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1. (WO2018222539) STRAIN SENSING OPTICAL CABLE WITH ACOUSTIC IMPEDANCE MATCHED LAYERS
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What is claimed is:

1. A vibration sensing cable comprising:

a cable jacket comprising:

an outer layer defining an outermost surface of the cable jacket, the outer layer formed from a first polymer material;

an inner layer surrounded at least in part by the outer layer, the inner layer formed from a second polymer material;

wherein the first polymer material has an acoustic impedance that is less than an acoustic impedance of the second polymer material;

a sensing optical fiber embedded within the cable jacket; and

a tensile strength element embedded in the cable jacket.

2. The vibration sensing cable of claim 1, wherein the acoustic impedance of the first polymer material is less than about 85% of the acoustic impedance of the second polymer material.

3. The vibration sensing cable of claims 1, wherein the acoustic impedance of the first polymer material is between 0.3 and 2 MRayl and the acoustic impedance of the second polymer material is between 1 and 2.5 MRayl.

4. The vibration sensing cable of claim 1, wherein the acoustic impedance of the first polymer material is between 0.4 and 1.4 MRayl and the acoustic impedance of the second polymer material is between 1.5 and 2 MRayi.

5. The vibration sensing cable of claims 1 to 4, wherein the first polymer material has a Young's modulus of elasticity between 150 and 700 MPa, and the second polymer material has a Young's modulus of elasticity between 300 and 1000 MPa.

6. The vibration sensing cable of claims 1 to 5, wherein the outer layer has an average radial thickness that is less than about 30% of an average radial dimension of the inner layer.

7. The vibration sensing cable of claims 1 to 6, wherein the sensing optical fiber and the tensile strengtli element are embedded in the inner layer of the cable jacket, wherein the outer layer of the cable jacket completely surrounds the inner layer.

8. The vibration sensing cable of claim 1, further comprising: a second sensing optical fiber embedded in the inner layer of the cable jacket; wherein the sensing optical fiber is a first sensing optical fiber, and tlie first sensing optical fiber and the tensile strength element are embedded in the inner layer of the cable jacket;

wherein, when viewed in cross-section taken perpendicular to a longitudinal axis of the cable jacket, the cable jacket defines a first axis and a second axis;

wherein the first axis intersects the first sensing optical fiber, the second sensing optical fiber and the tensile strength element;

wherein the tensile strength element is located between the first sensing optical fiber and the second sensing optical fiber along the first axis;

wherein the second axis is perpendicular to the first axis and is located at the midpoint between tlie first and second sensing optical fibers;

wherein the first and second sensing optical fibers each have a length within plus or minus 0.5% of a length of the tensile strength element such that both the first and second sensing optical fibers experience strain caused by vibrations transmitted into the cable jacket.

9. Tlie vibration sensing cable of claim 8, wherein an outer dimension of the cable jacket along tlie first axis is greater than an outer dimension of the cable jacket taken along the second axis, wherein the first sensing optical fiber is located adjacent to an outer surface of the cable jacket such that a minimum distance between the first sensing optical fiber and the outer surface of the cable jacket is less than or equal to 0.5 mm, wherein the second sensing optical fiber is located adjacent to the outer surface of tlie cable jacket such that a minimum distance between the second sensing optical fi ber and the outer surface of the cable jacket is less than or equal to 0.5 mm .

10. The vibration sensing cable of claim 9, wherein the cable jacket has an oblong shape when viewed in cross-section taken peipendicular to the longitudinal axis of the cable jacket such that the outer dimension of tlie cable jacket measured along the first axis is at least twice the outer dimension of the cable jacket measured along the second axis.

1 1. The vibration sensing cable of claim 1, wherein the inner layer is an olefin material, and the outer layer of the cable jacket is at least one of a silicone rubber material, an ethylene vinyl acetate material and a polyurethane material.

12. The vibration sensing cable of claim I, wherein the first polymer material has a density, pi, and a Young's modulus of elasticity, Ei, and the second polymer material has a density, p?_ , and a Young's modulus of elasticity, E2, wherein (piEi)!/2 is less than (p2E2)1/2.

13. A vibration monitoring system comprising:

a vibration sensing cable comprising:

a cable jacket defining an outer surface of the vibration sensing cable; a d

a sensing optical fiber embedded within the cable jacket:

wherein the outer surface of the vibration sensing cable is in contact with an environment such that vibrations within the environment are transmitted from the environment into the cable jacket;

wherein the cable jacket is configured such that at least 25% of the power of vibrations in the environment that are incident on the outer surface of the cable jacket is transmitted through the cable jacket to the sensing optical fiber; and

vibration monitoring electronics coupled to the vibration sensing cable and configured to determine an aspect of vibration within the environment based on optical scattering, caused by the vibrations, of an optical signal within the sensing optical fi ber.

14. The vibration monitoring system of claim 13, wherein the cable jacket is configured such that at least 25% of the power of vibrations in the environment that are incident on the outer surface of the cable jacket is transmitted through the cable jacket to the sensing optical fiber when the environment has an acoustic impedance of 0.1 MRayi.

15. The vibration monitoring system of claim 13, wherein the cable jacket is configured such that at least 50% of the power of vibrations in the environment that are incident on the outer surface of the cable jacket is transmitted through the cable jacket to the sensing optical fiber.

16. The vibration monitoring system of claims 13 to 15, wherein the cable jacket is configured such that at least 50% of the power of vibrations in the environment that are

incident on the outer surface of the cable jacket is transmitted through the cable jacket to the sensing optical fiber when the environment has an acoustic impedance of 0.3 MRayi.

17. The vibration monitoring system of claim 13, wherein the cable jacket comprises:

an outer layer defining the outer surface of the cable, the outer layer formed from a first polymer material; and

an inner layer surrounded at least in part by the outer layer, the inner layer formed from a second polymer material;

wherein an acoustic impedance of the first polymer material is between 0.3 and 2 MRayl greater than an acoustic impedance of a portion of the environment in contact with the outer surface of the vibration sensing cable.

18. The vibration monitoring system of claim 13, further comprising a layer of an acoustic impedance-matching material positioned between the environment and the outer surface of the vibration sensing cable, wherein the acoustic impedance matching material has an acoustic impedance greater than an acoustic impedance of the environment and less than an acoustic impedance of a material of the cable jacket.

19. The vibration monitoring system of claim 18, wherein the environment is a ground environment and the vibration sensing cable is buried in the ground environment and the acoustic impedance matching material is located in the ground environment between the ground environment and the outer surface of the vibration sensing cable.

20, A system for detecting vibrations in an environment comprising:

a vibration sensing cable comprising:

a cable jacket formed from a first material; and a sensing optical fiber embedded within the cable jacket; and an impedance matching material located between the cable jacket and the environment, the impedance matching material is in contact with the environment and with the cable jacket such that vibrations within the environment are transmitted from the environment into the impedance matching material and into the cable jacket and through the cable jacket to the sensing optical fiber;

wherein the impedance matching material has an acoustic impedance, Z2, and a portion of the environm ent in contact with the impedance matching material has an acou stic impedance, Z ;

wherein Z2 is within 2 MRayl of Zl .

21 , The system of claim 20, wherein the impedance matching material surrounds and is bonded to the first material of the cable jacket, wherein the first material of the cable jacket has an acoustic impedance, Z3, wherein Z2 is less than Z3.

22. The system of claim 20, wherein the environment is a ground environment and the vibration sensing cable is buried in the ground environment and the acoustic impedance matching material is applied to the ground environment such that it is in contact with an outer surface of the cable jacket.

23. The system of claim 22, wherein the acoustic impedance matching material is at least one of an oil material and a polymer material added to soil adjacent the buried the vibration sensing cable.