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1. GB1463180 - CRYSTAL GROWTH

Office
United Kingdom
Application Number 5541674
Application Date 23.12.1974
Publication Number 1463180
Publication Date 02.02.1977
Publication Kind A
IPC
C22B 41/00
CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
BPRODUCTION OR REFINING OF METALS; PRETREATMENT OF RAW MATERIALS
41Obtaining germanium
C01B 13/14
CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
01INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
BNON-METALLIC ELEMENTS; COMPOUNDS THEREOF
13Oxygen; Ozone; Oxides or hydroxides in general
14Methods for preparing oxides or hydroxides in general
C30B 11/00
CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
30CRYSTAL GROWTH
BSINGLE-CRYSTAL GROWTH; UNIDIRECTIONAL SOLIDIFICATION OF EUTECTIC MATERIAL OR UNIDIRECTIONAL DEMIXING OF EUTECTOID MATERIAL; REFINING BY ZONE-MELTING OF MATERIAL; PRODUCTION OF A HOMOGENEOUS POLYCRYSTALLINE MATERIAL WITH DEFINED STRUCTURE; SINGLE CRYSTALS OR HOMOGENEOUS POLYCRYSTALLINE MATERIAL WITH DEFINED STRUCTURE; AFTER-TREATMENT OF SINGLE CRYSTALS OR A HOMOGENEOUS POLYCRYSTALLINE MATERIAL WITH DEFINED STRUCTURE; APPARATUS THEREFOR
11Single-crystal-growth by normal freezing or freezing under temperature gradient, e.g. Bridgman- Stockbarger method
C30B 11/02
CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
30CRYSTAL GROWTH
BSINGLE-CRYSTAL GROWTH; UNIDIRECTIONAL SOLIDIFICATION OF EUTECTIC MATERIAL OR UNIDIRECTIONAL DEMIXING OF EUTECTOID MATERIAL; REFINING BY ZONE-MELTING OF MATERIAL; PRODUCTION OF A HOMOGENEOUS POLYCRYSTALLINE MATERIAL WITH DEFINED STRUCTURE; SINGLE CRYSTALS OR HOMOGENEOUS POLYCRYSTALLINE MATERIAL WITH DEFINED STRUCTURE; AFTER-TREATMENT OF SINGLE CRYSTALS OR A HOMOGENEOUS POLYCRYSTALLINE MATERIAL WITH DEFINED STRUCTURE; APPARATUS THEREFOR
11Single-crystal-growth by normal freezing or freezing under temperature gradient, e.g. Bridgman- Stockbarger method
02without using solvents
C30B 17/00
CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
30CRYSTAL GROWTH
BSINGLE-CRYSTAL GROWTH; UNIDIRECTIONAL SOLIDIFICATION OF EUTECTIC MATERIAL OR UNIDIRECTIONAL DEMIXING OF EUTECTOID MATERIAL; REFINING BY ZONE-MELTING OF MATERIAL; PRODUCTION OF A HOMOGENEOUS POLYCRYSTALLINE MATERIAL WITH DEFINED STRUCTURE; SINGLE CRYSTALS OR HOMOGENEOUS POLYCRYSTALLINE MATERIAL WITH DEFINED STRUCTURE; AFTER-TREATMENT OF SINGLE CRYSTALS OR A HOMOGENEOUS POLYCRYSTALLINE MATERIAL WITH DEFINED STRUCTURE; APPARATUS THEREFOR
17Single-crystal growth on to a seed which remains in the melt during growth, e.g. Nacken-Kyropoulos method
C30B 27/00
CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
30CRYSTAL GROWTH
BSINGLE-CRYSTAL GROWTH; UNIDIRECTIONAL SOLIDIFICATION OF EUTECTIC MATERIAL OR UNIDIRECTIONAL DEMIXING OF EUTECTOID MATERIAL; REFINING BY ZONE-MELTING OF MATERIAL; PRODUCTION OF A HOMOGENEOUS POLYCRYSTALLINE MATERIAL WITH DEFINED STRUCTURE; SINGLE CRYSTALS OR HOMOGENEOUS POLYCRYSTALLINE MATERIAL WITH DEFINED STRUCTURE; AFTER-TREATMENT OF SINGLE CRYSTALS OR A HOMOGENEOUS POLYCRYSTALLINE MATERIAL WITH DEFINED STRUCTURE; APPARATUS THEREFOR
27Single-crystal growth under a protective fluid
CPC
F28D 7/12
FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
28HEAT EXCHANGE IN GENERAL
DHEAT-EXCHANGE APPARATUS, NOT PROVIDED FOR IN ANOTHER SUBCLASS, IN WHICH THE HEAT-EXCHANGE MEDIA DO NOT COME INTO DIRECT CONTACT
7Heat-exchange apparatus having stationary tubular conduit assemblies for both heat-exchange media, the media being in contact with different sides of a conduit wall
10the conduits being arranged one within the other, e.g. concentrically
12the surrounding tube being closed at one end, e.g. return type
C30B 11/003
CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
30CRYSTAL GROWTH
BSINGLE-CRYSTAL-GROWTH
11Single-crystal growth by normal freezing or freezing under temperature gradient, e.g. Bridgman-Stockbarger method
003Heating or cooling of the melt or the crystallised material
C30B 17/00
CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
30CRYSTAL GROWTH
BSINGLE-CRYSTAL-GROWTH
17Single-crystal growth onto a seed which remains in the melt during growth, e.g. Nacken-Kyropoulos method
C30B 27/00
CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
30CRYSTAL GROWTH
BSINGLE-CRYSTAL-GROWTH
27Single-crystal growth under a protective fluid
C30B 29/20
CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
30CRYSTAL GROWTH
BSINGLE-CRYSTAL-GROWTH
29Single crystals or homogeneous polycrystalline material with defined structure characterised by the material or by their shape
10Inorganic compounds or compositions
16Oxides
20Aluminium oxides
F28D 2021/0057
FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
28HEAT EXCHANGE IN GENERAL
DHEAT-EXCHANGE APPARATUS, NOT PROVIDED FOR IN ANOTHER SUBCLASS, IN WHICH THE HEAT-EXCHANGE MEDIA DO NOT COME INTO DIRECT CONTACT
21Heat-exchange apparatus not covered by any of the groups F28D1/00 - F28D20/00
0019Other heat exchangers for particular applications; Heat exchange systems not otherwise provided for
0056for ovens or furnaces
0057for melting materials
Applicants CRYSTAL SYST
Priority Data 05429142 28.12.1973 US
Title
(EN) CRYSTAL GROWTH
Abstract
(EN)
1463180 Growing single crystals from a melt CRYSTAL SYSTEMS INC 23 Dec 1974 [28 Dec 1973] 55416/74 Headings BIG and B1S Single crystals are grown from a melt in a crucible by cooling a bottom portion of the crucible below the m.p. of the material whilst maintaining the side portions of the crucible above the m.p. e.g. 50 C deg, until all of the material has solidified. As shown the melt, optionally with a seed crystal, is contained within crucible 48. The sides 56 of the crucible are heated by resistance heater 26 whilst the bottom 49 is cooled by gaseous He flowing through tubular heat exchanger 32, the upper flat end 38 of which is in contact with the bottom 49. The temp. of the heater 26 and the sides 56 are monitored by pyrometers 71, 73 whilst the melt is directly observed through lens assembly 64. The crucible and heater are surrounded by insulation 24. The furnace 10 operates at low pressure. In operation, the temp. of the crucible wall 56 is initially maintained at 50 C deg or more above the m.p. whilst He, at a flow rate of 40 c.f.h., is passed through the exchanger 32, [Fig. 3a (not shown)]. The rate of He flow is then increased at 10-15 c.f.h./hr to initiate crystal growth, the heat exchanger temp. being reduced at 50 C deg/hr or less i[Fig. 3b (not shown)]. Subsequently the temp. of the wall is reduced at 15 C deg/hr or less to continue crystallization to that of Fig. 3c (not shown). After complete solidification, the crystal is annealed at 50 C deg below the m.p., and then cooled at 50 C deg/hr to room temp.

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