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1. WO2020117289 - PHRAGMITES MECHANICAL DNA PLANT REPAIR STIMULATION & RAIN COLLECTION METHOD TO CAUSE REED AND RHIZOME DEATH

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[ EN ]

PHRAGMITES MECHANICAL DNA PLANT position, the plant DNA repair is not noticeable. The plant REPAIR STIMULATION & RAIN does not seal the ligule which is now exposed to the COLLECTION METHOD TO CAUSE REED elements including rainwater reaching the internal compoAND RHIZOME DEATH nents of the plant and the reed dies over time. If cut above the fourth above ground ligule and upwards, the upper

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION ligules may sucker and begin to close off the opening. A

[0001] This invention relates to the field of DNA plant second cutting is taken in one to two weeks later when they repair mechanisms, stimulation and function. In nature are easily visible and a few inches long to remove any upper numerous conditions occur which challenge a plants life and suckered ligules to reach the optimal position for the plant continuation. In its DNA plants have response plans to DNA repair response which is inadequate for continuing the life of the reed resulting in death to the reed and its rhizome. physical damage for repairing wounds that result in the

The optimal position of the cut where one cut is sufficient to healing of wounds and continuation of the plants life and

trigger the DNA repair response which cannot repair the species. This invention triggers a DNA plant repair response

wound and kills the rhizome is above four above ground that causes plant failure and death.

ligules just below the fifth ligtjle which is in the lower range

[0002] Phragmites plants have numerous different DNA

of the middle third of the reed portion. As it rains, water repair responses to damage of its stalk or rhizome and it

collects inside the reed which begins to rot any sucker differs by the position of the damage on the plant and is forming at the ligule and the ligule itself, eventually causing relative to its size. In addition, phragmites rhizomes are

death to the entire reed and rhizome. No new rhizome is interconnected to additional rhizomes along underground

produced from the cutting as the DNA repair response did runners, so the plant is not just one reed and rhizome but a

not activate it and the plant begins to fail and is noticeable series of connected reeds and rhizomes along runners.

within one day as the stalk turns from green to brown from Several independent runners can house multiple rhizomes of the top down over time and eventually dies in entirety. differing size crisscrossing one another.

Rainwater seeps down to the rhizome portion and begins to

]0003] One example of a DNA repair activation is when collect inside the stalk.

phragmites are cut across its lower portion, in the above

ground ½ of the plant reed that has grown into its seasonal [0005] As each rhizome can grow deep in the ground height. The DNA activates an immediate repair response to several feet deep in some sections even 6 feet has been the cutting which is to sucker at the rhizome underground as published, there is not any prior known way to destroy the well as on the outside of the above ground ligules effectively rhizome from above ground. The use of chemical herbicides duplicating the reed as the sucker forms another duplicate are used to control phragmites growth but has been shown reed with a new rhizome underground. Essentially a new to be ineffective at killing the rhizome as the application emerging reed, it remains unharmed by the cutting of the needs to continue over several years, even 8 or more and original stalk even if water enters into the stalk. The rhizome kills native vegetation and is hazardous to aquatic wildlife sucker continues the life of the phragmites by duplication of and water resources. Mechanical means of control of removthe rhizome and forming a new reed. If the plant is cut early ing the upper biomass but not causing death to the rhizome in the season at the top ½ portion of the reed and is still has been used in prior art however the recommended cutting growing into its normal seasonal height, the DNA repair of 4-12 inches immediately triggers the DNA repair instruction causes the top portion of what is left of the reed response to replicate the rhizome. New reed suckers emerge to spiral like a telescope, effectively sealing off the reed from the ground within a day and can grow to several feet wound to the outside elements and continuing the growth in a few weeks so it is not an effective control method at all. from the center of the reed upward. When the top ½ of the In fact it can create even more rhizomes and increase the phragmites plant is cut when the stalks are dry in winter and stand as several can sucker oft' the original rhizome. When still have a live rhizome, the DNA instruction to the top dry the phragmites are cut 4-12 inches, for the bulk of the portions of the stalk cause them to curl in a twist at the top phragmites population existing this would fall in the lower and close off the opening in the reed to protect the stalk from ½ portion of the plant and is below three above ground getting anything inside. ligules in both young and old phragmites on average for

[0004] When the phragmites are folded by hand in the which the DNA repair response triggers the rhizome to center ½ portion of the plant, the DNA instruction and repair sucker. As each and every phragmites reed must be cut in the bypasses the rhizome suckering, and seals the ligule under proper position to trigger the individual DNA repair neath the fold instead and sends a sucker at the outside response to cause plant death by killing the rhizome, variejuncture of said ligule effectively continuing the plants life. gated cutting relative to stalk height is necessary to kill all The DNA repair instruction is successful underneath the of the crisscrossing runners and their attached rhizomes in folded stalk if the internal components remain dry during the the position noted in the invention.

repair as the stalk is supple and maintains a seal or cover [0006] When cut in the prior art 4-12 inch designation, the over the affected stalk. The DNA response repairs the ligule rhizome suckering would be unaffected by herbicide treatunderneath the fold by sealing it closed and producing a ment as the rhizome is deep underground. It is merely a sucker on the outside of the ligule of a new reed extension superficial treatment to temporarily remove the upper stalk continuing the life of the reed. When cut across the middle of the phragmites reed but in a month they can grow several third of the reed by hand in the lower portion of the middle feet so they come right back from new rhizome suckers. If third of the reed above four above ground ligules and just all of the reeds in a clone are cut to this 4-12 inch position, under the fifth ligule, the DNA plant repair instruction does the DNA repair response with be varied as each stalk will not sucker at the rhizome, nor does it successfully send a naturally vary in height. In the stand there are also indepensucker at the top ligule. Due to the unnatural open situation dent but crisscrossing runners. Some reeds can be a few of the stalk created by the forced mechanical wound in said inches tall and the average 6-12 feet or more all intermixed.

As the DNA repair response for damage in the phragmites an entire stand of reeds fails to produce one specific response living reed varies by the positional height of damage relative as the damage would be experienced in differing areas of to the full grown size of live phragmites reed a cutting across differing size reeds, signaling differing repairs. Stands house 4-12 inches will hit most in the range where the DNA typically young plants a few inches and those over 12 feet response will duplicate the rhizome, spiral closed, produce tall all connected to one another underground by runners numerous suckers or telescope. As the phragmites plant is attached to their rhizomes. A cutting 4-12 inches across the not individual reeds and rhizomes but is a combined interentire stand produces suckers underground at the rhizomes connected series of rhizomes attached to each other underso the plants life continues regardless if a few stalks are ground by runners, damaging one will not kill others that are damaged beyond repair. It is for such reason that previous connected but wounded in a different position relative to technology of simply cutting across the stand a foot or less stalk height thus continuing the life of the plant. Once the is ineffective at killing the rhizomes because in fact it phragmites DNA repair response triggers the rhizome sucker produces new rhizomes in the bulk of the stand.

when cut below three above ground ligules in the lower ½ [0009] This invention triggers a precise DNA repair portion of the plant which on average the 4-12 inches falls response to cause plant death to an entire phragmites stand within this range, the phragmites plant DNA will duplicate including all reeds and rhizomes. This invention was created the rhizome inunediately upon cutting and reemerge from to provide a non-chemical way to kill the phragmites reed the ground as a new normal reed. I have observed new and rhizome from above the ground during one growing rhizome sucker spikes within one day of cutting, especially season to end phragmites invasions with one precision cut rapid when growing in water. It is impossible to treat on each reed in a stand. As each mature plant has a different phragmites growing in the tidal zone with herbicide without size, this precise location appears to be above 4 above poisoning the water and aquatic wildlife as well as seagrass ground ligules just under the fifth ligule which is housed in and other underwater plants. Since wetlands recharge drinkthe lower portion of the middle third of the reed. There has ing water aquifers also herbicide would leach down into the never been a way to kill the phragmites so as to not disturb drinking water supply. This invention is capable of killing native plants and aquatic animals with excavation, burning the rhizome underground no matter how deep it resides or chemical herbicide spraying. There is no prior known way because it controls the repair response of the DNA instructo cut a phragmites to kill the rhizome or reed as is evidenced tion through an above ground positional wounding. Each in numerous publications the need to continue treatment reed needs to be wounded as an individual, dependent on its year after year as new reeds emerge from suckers off the respective size to stimulate the specific repair response that rhizome from underground sometimes even several feet is inadequate for healing the wound. underground. Even the open stalk fails to produce a negative

[0007] Burning is also documented as a control method impact on the repair which triggers the rhizomes to sucker but has proved to be ineffective at killing the rhizome as the in the lower ½ of the plant because the instant the cut is phragmites re-emeige because again the bottom third of the made the rhizome DNA replication instruction occurs. As stalk being damaged by fire stimulates the DNA to create a the phragmites grow into the water along the coastlines they rhizome sucker underground, which is again protected from are rapidly expanding through tidal movements of seeds, the fire as a new phragmites reed emerges from the DNA rhizome runners and are causing toxic algal blooms. The repair response to the reed being damaged by fire and the problem with using herbicide chemicals is that they are also rhizome remains unaffected underground. Flooding being toxic to wildlife, pollute our water resources and kill native noted in prior art as being effective at killing phragmites is coastal and aquatic plants. In the water it is impossible to use a false claim because phragmites in fact grow year round in herbicides to kill the phragmites and many states are now several feet of water across the globe. Phragmites actually banning such practice as aquatic vegetation loss is reaching turn water into land. As they advance into the water and 80% or more in many areas where herbicides were used. dump their wrack, a build up of sediments occurs due to [0010] This invention was created to kill the phragmites phragmites wrack biomass integrating into the coastal sediby killing the entire reed down through to killing the ments and excessive nutrients disabling the organisms of the rhizome from above ground without the use of any chemiwater to effectively utilize all of the available degrading cals or harm or disturbance to nature within the one season. biomass and its start to amass along the coastline creating After the cutting of this invention the reed begins to die land. Especially vulnerable is juvenile shellfish which canimmediately with results visable in one day. As the reed not survive the toxic algal blooms triggered by the buildup turns brown the stalk fills with water and nature elements of phragmites biomass rotting along the coastlines. Phraghelp to degrade the stalk slowly and naturally. Borers make mites grow quite prolifically in the water, which by its nature homes in the stalks and further help to decay the plant matter is continually flooded. In truth and in fact there has never in a slow and naturally friendly way. Fungi increase due to been a viable way to kill a phragmites rhizome with the excess moisture collecting in the stalk. The rhizome mechanical cutting without repeated, environmentally detappears to weaken and the roots diminish as it appears that rimental chemical herbicide use unless you physically dig it the entire plant life is shutting down immediately after the entirely out of the ground. This would not be possible in cut if the cut is below the ligule of the first green leaf closest native wetland areas as the entire wetland would have to be to the ground in the middle ½ of the plant and above four excavated damaging and removing the entire ecosystem. above ground ligules. If a higher position was cut in the [0008] Phragmites DNA repair responses are complex and middle ½, a sucker may be produced at the top ligule unique for each type of damage that occurs. The reeds are remaining first. We provide a second cutting a week or two connected underground by rhizomes so there are many after to remove any sucker that may have been generated at intricate workings for the plants survival coded into its the top ligule to get the right position for plant failure. As DNA. Damage to each area causes a differing repair which there is wrack biomass that may obscure above ground is planned for in the plants DNA. A straight cutting across ligules at the base the fourth observable ligule or the bottom range of the middle third appear to be the position where the when swimming through the bloom or when they eat shellcutting begins to shut down the plant upon cutting. Cutting fish that is filtering the saxitoxin laden water, small fish or into the lower ½ range is to be avoided as a DNA triggering other small invertebrates. It appears that the shellfish not to duplicate the rhizome occurs in this range and once the only play a role in filtering out the toxins from the water but rhizome is duplicated the plants life will continue and you also poisoning small invertebrates, fish, turtles, etc. that have to let the reed grow in a begin all over again. Numerous nibble on the flesh. Paralytic shellfish poisoning can cause suckers may form at the rhizome so a visual count of four death to terrestrial animals as well from them ingesting above ground ligules is especially helpful for finding the shellfish when a toxic algal bloom is occurring. Phragmites position of the cut wound position which bypasses the DNA wrack is destructive to coastal integrity as it lays upon native repair instruction to sucker at the rhizome and moves the plants. When the tides rise and deposit the phragmites wrack repair to the middle portion of the reed signaling a suckering biomass on top of native plants and eelgrass it suffocates and at the top ligule. It is possible that above the fourth ligule is burns the underlying plants. Until now there has been no an optimal spot for damage as there appears to be no visable effective removal method for phragmites common reed for DNA repair response as the reed immediately begins to fail, large scale removal in sea areas. Chemical removal methods not sucker and slowly dies including the rhizome. If cut are toxic to fish and wildlife and not appropriate for the higher, upper ligules may sucker but appear to become water which supports all life. Chemical herbicides also kill disabled due to rain entering the stalk over time, however underwater plants and coastal native species and poison there is no visable suckering on a ligule that is the fourth water aquifers that are recharged beneath the estuarine areas. above ground ligule when cut below the fifth ligule. Mowing to remove the upper reed biomass as a control for

[0011] As the stalk collects rain it dies in position in phragmites wrack biomass is not possible in the sea and is entirety. Rain collection does not affect repairs from wounds not an effective eradication method on land as well as it to the lower third portion and upper third of the plant as the stimulates the DNA repair response to create a new rhizome repair instructions called for by the phragmites DNA repair sucker.

response is adequate for repairing the plant. The upper [0013] Rhizome sucker and continue to appear as new portion can effectively seal itself and the lower portion reeds within a day and mowing must be continued several bypasses the need to seal itself by producing a new rhizome times a year and actually increases stand density by producsucker. Only the mid portion of the plant cut in the position ing more rhizomes and therefore new additional reeds. noted causes failure and death to the reed and rhizome as it Burning is not possible in the sea and in large natural areas becomes exposed to rain internally. with native vegetation as it would bum the native vegetation,

[0012] Invasive plant species are destroying natural ecoheat the water, kill shellfish and crustaceons destroying the systems. estuaries coastlines and forests worldwide. With entire ecosystem while not affecting the phragmites rhizome modern societies movement from one natural area to another growth but actually stimulating a DNA repair response to by land, sea and air, seeds and plant material can be moved duplicate the rhizomes.

from one area where they grow naturally to another where [0014] Laying of plastic has been noted in prior art but in they are not native indigenous plants. When in a foreign actuality is ineffective in killing the phragmites rhizomes as environment plants can become invasive and destructive to the rhizome spikes are pointy and pierce the plastic. Once natural habitats. They invade by climbing over, shading, cut to be covered with plastic the underground rhizomes are crowding out, twining, suffocating, smothering, displacing stimulated to sucker and send new reeds. If the plastic is and out-competing native plants and destroy natural native thick enough it can smother the plant however in large scale vegetation. Phragmites also known as common reeds not invasions or in the water or in mixed native and phragmites only displace, smother and block light to underwater natural areas would kill all plants both natural and non-native plus eelgrass, they kill mussel beds that are the filters of the sea disturb any waterfowl or turtle nesting areas. In the sea it and are the home of small plant and sea life that is the would be difficult to implement plastic barriers without beginning of the food chain in the sea. Phragmites grow into disturbing the entire ecosystem, cause disturbance to soil mussel beds ripping them out of the sea floor. As they and create excess nutrients from rotting biomass. Shellfish advance into the sea from the coastline, dead phragmites beds and crustaceons would be smothered by the plastic as reed stalk biomass dump into the water creating excessive well as nesting areas for turtles, waterfowl, bugs and other wrack plant debris that is not naturally normally occurring creatures. It would also not be effective to use plastic in tidal causing nutrient excess by rotting in the water. This exceswetlands as the tides would disturb the plastic if the invasive sive wrack is a main contributor to nutrient levels rising and entered the water table as well as mechanically disturb cause water temperatures to rise as they rot and decay. valuable shellfish beds and sea grasses.

Numerous gasses are formed in the wet rotting phragmites [0015] After 20 years of study and trials my phragmites biomass in estuarine environments releasing continuously DNA plant repair manipulation to cause reed and rhizome especially during rainfall when the rotting biomass is disdeath and rain collection method has proven to be an turbed by the pressure of the rainfall beating on the rotting astounding new advancement in invasive species managephragmites laden sediments. When the sea nutrient level ment and is effective for killing all reed type plants including becomes too high algal blooms occur to balance the sea life but not limited to beach grass, japanese knotweed, phragby releasing neurotoxins paralyzing aquatic wildlife resultmites and other open stalk reeds or plants. The invention is ing in massive die offs of fish, plants and other animal life intended to be used on a large scale with no negative impact including terrestrial animals that drink the water and crus- on natural native environments. The invention makes obsotaceons especially juveniles. Saxitoxin is one neurotoxin lete the use of chemical herbicides for invasive phragmites that is produced in brackish estuarine environments invaded or other plant reed removal and replaces it with an instant by phragmites. When an algal bloom of dinoflagellates non chemical solution for killing phragmites reeds and their carrying saxitoxin occurs all aquatic life become paralyzed rhizome in one season. This invention is gentle and nontoxic for marine and forest environments. It is a cost effective, plant death maintaining a minimum of ½ of stalk height. If rapid plant removal system suitable for any worldwide the cutting is higher in the middle ½ of the plant the reed environment of land or sea. This invention is a planned may successfully sucker at the top ligules, wherein you human interruption by mechanically wounding the phrag- make a second cutting to remove said ligule and sucker mites plant growth in a specific position to trigger a specific while still maintaining at least three above ground ligules. DNA repair response that is inadequate for maintaining the When cut in a precise location in the middle ½ of each stalk life of the plant after the wounding. To be specific, the relative to its full grown height, preferably below the lowest cutting needs to be in the lower portion of the middle third green leaf and its adjacent ligule closest to the ground in this of the live green phragmites reed, it needs to be made after range, the plant makes a DNA response to the wound to the reed has grown into its full size for the season, the cutting repair the plant but cannot adequately repair the wound and needs to be above three or more above ground ligules the individual reed dies including the rhizome. I have preferably above the fourth above ground ligule just below observed dead reeds after this invention is applied with the fifth ligule. If cut higher in the middle third of the reed, hollow rhizomes and roots. It also fails to send suckers from any upper ligule sucker should be removed within a few the rhizome when cut in this location because the plants weeks to reach the optimal position for cutting which will be DNA repair response is to first cause the ligule to sucker above three minimum above ground ligules. It is easy to find below the site of the wound and to seal closed the ligule, the position after any upper suckers as they will be just forgoing the rhizome suckering entirely, and thereafter above the preferred cutting position which will not sucker. attempts to repair additional ligules from the top down based [0016] If the cutting does not maintain three or more on my documented successful trials in the field. Over time above ground ligules of the phragmites reed the rhizome will any suckering becomes rotted by rain entering the stalk but sucker and once it does the reed has duplicated and will form on occasion one will survive and for this reason we remove an entirely new reed continuing the life of the plant. The any subsequent suckering within a few weeks to secure plant cutting should be just under the upper most ligule to leave failure and find the optimal spot for damage where the DNA a length of open reed above the remaining upper ligules to repair response is inadequate at sustaining the life of the reed collect rainwater. If the cutting is just above the top ligule, and rhizome. Due to natural elements entering the stalk the DNA repair may successfully repair the ligule as rain before the ligule can seal fully closed by the unnatural may be averted from collecting in the interior of the stalk by human induced middle ½ position horizontal cutting of the the structure of the partially closed ligule, and the top plants reed and removing the top to expose the internal portion above the ligule will fall off eventually leaving a workings of the stalk to the elements (in nature the reed sealed stalk and a successful sucker at the ligule juncture would fold and effectively close the stalk while the ligule may appear. repair is made), the DNA repair encoding planned for middle

[0017] It is interesting to note that prior art dictates a stalk ligule repair is insufficient to repair the open wound cutting at 4-12 inches. On a normal phragmites reed 12 and the reed dies in its entirety including the rhizome. The inches generally is below the three ligule threshold for advantages to the invention over prior methods is that there cutting above which bypasses the rhizome suckefing. Even is no long term control necessary as the death begins as soon on young shorter reeds the ligules in relation to the size as the plant is cut and it is affected with moisture from water appears to have the same positional relationship of the internally, the rhizome fails to duplicate at the same time of ligules to the stalk size further clarifying that the DNA the cutting, there is no soil disturbance which could alter structure repair planning is preprogrammed to respond to tidal flow and increase pollution from disturbed sediments, wounding at specific positions on the plant with differing and all native plants and wildlife are instantly preserved. repairs. Increased biological activity further enhances natural

[0018] This invention is a planned human interruption and repopulation of all native species instantly as nature natucircumvention of the naturally occurring growth patterns, rally degrades the stalks in position over time and native growth signals and repair planning signals planned for in the seed bank and aquatic wildlife are protected and re-emerge. phragmites common reed plants cell structure and DNA. Because there is no use of chemicals, existing seed bank in Creating a man-made water reservoir from the phragmites the soil is preserved for native plant rejuvenation which reed stalk to continually water-log itself and seedlings and where suppressed by the invasive phragmites growth. activate beneficial destructive biological activity from this Because the cutting is targeted to the area of the phragmites man-made creation makes chemical and biological agents reed where the DNA repair response to stalk damage is a obsolete for use in causing phragmites and other invasive ligule repair and sucker, which is above three above ground reed death. ligules approximately in the lower portion of the middle ½ of the reed, the rhizome fails to sucker as no DNA trigger to

BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION duplicate the rhizome is activated and the plant dies from the insufficient repair plan in the phragmites DNA for the

[0019] The invention kills entire clones of phragmites condition caused by the invention of mechanically creating reeds and their rhizomes by triggering the repair instructions a wound for which the phragmites reed cannot sufficiently encoded in the plants DNA by cutting across each stalk to repair with an open stalk that is exposed to the elements. create a wound at a specific location relative to the size of

each reed. First you allow the phragmites to grow into its full [0020] Rain water collection mechanical phragmites invaseasonal size. The cutting is made while the phragmites is sive species removal method is a rapid, planned, incremengreen in a specific position on the plant, wherein said tal, mechanical cutting of phragmites plant reed to disturb position is in die middle ½ of each reed, in the lower portion growth and create water-logging. A first cut is made below of the middle ½ of the reed, is above at least three above the ligule of the first green leaf growing closest to the ground ground ligules and is cut just below a ligule to maintain maintaining at least ½ of stalk height and interrupts the maximum open stalk above the top remaining ligule to cause plants planned growth. As the plant has many ligules

remaining it will send a new reed sucker at the top ligule to the reed, to bypass rhizome suckering, disturb growth and continue growing and will seal itself off at the top ligule to create water-logging. A first cut is made just below the ligule keep rainwater and natural elements out from the internal of the first leaf growing closest to the ground in the middle structure of the damaged stalk. A second cutting is taken ½ of the plant in its lower portion, maintaining at least ½ of below the sealed top ligule if successful after the reed sucker stalk height and interrupts the plants planned growth. The emerges outside the site of the ligule and grows for a few wound triggers the DNA repair response to the mid stalk days or a week still maintaining ½ of reed height. As water cutting to seal the top ligule and produce a sucker off said collects from rain into the open stalk biological activity is ligule as it attempts to seal closed the stalk and continue the activated by the fresh water reservoir in the stalk. Insect plants life. As the plant has many ligules remaining the DNA activity increases and leaf eating beetles, borers, spiders and will instruct a repair that will send a new reed sucker at the other insects emerge onto the scene to feast on the damaged

top ligule to continue growing and will seal itself off at the leaves, sip from the stalks, borers lay eggs into the open stalk

where the larve will later chew on the internal components top ligule to keep rainwater out from the damaged stalk. A of the reed and all further taxes the growth of the pliragmites. second cutting is taken below the sealed ligule if a reed Spider webs mechanically bind new suckers as insects feast sucker emerges and grows for a few days or a week. As on them. water collects from rain into the open stalk biological activity is activated by the fresh water reservoir in the stalk.

[0021] Rainwater continually collects in the open stalks

Insect activity increases and leaf eating beetles, borers, and works its way down to the bottom and continually

waterlogs the rhizome. The stalks hold the water and it starts fungi, mold, moss, spiders and other insects emerge on the to fill. The phragmites fails to repair the ongoing problems scene to feast on damaged leaves, sip from the stalks, borers and does not send new root suckers or new rhizomes. lay eggs into the open stalk and all further taxes the growth Fungus emerges in abundance as well as numerous molds of and decomposes the pliragmites. Spider webs mechaniand mildew, internally and externally viewable, and said cally bind new suckers as insects feast on them. Rainwater mold further decays the standing stalks as the pliragmites continually collects in the open stalks and works its way to die. Removed tops of the stalks are dropped to the ground to the bottom and continually water-logs the rhizome. Suckers act as mulch to prohibit pliragmites seedling growth on land at the upper ligules rot away from the internal moisture. where no chance of entering the water from tidal surges exist Borers will make homes in the open stalks and shred small and to not move invasive plant material and seeds to new bits of plant material above itself to keep water out of its new areas. The moist ground gradually returns to native habitat house. The stalks hold water and it starts to fill. The as the phragmites decompose in position so as not to disturb phragmites fail to repair the ongoing problems and does not the soil which could potentially pollute the water or disturb send new root suckers or duplicate rhizomes as the DNA tidal flow in wetland areas. No more wrack is dumped into repair instruction for the cutting is to seal the upper ligule the sea and the sea returns to normal nutrient levels rapidly. and send an upper ligule sucker. Fungus and mold now Several feet deep in some areas, excess phragmites wrack appears in abundance and further decays the standing stalks preserved in the mud flats begins to be eliminated by sea that are left in position. The cut portion is moved upland in organisms providing a more solid ground to properly hold a pile to remain onsite so as to not disburse seeds to new eelgrass and other seagrass and plants as the mudflats areas by transportation. Removed stalks are dropped to the eventually return to sand for solid proper anchoring of ground to act as a mulch to prohibit phragmites seedling aquatic plants on the sea floor. Excess phragmites wrack in growth on land where no chance of entering the water from the mud flats causes a jelly like soft base where mussel beds tidal surges exists and to not move invasive plant material to and eelgrass can easily shake free and die as they turn over new areas. The moist ground gradually returns to native in rough tidal currents or get banged out of the sea floor by habitat as the pliragmites decompose. No more wrack is floating debris lobbing against them in the tidal movements, dumped into the sea and the sea returns to normal nutrient causing them to be dislodged from the soft substrate of mud levels rapidly. Several feet deep in some areas, excess instead of being solidly anchored in sand. Eelgrass grows phragmites wrack preserved in the mud flats begins to be larger with the surge of nutrients due to past pliragmites eliminated by sea organisms providing a more solid mudflat dumping of dead stalks already present in the mud flats and for proper holding of eelgrass roots and slowly returning to die new lack of floating wrack to suffocate them or block the a sandy sea floor to properly anchor eelgrass and other sunlight from reaching the sea floor. Mussels increase their seagrass which are now loosely held in soft mud sediment growth into the expanding eelgrass beds as this is their home from the phragmites wrack nutrient pollution. Excess phragand the juveniles survive better in decreasing nutrient levels mites wrack in the mudflats causes a jelly like soft base as they are sensitive to toxic algal blooms that occur due to where mussel beds and eelgrass can easily shake free and die excessive phragmites wrack rotting in the mudflats. The as they turn over in rough tidal currents eventually becoming phragmites are slowly degraded in place and destroyed from beached on the shore during high tides. Eelgrass grows internal flooding, native plant seedlings from seed banks larger with the surge of nutrients due to the phragmites present in the soil and distributed by tidal movements dumping of dead stalks and the new lack of floating wrack re-emerge and the ecosystem is restored. If the phragmites to block out the sunlight or suffocate them by mechanical have destroyed wetlands and they are devoid entirely of smothering. Mussels increase their growth into the expandnative species they can be reintroduced and allowed to ing eelgrass beds as this is their home. The phragmites are circulate in tidal movements to their preferred positions. destroyed slowly in place by internal flooding and the

[0022] Rain water collection mechanical phragmites invaecosystem is restored. Native plants repopulate from sursive species removal method is a rapid, planned, incremenrounding areas or can be reintroduced if natural habitat has tal, mechanical cutting of phragmites plant reed to activate already been destroyed in the area from the phragmites specific DNA repair instructs by a positional wounding of invasion.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE SEVERAL turns brown from the top down inside slowly over several VIEWS OF THE DRAWINGS weeks or months and dies over time including the rhizome.

Each phragmites reed is cut in the same manner relative to

[0023] On page one of the drawings FIG. 1 shows a its stalk height to eradicate all of the rhizomes in the stand. phragmites reed above ground. A first cutting is taken at In a few weeks after the cut the remaining stalks are left in position 10 which is cut below the 5';' above ground ligule position and observed and if the cuting occurred higher on in the middle ½ portion of the phragmites reed. Rain enters the stalk the DNA repair response may succeed in suckering into the stalk and collects at position 20. When cut in this the top ligules which sucker on the outside juncture and optimal position there is not a visual DNA repair response begin to seal closed the top ligule. A second cutting is and the reed begins to die slowly from the top down therefore made below said suckering to reach the optimal including the rhizome. FIG. 2 shows an open phragmites position of maintaining four above ground ligules and a stalk open at the top after cutting with a sucker off the top length of open reed above said ligule. It is important to not ligule from the DNA repair response that succeeds in cut in the lower ½ portion of the plant as the DNA repair sending a sucker and begins to close the ligule to seal the response will trigger a rhizome sucker as soon as the cutting reed. A second cutting is taken below the suckered ligule at is made which will successfully continue the life of the plant position 10 to maintain an open stalk to cause DNA repair by replicating the rhizome underground which is unaffected response failure by reaching the optimal position causing by the open stalk collecting rainwater as it is essentially a death to the read and rhizome. The rain collection entering new emerging reed that is enclosed and forming its own root the internal components of the reed settles at position 20. It system eventually replicating the rhizome. Three above is important to not cut below three above ground ligules so ground ligules are approximately in the area between the you don’t trigger the DNA repair response to duplicate the upper portion of lower ½ of the plant and where the middle rhizome which occurs below three above ground ligules in ½ of the plant begins after the reed has grown into its the bottom ½" portion of the reed. FIG. 3 is a winter seasonal size.

phragmites stalk that has closed at the top and shed its

leaves. A cutting at position 10 in the middle ½ of the reed [0026] Because phragmites rhizomes are connected to opens the stalk for rain water collection which settles at each other through a series of underground runners, they position 20 and the rhizome dies. FIG. 4 are phragmites vary in mature seasonal height and size. It is necessary to cut each reed along the runner relative to its stalk height in the reeds 40 mixed with native plants 15. A fold of the phragsame range and number of ligules as noted above to cause mites reed 40 triggers the DNA repair response to mid stalk

the DNA repair response that leads to plant failure of each fold damage to repair the upper ligule underneath the fold.

reed and rhizome and thus the entire stand. Phragmites vary A second cutting or break is made in FIG. 5 at position 30

to open the reed and allow rainwater to enter the internal in height from a few inches of new growth to 6-12 feet or components of the reed causing death to the reed and taller which is the average size.

rhizome. [0027] The invention manipulates a specific response in

[0024] Page two of the drawings depicts two independent the DNA repair system by wounding the middle ½ of the phragmites underground runners 70 and 80 with their stalk by cutting precisely below the fifth above ground ligule atached rhizomes and reeds crisscrossing one another in a after which the reed and rhizome appears to be unrespon phragmites stand. Runner 70 is a younger runner with small sive. It does not seal the upper ligule, does not sucker along reeds 11. Runner 80 is a larger, older runner with latger the reed and does not sucker at the rhizome and begins to fail phragmites 22 reeds attached. As the DNA repair response and eventually dies. When the ligule cannot effectively seal of this invention necessary for death to the reed and rhizome the reed, the reed dies as it can no longer function as it is triggered by wounding the middle ½ portion of the reed, collects water and sediments internally. Because phragmites it is easy to see the importance of cutting each reed relative are atached at the rhizome to one another and vary in height to its stalk height independently to trigger the specific DNA the reed and rhizome are collectively one plant but can be repair response to cause death to the reed and rhizome of killed individually. It is important to cut each reed to each individual reed. eradicate the entire invasion otherwise surviving uncut reeds will send new runners at their rhizome and new rhizomes along the runners to continue the life of the plant. With one

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE

precise cut on each phragmites reed the entire plant species INVENTION

can be destroyed. Phragmites DNA has many repair instruc¬

[0025] The invention is a nonchemical mechanical phragtions for wounding but is unable to survive the precise mites DNA repair response triggering by wounding the cutting method of this invention. Planned interruption of phragmites reed with a clear horizontal cut across each reed. phragmites growth to halt a DNA repair response, circumFirst you allow the phragmites reeds in a stand to grow into vention of the DNA repair signals which instruct a sucker at their seasonal height size. Then you cut each individual the rhizome, and slowly filling a phragmites stalk with phragmites reed. The optimal position to cut the reed is rainwater to articulate a lack of success of the DNA repair below the ligule of the first green leaf closest to the ground response in the reed plant phragmites to heal the wound and in the lower portion of the middle ½ section, just under the to cause death by one unique cut to each reed thus allowing fifth above ground ligule counted from the ground upwards, internal intrusion of rainwater is new and novel and never leaving as long of an open stalk above the fourth above contemplated in all of history.

ground ligule as possible. When cut at this location the DNA [0028] There is a transitional point along the phragmites plant repair fails to instruct a sucker to form at the rhizome reed where a cut wound to the stalk changes the DNA repair and any growth appears to halt. Rain will enter the internal response from a rhizome and ligule suckering which is in the stalk and collect at the base of the reed on top of the rhizome lower ½ of the reed that has grown into its seasonal height, and it begins to hold the water and fill. The remaining reed to just a ligule suckering which starts at the top ligule down and bypasses the rhizome suckering. It appears that this reed maintaining at least four above ground ligules. The cut transitional point is in the lower portion of the middle ½ of will signal the plant DNA repair system which appears to a fully grown in phragmites live reed. This position is above halt when cut above the third or fourth above ground ligule. three above ground ligules and below 5 above ground Rain water will begin to enter the stalks and collect at ligules. If the phragmites reed is cut in the exact position position 20. It is important to have as much open reed as herein described the DNA repair does not succeed in mendpossible below the cut to accept the rain. If the cut leaves the ing the wound and continuing the plants life. There is a open stalk too close to the remaining top ligule, the ligule specific location above 4 above ground ligules and just may succeed in sealing over and enclosing the stalk. As the under the fifth ligule where no repair activity is visibly rain water collects it begins to water-log the ligules and notable when wounded, successfully killing the remaining rhizome and over time destroys the entire reed. Any suckers reed portion and rhizome. One or two weeks after the first that form die over time as die rain continually enters the cutting any successful suckering repair at the upper ligules stalk over time, the DNA does not send a signal to sucker at if the cutting is higher is subsequently removed by cutting die rhizome and the stalk dies over time including the just below the sucker where it is emanating from the ligule. rhizome on each individual reed along the runner.

Cutting in the middle ½ of the fully grown live reed near its [0032] Hand cutting is preferable to reach the exact optibottom portion in this range seems to be the optimal spot for mal position on each individual reed to stimulate the DNA wounding as this is above four above ground ligules and the repair response that is unable to repair the damage. FIG. 2 DNA repair response is inadequate for continuing the life of is the second cutting of the open stalk if a new ligule sucker tire plant from the ligule repair and fails to produce a new has emerged due to the position of the cutting being 5 or 6 rhizome sucker and the reed and its rhizome dies. or more ligules above ground which is in the middle ½ of

[0029] Specific advantages of the invention are herein the reed which stimulates the DNA to send a sucker at the described below. The invention is a mechanical removal top ligules above the third above ground ligule and to seal method suitable for large scale phragmites invasive species the top ligule closed to continue the life of the plant. By removal projects. The invention is specifically beneficial as taking a second cutting just below the suckered ligules and it is a cost effective rapid destruction method of entire maintain ½ of stalk height which is just above three above phragmites stands. There is no present removal methods for ground ligules the DNA repair response will be inadequate large or small partially degraded estuarine and sea water and the reed will begin to fail eventually dying in position bodies with mixed estuarine habitat with native and invasive including the rhizome.

plant species as this invention, posing no harm to native [0033] FIG. 3 is a winter stalk that has dropped its leaves plant species or aquatic wildlife. This invention requires no and has sealed itself at the tip to prevent rain water and other chemicals and gently returns areas back to their natural elements from entering the stalk. Cutting the stalk at position healthy form. This invention does not disturb sediments, 10 exposes the stalk to rain and or snow, sediments and alter tidal flow rapidly, does not require moving cut material borers over the winter and the reed and rhizome will die. outside the area and does not disturb nesting areas. This Water will enter and water-log the reed and collect at invention also allows slow sediment reduction making position 20. It is beneficial on land to allow the stalk debris dredging obsolete and returns nutrient balance to water to fall in place. This is economic and also advantageous. The resources slowly to protect underwater aquatic vegetation cut stalks act as mulch inhibiting new phragmites seeds to from shaking free from soft sea floor sediments. grow. It also eliminates any risk of moving plant material to

[0030] This invention is new in the art for rapid removal new areas. There is no soil disturbance which further proand destruction of phragmites that are growing in water. The tects the seedlings from taking root. FIG. 4 addresses young invention is effective for phragmites invasions of both land phragmites reeds mixed with eelgrass or other native plants and sea and where the phragmites reeds are mixed and such as spartina patens. Left untouched eventually the intermingled with native eelgrass and other seagrass and phragmites will overcome the native grass and kill them by mussel beds. The invention is new in the art to create a shading, dominating the soil with their larger rhizome and man-made water reservoir out of a plant to encourage raising the soil as well as smothering estuarine plants with natural biological activity and water-logging from rainfall to phragmites wrack and dropped leaves. Eelgrass roots are cause complete plant failure, slowly naturally decay to allow lifted out of the mudflats as well as entire mussel beds as the native plants to repopulate, preserve native seed bank by phragmites rhizome raise the soil and everything except the using no chemicals for cost effective restoration and disable phragmites die. Mussels do noi grow in phragmites stands as or disrupt natural growth DNA repair plant signals for the the excessive wrack smothers the juveniles, the wrack phragmites common reed and any other reed type plants causes small outbursts of toxic algal blooms which kill with hollow stalks, ligules and rhizomes. The present invenjuveniles from the excess nutrients and rotting of phragmites tion is particularly suitable for sensitive water areas as no wrack biomass and the rhizome lifts the mussels from the harm to native coastal infrastructure by chemical application sea floor which causes them to dry out during periods of low is necessary and no soil disturbance occurs as the area tide as they effectively loose capillary action moisture as the transitions back to a balanced ecosystem with no further rhizomes pull them out from the water. Entire root balls of work necessary than causing death to the phragmites reed mussel beds can also be dislodged by the sediment buildup and rhizome in position with this invention. Entire stands from excessive phragmites wrack overburdening the sea can be disabled and die from one or two consecutive organisms ability to utilize the excess nutrients and as the cuttings. sediments build up the phragmites eventually turn sea into

[0031] FIG. 1 of the invention shows a single phragmite land. Where native grass 15 and young phragmites 40 grow reed. An entire stand can be cut at position 10 just below the together folding the phragmites is effective as the phragfirst leaf emanating from the ligule on each phragmites reed mites will fold and the grass spring back unharmed. FIG. 5 in the lower portion of the middle ½ of the fully grown live further illustrates the open phragmites reeds 30 after the

dried tops have been pulled off which stimulates to the mites wrack dumping into water bodies and removed from phraginites DN A a second wound for which it cannot forests where they destroy all native plants.

adequately repair and leaves the stalk open for collecting [0036] Elimination of algal blooms will also result as the rainwater. Folding and subsequently opening the stalk native habitat is restored in coastal regions, the phragmites stimulate the DNA to repair in the same manner as two wrack dumping stopped, and tidal purging once again being cuttings. The first fold in the middle ½ of the reed stimulates an effective means of ocean cleansing where the phragmites a DNA repair response which is the same as if the reed were has blocked the biomass from moving out of the water body. cut. It is quite easy to pull off the dead tops after the young The destruction of global coastlines from phragmites phragmites have been folded and allowed to dry. The advancement has been overlooked and ignored. Until this eelgrass or native plants IS are left to continue growing and invention there has been no effective non chemical removal can retake the area back from the phragmites advancement. solutions for large scale phragmites invasions in coastal The phragmites 30 are now open for rain collection, the water removal operations where native habitat is intermixed DNA repair response will be inadequate or unresponsive and with the destructive phragmites common reed. This inven the reed and rhizome will die. Eelgrass has prolific seeding tion is the first actionable technology to solve the phragmites which will circulate in the water bodies and re-establish invasion in coastal regions in the wide and vast areas plants easily once the phragmites are killed. Phragmites necessary to remove all of the invasive plants. Increase of wrack that floats to shore should be monitored for removal algal blooms and the resulting hypoxic events are undenias it appears until all of the surrounding areas phragmites able. The inventor of this technology June Kessler was the reeds have been eradicated. Excess wrack can be moved to first to discover that phragmites wrack is one of the main land and used as mulch around the disabled phragmites contributors to nutrient overloading in water bodies leading reeds. Elimination of phragmites reeds in water has been an to these events where they are present or where they feed impossible task until this invention. History has shown that nutrients into the vortices that lead to the neurotoxic algal entire coastlines and native habitat, eelgrass and mussel beds events. This invention is the answer as it will rapidly reverse have been eliminated by phragmites invasive common reed the current increasing disastrous condition of nutrient poldue to the inability to cause death to the phragmites rhizome luted waters while there is still time. Warming waters and which is now possible with this invention. The resulting rise rising greenhouse gasses are resulting from coastal phragin hypoxic coastal events from algal blooms from increasing mites invasions and they must be eradicated without delay. nutrient loading from phragmites wrack coupled with the Efficacy of this invention and all statements have been destruction of all native coastal infrastructure due to phragdocumented with 20 years of research by the inventor with mites invasions is no longer sustainable and causing dying numerous documented successful field trials conducted with oceans and aquatic wildlife worldwide. both federal and state officials. Efficacy has been proven in

[0034] This invention is suitable for land and coastal repeated documented trials of complete plant destruction as removals. Vehicles, wind, boats, animals and humans, etc herein described. Rapid implementation of this invention is can bring seedlings to coastal areas where it is the most critical for preserving natural habitat for future generations destructive, therefore it is important to eradicate phragmites and protecting water quality for all life itself. It is important from all areas in which it is non-native. In fact after working to cut each reed as an individual to trigger the specific DNA with phragmites for 20 years it is my express opinion the repair response desired that cannot sustain the life of the phragmites needs to be eradicated worldwide as with modplant. FIG. 6 shows a phragmites stand with two indepenem movements the seeds are too easily displaced, they dent runners crisscrossing one another of differing size. The appear to build land and destroy water resources and harm DNA repair response is dictated by the position of the all wildlife and native coastal ecosystems and the excess wounding. Due to the variation in size of each reed they wrack causes toxic algal blooms that kill ith neurotoxins must be treated as individuals when determining the position all aquatic wildlife. This invention circumvents the DNA to damage on the stalk. On runner 80 the phragmites 22 are repair programming which duplicates the rhizome and clearly larger than runner 70 with small 11 phragmites reeds. forces an inadequate repair response to the positional To cause plant death the cutting must be precise as is wounding by a cut noted in this invention to facilitate a rapid required for the invention.

failure in the entire phragmites stand invading on either land,

sea, eelgrass, native plants and shellfish beds. The rapid

implementation, easy operation, non-chemical eco-friendly

nature of this invention advances ecological protection to

new manageable heights and can be implemented in any

large scale global situation. It is rapidly successful in partially degraded areas where native plants, seeds, crusta-ceons, mussels and other aquatic wildlife are still present

and with the lack of chemical usage revolutionizes how we

can protect our native vegetation, water resources and

aquatic wildlife. Nature can repopulate the area cost effectively and quickly from surrounding areas as nature transports new seeds by tides, wind, animal hitch-hiking and in

animal defecation as well as being preserved deep in the

sediments of the phragmites invasion.

[0035] In totally degraded areas where the natural ecosystem has been eliminated it can be implemented rapidly to

stop nutrient loading of water resources from yearly phrag