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1. WO2021003411 - SAFE AND NON-FLAMMABLE SODIUM METAL BATTERIES BASED ON CHLOROALUMINATE ELECTROLYTES WITH ADDITIVES

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[ EN ]

What is claimed is:

1. A rechargeable alkali metal battery comprising:

an anode including an alkali metal;

a cathode; and

an electrolyte to support reversible plating and stripping of the alkali metal at the anode, wherein the electrolyte includes alkali metal ions, chloroaluminate anions (AlClT), and an additive including imide anions.

2. The battery of claim 1, wherein the imide anions are selected from:


where Ri and R2 are the same or different, and are independently selected from (a) fluorine (F) and (b) linear or branched alkyl groups substituted with 1 or more fluorine atoms.

3. The battery of any of claims 1-2, the imide anions include bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide anions (FST), bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide anions (TFST), or both.

4. The battery of any of claims 1-3, wherein a molar concentration of the imide anions in the electrolyte is in a range of about 1 M or less, about 0.9 M or less, about 0.8 M or less, about 0.7 M or less, about 0.6 M or less, about 0.5 M or less, about 0.4 M or less, about 0.3 M or less, or about 0.2 M.

5. The battery of any of claims 1-4, wherein the electrolyte is an ionic liquid.

6. The battery of claim 5, wherein the ionic liquid further includes l-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium (EMI) cations, imidazolium cations, pyrrolidinium cations, piperidinium cations, phosphonium cations, alkylammonium cations, or any combination thereof.

7. The battery of any of claims 1-4, wherein the electrolyte is an ionic liquid formed by adding alkali metal chloride to buffer an acidic AICb/organic chloride ionic liquid to neutral, followed by adding an additive containing FST, TFST or mixed FSF/TFSF and a water removal agent.

8. The battery of any of claims 1-4, wherein the electrolyte is an ionic liquid formed by adding x part (0 < x < 1) of NaCl, 0.01-0.02 part of ethylaluminum chloride, 0.02 to 0.06 part of EMIFSI to 1 part of an acidic AlCb:l-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EMIC) ionic liquid (AlCb:EMIC = 1 to 1+ x, 0 < x < 1).

9. The battery of any of claims 5-8, wherein the ionic liquid has an ionic conductivity at 25 °C of about 1 mS cm 1 or greater, about 2 mS cm 1 or greater, about 4 mS cm 1 or greater, about 6 mS cm 1 or greater, about 8 mS cm 1 or greater, or about 9 mS cm 1 or greater.

10. The battery of any of claims 1-4, wherein the electrolyte includes thionyl chloride dissolved with 0-5 M NaCl and 1-5 M AlCb, and 0-10 wt.% of an additive of NaFSI, NaTFSI, or mixed NaFSI and NaTFSI.

11. The battery of any of claims 1-4, wherein the electrolyte includes sulfuryl chloride dissolved with 0-5 M NaCl and 1-5 M AlCb, and 0-10 wt.% of an additive of NaFSI, NaTFSI, or mixed NaFSI and NaTFSI.

12. The battery of any of claims 1-4, wherein the electrolyte includes a solvate electrolyte formed by sulfur dioxide, NaCl and AlCb, and an additive of NaFSI, NaTFSI or mixed NaFSI and NaTFSI.

13. The batery of any of claims 1-4, wherein the electrolyte includes thionyl chloride dissolved with 0-5 M LiCl and 1-5 M AlCb, and 0-10 wt.% of an additive of LiFSI, LiTFSI, or mixed LiFSI and LiTFSI.

14. The batery of any of claims 1-4, wherein the electrolyte includes sulfuryl chloride dissolved with 0-5 M LiCl and 1-5 M AlCb, and 0-10 wt.% of an additive of LiFSI, LiTFSI, or mixed LiFSI and LiTFSI.

15. The batery of any of claims 1-4, wherein the electrolyte includes a solvate electrolyte formed by sulfur dioxide, LiCl and AlCb, and an additive of LiFSI, LiTFSI or mixed LiFSI and LiTFSI.

16. The batery of any of claims 1-15, wherein the cathode includes an inorganic material or an organic material.

17. The battery of any of claims 1-16, wherein the alkali metal is sodium.

18. The battery of any of claims 1-16, wherein the alkali metal is potassium.

19. The battery of any of claims 1-16, wherein the alkali metal is lithium.