulating, is to zero-extend the low-order and high-order sums to have as many bits as the quad-sized elements.

[0192] Example 44 includes the substance of the exemplary processor of any one of Examples 41-42, wherein the second identified source includes eight fixed-sized word elements, the first identified source includes four double word elements, and the identified destination includes two quad-sized elements.

[0193] Example 45 includes the substance of the exemplary processor of any one of Examples 41-42, wherein the vector unsigned multiplication and accumulation instruction further includes a write mask identifier to identify a write mask to conditionally control per-element computational operation and updating of results to the identified destination.