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1. WO2020114513 - AN ENCODER, A DECODER AND CORRESPONDING METHODS OF BOUNDARY STRENGTH DERIVATION OF DEBLOCKING FILTER

Document

Description

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Claims

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Drawings

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Description

Title of Invention : AN ENCODER, A DECODER AND CORRESPONDING METHODS OF BOUNDARY STRENGTH DERIVATION OF DEBLOCKING FILTER

[0001]
CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
[0002]
This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/776,491, filed on December 07, 2018, entitled “AN ENCODER, A DECODER AND CORRESPONDING METHODS OF DEBLOCKING FILTER ADAPTATION” and U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/792,380, filed on January 14, 2019, entitled “AN ENCODER, A DECODER AND CORRESPONDING METHODSOF DEBLOCKING FILTER ADAPTATION” , both of which applications are incorporated herein by references.

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0003]
Embodiments of the present application (disclosure) generally relate to the field of picture processing and more particularly to an encoder, a decoder, and corresponding methods of boundary strength derivation of deblocking filter.

BACKGROUND

[0004]
Video coding (video encoding and decoding) is used in a wide range of digital video applications, for example broadcast digital TV, video transmission over internet and mobile networks, real-time conversational applications such as video chat, video conferencing, DVD and Blu-ray discs, video content acquisition and editing systems, and camcorders of security applications.
[0005]
The amount of video data needed to depict even a relatively short video can be substantial, which may result in difficulties when the data is to be streamed or otherwise communicated across a communications network with limited bandwidth capacity. Thus, video data is generally compressed before being communicated across modern day telecommunications networks. The size of a video could also be an issue when the video is stored on a storage device because memory resources may be limited. Video compression devices often use software and/or hardware at the source to code the video data prior to transmission or storage, thereby decreasing the quantity of data needed to represent digital video images. The compressed data is then received at the destination by a video decompression device that decodes the video data. With limited network resources and ever increasing demands of higher video quality, improved compression and decompression techniques that improve compression ratio with little to no sacrifice in picture quality are desirable.
[0006]
SUMMARY
[0007]
Embodiments of the present application provide apparatuses and methods for encoding and decoding according to the independent claims.
[0008]
The foregoing and other objects are achieved by the subject matter of the independent claims. Further implementation forms are apparent from the dependent claims, the description and the figures.
[0009]
According to a first aspect the invention relates to a coding method, wherein the coding includes decoding or encoding, the method includes: determining whether at least one of two blocks is a block with a CIIP (or MH) prediction, wherein the two blocks include a first block (block Q) and a second block (block P) , and wherein the two blocks are associated with a boundary. The method also includes: setting a boundary strength (Bs) of the boundary to a first value when at least one of the two blocks is a block with the CIIP; or setting a boundary strength (Bs) of the boundary to a second value when none of the two blocks is a block with the CIIP.
[0010]
The method according to the first aspect of the invention can be performed by the apparatus according to the second aspect of the invention. The apparatus according to the second aspect of the invention includes a determining unit, configured to determine whether at least one of two blocks is predicted by application of combined inter-intra prediction (CIIP) , wherein the two blocks include a first block (block Q) and a second block (block P) , and wherein the two blocks are associated with a boundary. The apparatus according to the second aspect of the invention also includes a setting unit, configured to set a boundary strength (Bs) of the boundary to a first value when at least one of the two blocks is predicted by application of CIIP, and set a boundary strength (Bs) of the boundary to a second value when none of the two blocks is predicted by application of CIIP.
[0011]
Further features and implementation forms of the method according to the second aspect of the invention correspond to the features and implementation forms of the apparatus according to the first aspect of the invention.
[0012]
According to a third aspect the invention relates to an apparatus for decoding a video stream includes a processor and a memory. The memory is storing instructions that cause the processor to perform the method according to the first aspect.
[0013]
According to a forth aspect the invention relates to an apparatus for encoding a video stream includes a processor and a memory. The memory is storing instructions that cause the processor to perform the method according to the first aspect.
[0014]
According to a fifth aspect, a computer-readable storage medium having stored thereon instructions that when executed cause one or more processors configured to code video data is proposed. The instructions cause the one or more processors to perform a method according to the first or second aspect or any possible embodiment of the first aspect.
[0015]
According to a sixth aspect, the invention relates to a computer program comprising program code for performing the method according to the first aspect or any possible embodiment of the first aspect when executed on a computer.
[0016]
According to embodiments of the invention, by setting the boundary strength to the first value (for example, is set to 2) when at least one of the two blocks is a block with the CIIP, the chances of deblock filtering of block edges that are predicted by application of CIIP prediction is increased.
[0017]
Details of one or more embodiments are set forth in the accompanying drawings and the description below. Other features, objects, and advantages will be apparent from the description, drawings, and claims.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0018]
In the following embodiments of the invention are described in more detail with reference to the attached figures and drawings, in which:
[0019]
FIG. 1A is a block diagram showing an example of a video coding system configured to implement embodiments of the invention;
[0020]
FIG. 1B is a block diagram showing another example of a video coding system configured to implement embodiments of the invention;
[0021]
FIG. 2 is a block diagram showing an example of a video encoder configured to implement embodiments of the invention;
[0022]
FIG. 3 is a block diagram showing an example structure of a video decoder configured to implement embodiments of the invention;
[0023]
FIG. 4 is a block diagram illustrating an example of an encoding apparatus or a decoding apparatus;
[0024]
FIG. 5 is a block diagram illustrating another example of an encoding apparatus or a decoding apparatus;
[0025]
FIG. 6A shows an example of all sub block boundaries within a CU applied with combined inter-intra prediction (CIIP) ;
[0026]
FIG. 6B shows an example of P and Q blocks of a boundary;
[0027]
FIG. 7 shows an example of Bs derivation process of embodiment 1;
[0028]
FIG. 8 shows an example of Bs derivation process in VVC;
[0029]
FIG. 9 shows an example of Bs derivation process of embodiment 2;
[0030]
FIG. 10 shows an example of Bs derivation process of embodiment 3;
[0031]
FIG. 11 shows an example of deblock all sub block edges within a CU which overlaps with (aligned with) an 8x8 sample grid;
[0032]
FIG. 12 shows an example of deblock all sub block edges within a CU which overlaps with a 4x4 sample grid;
[0033]
FIG. 13 is a block diagram showing an example structure of an apparatus for derivation process of boundary strength;
[0034]
FIG. 14 is a block diagram showing an example structure of a content supply system 3100 which realizes a content delivery service; and
[0035]
FIG. 15 is a block diagram showing a structure of an example of a terminal device.
[0036]
In the following identical reference signs refer to identical or at least functionally equivalent features if not explicitly specified otherwise.
[0037]
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE EMBODIMENTS
[0038]
In the following description, reference is made to the accompanying figures, which form part of the disclosure, and which show, by way of illustration, specific aspects of embodiments of the invention or specific aspects in which embodiments of the present invention may be used. It is understood that embodiments of the invention may be used in other aspects and comprise structural or logical changes not depicted in the figures. The following detailed description, therefore, is not to be taken in a limiting sense, and the scope of the present invention is defined by the appended claims.
[0039]
For instance, it is understood that a disclosure in connection with a described method may also hold true for a corresponding device or system configured to perform the method and vice versa. For example, if one or a plurality of specific method steps are described, a corresponding device may include one or a plurality of units, e.g. functional units, to perform the described one or plurality of method steps (e.g. one unit performing the one or plurality of steps, or a plurality of units each performing one or more of the plurality of steps) , even if such one or more units are not explicitly described or illustrated in the figures. On the other hand, for example, if a specific apparatus is described based on one or a plurality of units, e.g. functional units, a corresponding method may include one step to perform the functionality of the one or plurality of units (e.g. one step performing the functionality of the one or plurality of units, or a plurality of steps each performing the functionality of one or more of the plurality of units) , even if such one or plurality of steps are not explicitly described or illustrated in the figures. Further, it is understood that the features of the various exemplary embodiments and/or aspects described herein may be combined with each other, unless specifically noted otherwise.
[0040]
Video coding typically refers to the processing of a sequence of pictures, which form the video or video sequence. Instead of the term “picture” the term “frame” or “image” may be used as synonyms in the field of video coding. Video coding (or coding in general) comprises two parts video encoding and video decoding. Video encoding is performed at the source side, typically comprising processing (e.g. by compression) the original video pictures to reduce the amount of data required for representing the video pictures (for more efficient storage and/or transmission) . Video decoding is performed at the destination side and typically comprises the inverse processing compared to the encoder to reconstruct the video pictures. Embodiments referring to “coding” of video pictures (or pictures in general) shall be understood to relate to “encoding” or “decoding” of video pictures or respective video sequences. The combination of the encoding part and the decoding part is also referred to as CODEC (Coding and Decoding) .
[0041]
In case of lossless video coding, the original video pictures can be reconstructed, i.e. the reconstructed video pictures have the same quality as the original video pictures (assuming no transmission loss or other data loss during storage or transmission) . In case of lossy video coding, further compression, e.g. by quantization, is performed, to reduce the amount of data representing the video pictures, which cannot be completely reconstructed at the decoder, i.e. the quality of the reconstructed video pictures is lower or worse compared to the quality of the original video pictures.
[0042]
Several video coding standards belong to the group of “lossy hybrid video codecs” (i.e. combine spatial and temporal prediction in the sample domain and 2D transform coding for applying quantization in the transform domain) . Each picture of a video sequence is typically partitioned into a set of non-overlapping blocks and the coding is typically performed on a block level. In other words, at the encoder the video is typically processed, i.e. encoded, on a block (video block) level, e.g. by using spatial (intra picture) prediction and/or temporal (inter picture) prediction to generate a prediction block, subtracting the prediction block from the current block (block currently processed/to be processed) to obtain a residual block, transforming the residual block and quantizing the residual block in the transform domain to reduce the amount of data to be transmitted (compression) , whereas at the decoder the inverse processing compared to the encoder is applied to the encoded or compressed block to reconstruct the current block for representation. Furthermore, the encoder duplicates the decoder processing loop such that both will generate identical predictions (e.g. intra-and inter predictions) and/or re-constructions for processing, i.e. coding, the subsequent blocks.
[0043]
In the following embodiments of a video coding system 10, a video encoder 20 and a video decoder 30 are described based on Figs. 1 to 3.
[0044]
Fig. 1A is a schematic block diagram illustrating an example coding system 10, e.g. a video coding system 10 (or short coding system 10) that may utilize techniques of this present application. Video encoder 20 (or short encoder 20) and video decoder 30 (or short decoder 30) of video coding system 10 represent examples of devices that may be configured to perform techniques in accordance with various examples described in the present application.
[0045]
As shown in FIG. 1A, the coding system 10 comprises a source device 12 configured to provide encoded picture data 21 e.g. to a destination device 14 for decoding the encoded picture data 13.
[0046]
The source device 12 comprises an encoder 20, and may additionally, i.e. optionally, comprise a picture source 16, a pre-processor (or pre-processing unit) 18, e.g. a picture pre-processor 18, and a communication interface or communication unit 22.
[0047]
The picture source 16 may comprise or be any kind of picture capturing device, for example a camera for capturing a real-world picture, and/or any kind of a picture generating device, for example a computer-graphics processor for generating a computer animated picture, or any kind of other device for obtaining and/or providing a real-world picture, a computer generated picture (e.g. a screen content, a virtual reality (VR) picture) and/or any combination thereof (e.g. an augmented reality (AR) picture) . The picture source may be any kind of memory or storage storing any of the aforementioned pictures.
[0048]
In distinction to the pre-processor 18 and the processing performed by the pre-processing unit 18, the picture or picture data 17 may also be referred to as raw picture or raw picture data 17.
[0049]
Pre-processor 18 is configured to receive the (raw) picture data 17 and to perform pre-processing on the picture data 17 to obtain a pre-processed picture 19 or pre-processed picture data 19. Pre-processing performed by the pre-processor 18 may, e.g., comprise trimming, color format conversion (e.g. from RGB to YCbCr) , color correction, or de-noising. It can be understood that the pre-processing unit 18 may be optional component.
[0050]
The video encoder 20 is configured to receive the pre-processed picture data 19 and provide encoded picture data 21 (further details will be described below, e.g., based on Fig. 2) . Communication interface 22 of the source device 12 may be configured to receive the encoded picture data 21 and to transmit the encoded picture data 21 (or any further processed version thereof) over communication channel 13 to another device, e.g. the destination device 14 or any other device, for storage or direct reconstruction.
[0051]
The destination device 14 comprises a decoder 30 (e.g. a video decoder 30) , and may additionally, i.e. optionally, comprise a communication interface or communication unit 28, a post-processor 32 (or post-processing unit 32) and a display device 34.
[0052]
The communication interface 28 of the destination device 14 is configured receive the encoded picture data 21 (or any further processed version thereof) , e.g. directly from the source device 12 or from any other source, e.g. a storage device, e.g. an encoded picture data storage device, and provide the encoded picture data 21 to the decoder 30.
[0053]
The communication interface 22 and the communication interface 28 may be configured to transmit or receive the encoded picture data 21 or encoded data 13 via a direct communication link between the source device 12 and the destination device 14, e.g. a direct wired or wireless connection, or via any kind of network, e.g. a wired or wireless network or any combination thereof, or any kind of private and public network, or any kind of combination thereof.
[0054]
The communication interface 22 may be, e.g., configured to package the encoded picture data 21 into an appropriate format, e.g. packets, and/or process the encoded picture data using any kind of transmission encoding or processing for transmission over a communication link or communication network.
[0055]
The communication interface 28, forming the counterpart of the communication interface 22, may be, e.g., configured to receive the transmitted data and process the transmission data using any kind of corresponding transmission decoding or processing and/or de-packaging to obtain the encoded picture data 21.
[0056]
Both, communication interface 22 and communication interface 28 may be configured as unidirectional communication interfaces as indicated by the arrow for the communication channel 13 in Fig. 1A pointing from the source device 12 to the destination device 14, or bi-directional communication interfaces, and may be configured, e.g. to send and receive messages, e.g. to set up a connection, to acknowledge and exchange any other information related to the communication link and/or data transmission, e.g. encoded picture data transmission.
[0057]
The decoder 30 is configured to receive the encoded picture data 21 and provide decoded picture data 31 or a decoded picture 31 (further details will be described below, e.g., based on Fig. 3 or Fig. 5) .
[0058]
The post-processor 32 of destination device 14 is configured to post-process the decoded picture data 31 (also called reconstructed picture data) , e.g. the decoded picture 31, to obtain post-processed picture data 33, e.g. a post-processed picture 33. The post-processing performed by the post-processing unit 32 may comprise, e.g. color format conversion (e.g. from YCbCr to RGB) , color correction, trimming, or re-sampling, or any other processing, e.g. for preparing the decoded picture data 31 for display, e.g. by display device 34.
[0059]
The display device 34 of the destination device 14 is configured to receive the post-processed picture data 33 for displaying the picture, e.g. to a user or viewer. The display device 34 may be or comprise any kind of display for representing the reconstructed picture, e.g. an integrated or external display or monitor. The displays may, e.g. comprise liquid crystal displays (LCD) , organic light emitting diodes (OLED) displays, plasma displays, projectors , micro LED displays, liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) , digital light processor (DLP) or any kind of other display.
[0060]
Although Fig. 1A depicts the source device 12 and the destination device 14 as separate devices, embodiments of devices may also comprise both or both functionalities, the source device 12 or corresponding functionality and the destination device 14 or corresponding functionality. In such embodiments the source device 12 or corresponding functionality and the destination device 14 or corresponding functionality may be implemented using the same hardware and/or software or by separate hardware and/or software or any combination thereof.
[0061]
As will be apparent for the skilled person based on the description, the existence and (exact) split of functionalities of the different units or functionalities within the source device 12 and/or destination device 14 as shown in Fig. 1A may vary depending on the actual device and application.
[0062]
The encoder 20 (e.g. a video encoder 20) or the decoder 30 (e.g. a video decoder 30) or both encoder 20 and decoder 30 may be implemented via processing circuitry as shown in Fig. 1B, such as one or more microprocessors, digital signal processors (DSPs) , application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) , field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) , discrete logic, hardware, video coding dedicated or any combinations thereof. The encoder 20 may be implemented via processing circuitry 46 to embody the various modules as discussed with respect to encoder 20of FIG. 2 and/or any other encoder system or subsystem described herein. The decoder 30 may be implemented via processing circuitry 46 to embody the various modules as discussed with respect to decoder 30 of FIG. 3 and/or any other decoder system or subsystem described herein. The processing circuitry may be configured to perform the various operations as discussed later. As shown in fig. 5, if the techniques are implemented partially in software, a device may store instructions for the software in a suitable, non-transitory computer-readable storage medium and may execute the instructions in hardware using one or more processors to perform the techniques of this disclosure. Either of video encoder 20 and video decoder 30 may be integrated as part of a combined encoder/decoder (CODEC) in a single device, for example, as shown in Fig. 1B.
[0063]
Source device 12 and destination device 14 may comprise any of a wide range of devices, including any kind of handheld or stationary devices, e.g. notebook or laptop computers, mobile phones, smart phones, tablets or tablet computers, cameras, desktop computers, set-top boxes, televisions, display devices, digital media players, video gaming consoles, video streaming devices (such as content services servers or content delivery servers) , broadcast receiver device, broadcast transmitter device, or the like and may use no or any kind of operating system. In some cases, the source device 12 and the destination device 14 may be equipped for wireless communication. Thus, the source device 12 and the destination device 14 may be wireless communication devices.
[0064]
In some cases, video coding system 10 illustrated in Fig. 1A is merely an example and the techniques of the present application may apply to video coding settings (e.g., video encoding or video decoding) that do not necessarily include any data communication between the encoding and decoding devices. In other examples, data is retrieved from a local memory, streamed over a network, or the like. A video encoding device may encode and store data to memory, and/or a video decoding device may retrieve and decode data from memory. In some examples, the encoding and decoding is performed by devices that do not communicate with one another, but simply encode data to memory and/or retrieve and decode data from memory.
[0065]
For convenience of description, embodiments of the invention are described herein, for example, by reference to High-Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) or to the reference software of Versatile Video coding (VVC) , the next generation video coding standard developed by the Joint Collaboration Team on Video Coding (JCT-VC) of ITU-T Video Coding Experts Group (VCEG) and ISO/IEC Motion Picture Experts Group (MPEG) . One of ordinary skill in the art will understand that embodiments of the invention are not limited to HEVC or VVC.
[0066]
Encoder and Encoding Method
[0067]
Fig. 2 shows a schematic block diagram of an example video encoder 20 that is configured to implement the techniques of the present application. In the example of Fig. 2, the video encoder 20 comprises an input 201 (or input interface 201) , a residual calculation unit 204, a transform processing unit 206, a quantization unit 208, an inverse quantization unit 210, and inverse transform processing unit 212, a reconstruction unit 214, a loop filter unit 220, a decoded picture buffer (DPB) 230, a mode selection unit 260, an entropy encoding unit 270 and an output 272 (or output interface 272) . The mode selection unit 260 may include an inter prediction unit 244, an intra prediction unit 254 and a partitioning unit 262. Inter prediction unit 244 may include a motion estimation unit and a motion compensation unit (not shown) . A video encoder 20 as shown in Fig. 2 may also be referred to as hybrid video encoder or a video encoder according to a hybrid video codec.
[0068]
The residual calculation unit 204, the transform processing unit 206, the quantization unit 208, the mode selection unit 260 may be referred to as forming a forward signal path of the encoder 20, whereas the inverse quantization unit 210, the inverse transform processing unit 212, the reconstruction unit 214, the buffer 216, the loop filter 220, the decoded picture buffer (DPB) 230, the inter prediction unit 244 and the intra-prediction unit 254 may be referred to as forming a backward signal path of the video encoder 20, wherein the backward signal path of the video encoder 20 corresponds to the signal path of the decoder (see video decoder 30 in Fig. 3) . The inverse quantization unit 210, the inverse transform processing unit 212, the reconstruction unit 214, the loop filter 220, the decoded picture buffer (DPB) 230, the inter prediction unit 244 and the intra-prediction unit 254 are also referred to forming the “built-in decoder” of video encoder 20.
[0069]
Pictures &Picture Partitioning (Pictures &Blocks)
[0070]
The encoder 20 may be configured to receive, e.g. via input 201, a picture 17 (or picture data 17) , e.g. picture of a sequence of pictures forming a video or video sequence. The received picture or picture data may also be a pre-processed picture 19 (or pre-processed picture data 19) . For sake of simplicity the following description refers to the picture 17. The picture 17 may also be referred to as current picture or picture to be coded (in particular in video coding to distinguish the current picture from other pictures, e.g. previously encoded and/or decoded pictures of the same video sequence, i.e. the video sequence which also comprises the current picture) .
[0071]
A (digital) picture is or can be regarded as a two-dimensional array or matrix of samples with intensity values. A sample in the array may also be referred to as pixel (short form of picture element) or a pel. The number of samples in horizontal and vertical direction (or axis) of the array or picture define the size and/or resolution of the picture. For representation of color, typically three color components are employed, i.e. the picture may be represented or include three sample arrays. In RBG format or color space a picture comprises a corresponding red, green and blue sample array. However, in video coding each pixel is typically represented in a luminance and chrominance format or color space, e.g. YCbCr, which comprises a luminance component indicated by Y (sometimes also L is used instead) and two chrominance components indicated by Cb and Cr. The luminance (or short luma) component Y represents the brightness or grey level intensity (e.g. like in a grey-scale picture) , while the two chrominance (or short chroma) components Cb and Cr represent the chromaticity or color information components. Accordingly, a picture in YCbCr format comprises a luminance sample array of luminance sample values (Y) , and two chrominance sample arrays of chrominance values (Cb and Cr) . Pictures in RGB format may be converted or transformed into YCbCr format and vice versa, the process is also known as color transformation or conversion. If a picture is monochrome, the picture may comprise only a luminance sample array. Accordingly, a picture may be, for example, an array of luma samples in monochrome format or an array of luma samples and two corresponding arrays of chroma samples in 4: 2: 0, 4: 2: 2, and 4: 4: 4 colour format.
[0072]
Embodiments of the video encoder 20 may comprise a picture partitioning unit (not depicted in Fig. 2) configured to partition the picture 17 into a plurality of (typically non-overlapping) picture blocks 203. These blocks may also be referred to as root blocks, macro blocks (H. 264/AVC) or coding tree blocks (CTB) or coding tree units (CTU) (H. 265/HEVC and VVC) . The picture partitioning unit may be configured to use the same block size for all pictures of a video sequence and the corresponding grid defining the block size, or to change the block size between pictures or subsets or groups of pictures, and partition each picture into the corresponding blocks.
[0073]
In further embodiments, the video encoder may be configured to receive directly a block 203 of the picture 17, e.g. one, several or all blocks forming the picture 17. The picture block 203 may also be referred to as current picture block or picture block to be coded.
[0074]
Like the picture 17, the picture block 203 again is or can be regarded as a two-dimensional array or matrix of samples with intensity values (sample values) , although of smaller dimension than the picture 17. In other words, the block 203 may comprise, e.g., one sample array (e.g. a luma array in case of a monochrome picture 17, or a luma or chroma array in case of a color picture) or three sample arrays (e.g. a luma and two chroma arrays in case of a color picture 17) or any other number and/or kind of arrays depending on the color format applied. The number of samples in horizontal and vertical direction (or axis) of the block 203 define the size of block 203. Accordingly, a block may, for example, an MxN (M-column by N-row) array of samples, or an MxN array of transform coefficients.
[0075]
Embodiments of the video encoder 20 as shown in Fig. 2 may be configured encode the picture 17 block by block, e.g. the encoding and prediction is performed per block 203.
[0076]
Residual Calculation
[0077]
The residual calculation unit 204 may be configured to calculate a residual block 205 (also referred to as residual 205) based on the picture block 203 and a prediction block 265 (further details about the prediction block 265 are provided later) , e.g. by subtracting sample values of the prediction block 265 from sample values of the picture block 203, sample by sample (pixel by pixel) to obtain the residual block 205 in the sample domain.
[0078]
Transform
[0079]
The transform processing unit 206 may be configured to apply a transform, e.g. a discrete cosine transform (DCT) or discrete sine transform (DST) , on the sample values of the residual block 205 to obtain transform coefficients 207 in a transform domain. The transform coefficients 207 may also be referred to as transform residual coefficients and represent the residual block 205 in the transform domain.
[0080]
The transform processing unit 206 may be configured to apply integer approximations of DCT/DST, such as the transforms specified for H. 265/HEVC. Compared to an orthogonal DCT transform, such integer approximations are typically scaled by a certain factor. In order to preserve the norm of the residual block which is processed by forward and inverse transforms, additional scaling factors are applied as part of the transform process. The scaling factors are typically chosen based on certain constraints like scaling factors being a power of two for shift operations, bit depth of the transform coefficients, tradeoff between accuracy and implementation costs, etc. Specific scaling factors are, for example, specified for the inverse transform, e.g. by inverse transform processing unit 212 (and the corresponding inverse transform, e.g. by inverse transform processing unit 312 at video decoder 30) and corresponding scaling factors for the forward transform, e.g. by transform processing unit 206, at an encoder 20 may be specified accordingly.
[0081]
Embodiments of the video encoder 20 (respectively transform processing unit 206) may be configured to output transform parameters, e.g. a type of transform or transforms, e.g. directly or encoded or compressed via the entropy encoding unit 270, so that, e.g., the video decoder 30 may receive and use the transform parameters for decoding.
[0082]
Quantization
[0083]
The quantization unit 208 may be configured to quantize the transform coefficients 207 to obtain quantized coefficients 209, e.g. by applying scalar quantization or vector quantization. The quantized coefficients 209 may also be referred to as quantized transform coefficients 209 or quantized residual coefficients 209.
[0084]
The quantization process may reduce the bit depth associated with some or all of the transform coefficients 207. For example, an n-bit transform coefficient may be rounded down to an m-bit Transform coefficient during quantization, where n is greater than m. The degree of quantization may be modified by adjusting a quantization parameter (QP) . For example for scalar quantization, different scaling may be applied to achieve finer or coarser quantization. Smaller quantization step sizes correspond to finer quantization, whereas larger quantization step sizes correspond to coarser quantization. The applicable quantization step size may be indicated by a quantization parameter (QP) . The quantization parameter may for example be an index to a predefined set of applicable quantization step sizes. For example, small quantization parameters may correspond to fine quantization (small quantization step sizes) and large quantization parameters may correspond to coarse quantization (large quantization step sizes) or vice versa. The quantization may include division by a quantization step size and a corresponding and/or the inverse dequantization, e.g. by inverse quantization unit 210, may include multiplication by the quantization step size. Embodiments according to some standards, e.g. HEVC, may be configured to use a quantization parameter to determine the quantization step size. Generally, the quantization step size may be calculated based on a quantization parameter using a fixed point approximation of an equation including division. Additional scaling factors may be introduced for quantization and dequantization to restore the norm of the residual block, which might get modified because of the scaling used in the fixed point approximation of the equation for quantization step size and quantization parameter. In one example implementation, the scaling of the inverse transform and dequantization might be combined. Alternatively, customized quantization tables may be used and signaled from an encoder to a decoder, e.g. in a bitstream. The quantization is a lossy operation, wherein the loss increases with increasing quantization step sizes.
[0085]
Embodiments of the video encoder 20 (respectively quantization unit 208) may be configured to output quantization parameters (QP) , e.g. directly or encoded via the entropy encoding unit 270, so that, e.g., the video decoder 30 may receive and apply the quantization parameters for decoding.
[0086]
Inverse Quantization
[0087]
The inverse quantization unit 210 is configured to apply the inverse quantization of the quantization unit 208 on the quantized coefficients to obtain dequantized coefficients 211, e.g. by applying the inverse of the quantization scheme applied by the quantization unit 208 based on or using the same quantization step size as the quantization unit 208. The dequantized coefficients 211 may also be referred to as dequantized residual coefficients 211 and correspond -although typically not identical to the transform coefficients due to the loss by quantization -to the transform coefficients 207.
[0088]
Inverse Transform
[0089]
The inverse transform processing unit 212 is configured to apply the inverse transform of the transform applied by the transform processing unit 206, e.g. an inverse discrete cosine transform (DCT) or inverse discrete sine transform (DST) or other inverse transforms, to obtain a reconstructed residual block 213 (or corresponding dequantized coefficients 213) in the sample domain. The reconstructed residual block 213 may also be referred to as transform block 213.
[0090]
Reconstruction
[0091]
The reconstruction unit 214 (e.g. adder or summer 214) is configured to add the transform block 213 (i.e. reconstructed residual block 213) to the prediction block 265 to obtain a reconstructed block 215 in the sample domain, e.g. by adding –sample by sample -the sample values of the reconstructed residual block 213 and the sample values of the prediction block 265.
[0092]
Filtering
[0093]
The loop filter unit 220 (or short “loop filter” 220) , is configured to filter the reconstructed block 215 to obtain a filtered block 221, or in general, to filter reconstructed samples to obtain filtered samples. The loop filter unit is, e.g., configured to smooth pixel transitions, or otherwise improve the video quality. The loop filter unit 220 may comprise one or more loop filters such as a de-blocking filter, a sample-adaptive offset (SAO) filter or one or more other filters, e.g. a bilateral filter, an adaptive loop filter (ALF) , a sharpening, a smoothing filters or a collaborative filters, or any combination thereof. Although the loop filter unit 220 is shown in FIG. 2 as being an in loop filter, in other configurations, the loop filter unit 220 may be implemented as a post loop filter. The filtered block 221 may also be referred to as filtered reconstructed block 221.
[0094]
Embodiments of the video encoder 20 (respectively loop filter unit 220) may be configured to output loop filter parameters (such as sample adaptive offset information) , e.g. directly or encoded via the entropy encoding unit 270, so that, e.g., a decoder 30 may receive and apply the same loop filter parameters or respective loop filters for decoding.
[0095]
Decoded Picture Buffer
[0096]
The decoded picture buffer (DPB) 230 may be a memory that stores reference pictures, or in general reference picture data, for encoding video data by video encoder 20. The DPB 230 may be formed by any of a variety of memory devices, such as dynamic random access memory (DRAM) , including synchronous DRAM (SDRAM) , magnetoresistive RAM (MRAM) , resistive RAM (RRAM) , or other types of memory devices. The decoded picture buffer (DPB) 230 may be configured to store one or more filtered blocks 221. The decoded picture buffer 230 may be further configured to store other previously filtered blocks, e.g. previously reconstructed and filtered blocks 221, of the same current picture or of different pictures, e.g. previously reconstructed pictures, and may provide complete previously reconstructed, i.e. decoded, pictures (and corresponding reference blocks and samples) and/or a partially reconstructed current picture (and corresponding reference blocks and samples) , for example for inter prediction. The decoded picture buffer (DPB) 230 may be also configured to store one or more unfiltered reconstructed blocks 215, or in general unfiltered reconstructed samples, e.g. if the reconstructed block 215 is not filtered by loop filter unit 220, or any other further processed version of the reconstructed blocks or samples.
[0097]
Mode Selection (Partitioning &Prediction)
[0098]
The mode selection unit 260 comprises partitioning unit 262, inter-prediction unit 244 and intra-prediction unit 254, and is configured to receive or obtain original picture data, e.g. an original block 203 (current block 203 of the current picture 17) , and reconstructed picture data, e.g. filtered and/or unfiltered reconstructed samples or blocks of the same (current) picture and/or from one or a plurality of previously decoded pictures, e.g. from decoded picture buffer 230 or other buffers (e.g. line buffer, not shown) .. The reconstructed picture data is used as reference picture data for prediction, e.g. inter-prediction or intra-prediction, to obtain a prediction block 265 or predictor 265.
[0099]
Mode selection unit 260 may be configured to determine or select a partitioning for a current block prediction mode (including no partitioning) and a prediction mode (e.g. an intra or inter prediction mode) and generate a corresponding prediction block 265, which is used for the calculation of the residual block 205 and for the reconstruction of the reconstructed block 215.
[0100]
Embodiments of the mode selection unit 260 may be configured to select the partitioning and the prediction mode (e.g. from those supported by or available for mode selection unit 260) , which provide the best match or in other words the minimum residual (minimum residual means better compression for transmission or storage) , or a minimum signaling overhead (minimum signaling overhead means better compression for transmission or storage) , or which considers or balances both. The mode selection unit 260 may be configured to determine the partitioning and prediction mode based on rate distortion optimization (RDO) , i.e. select the prediction mode which provides a minimum rate distortion. Terms like “best” , “minimum” , “optimum” etc. in this context do not necessarily refer to an overall “best” , “minimum” , “optimum” , etc. but may also refer to the fulfillment of a termination or selection criterion like a value exceeding or falling below a threshold or other constraints leading potentially to a “sub-optimum selection” but reducing complexity and processing time.
[0101]
In other words, the partitioning unit 262 may be configured to partition the block 203 into smaller block partitions or sub-blocks (which form again blocks) , e.g. iteratively using quad-tree-partitioning (QT) , binary partitioning (BT) or triple-tree-partitioning (TT) or any combination thereof, and to perform, e.g., the prediction for each of the block partitions or sub-blocks, wherein the mode selection comprises the selection of the tree-structure of the partitioned block 203 and the prediction modes are applied to each of the block partitions or sub-blocks.
[0102]
In the following the partitioning (e.g. by partitioning unit 260) and prediction processing (by inter-prediction unit 244 and intra-prediction unit 254) performed by an example video encoder 20 will be explained in more detail.
[0103]
Partitioning
[0104]
The partitioning unit 262 may partition (or split) a current block 203 into smaller partitions, e.g. smaller blocks of square or rectangular size. These smaller blocks (which may also be referred to as sub-blocks) may be further partitioned into even smaller partitions. This is also referred to tree-partitioning or hierarchical tree-partitioning, wherein a root block, e.g. at root tree-level 0 (hierarchy-level 0, depth 0) , may be recursively partitioned, e.g. partitioned into two or more blocks of a next lower tree-level, e.g. nodes at tree-level 1 (hierarchy-level 1, depth 1) , wherein these blocks may be again partitioned into two or more blocks of a next lower level, e.g. tree-level 2 (hierarchy-level 2, depth 2) , etc. until the partitioning is terminated, e.g. because a termination criterion is fulfilled, e.g. a maximum tree depth or minimum block size is reached. Blocks which are not further partitioned are also referred to as leaf-blocks or leaf nodes of the tree. A tree using partitioning into two partitions is referred to as binary-tree (BT) , a tree using partitioning into three partitions is referred to as ternary-tree (TT) , and a tree using partitioning into four partitions is referred to as quad-tree (QT) .
[0105]
As mentioned before, the term “block” as used herein may be a portion, in particular a square or rectangular portion, of a picture. With reference, for example, to HEVC and VVC, the block may be or correspond to a coding tree unit (CTU) , a coding unit (CU) , prediction unit (PU) , and transform unit (TU) and/or to the corresponding blocks, e.g. a coding tree block (CTB) , a coding block (CB) , a transform block (TB) or prediction block (PB) .
[0106]
For example, a coding tree unit (CTU) may be or comprise a CTB of luma samples, two corresponding CTBs of chroma samples of a picture that has three sample arrays, or a CTB of samples of a monochrome picture or a picture that is coded using three separate colour planes and syntax structures used to code the samples. Correspondingly, a coding tree block (CTB) may be an NxN block of samples for some value of N such that the division of a component into CTBs is a partitioning. A coding unit (CU) may be or comprise a coding block of luma samples, two corresponding coding blocks of chroma samples of a picture that has three sample arrays, or a coding block of samples of a monochrome picture or a picture that is coded using three separate colour planes and syntax structures used to code the samples. Correspondingly a coding block (CB) may be an MxN block of samples for some values of M and N such that the division of a CTB into coding blocks is a partitioning.
[0107]
In embodiments, e.g., according to HEVC, a coding tree unit (CTU) may be split into CUs by using a quad-tree structure denoted as coding tree. The decision whether to code a picture area using inter-picture (temporal) or intra-picture (spatial) prediction is made at the CU level. Each CU can be further split into one, two or four PUs according to the PU splitting type. Inside one PU, the same prediction process is applied and the relevant information is transmitted to the decoder on a PU basis. After obtaining the residual block by applying the prediction process based on the PU splitting type, a CU can be partitioned into transform units (TUs) according to another quadtree structure similar to the coding tree for the CU.
[0108]
In embodiments, e.g., according to the latest video coding standard currently in development, which is referred to as Versatile Video Coding (VVC) , Quad-tree and binary tree (QTBT) partitioning is used to partition a coding block. In the QTBT block structure, a CU can have either a square or rectangular shape. For example, a coding tree unit (CTU) is first partitioned by a quadtree structure. The quadtree leaf nodes are further partitioned by a binary tree or ternary (or triple) tree structure. The partitioning tree leaf nodes are called coding units (CUs) , and that segmentation is used for prediction and transform processing without any further partitioning. This means that the CU, PU and TU have the same block size in the QTBT coding block structure. In parallel, multiple partition, for example, triple tree partition was also proposed to be used together with the QTBT block structure.
[0109]
In one example, the mode selection unit 260 of video encoder 20 may be configured to perform any combination of the partitioning techniques described herein.
[0110]
As described above, the video encoder 20 is configured to determine or select the best or an optimum prediction mode from a set of (pre-determined) prediction modes. The set of prediction modes may comprise, e.g., intra-prediction modes and/or inter-prediction modes.
[0111]
Intra-Prediction
[0112]
The set of intra-prediction modes may comprise 35 different intra-prediction modes, e.g. non-directional modes like DC (or mean) mode and planar mode, or directional modes, e.g. as defined in HEVC, or may comprise 67 different intra-prediction modes, e.g. non-directional modes like DC (or mean) mode and planar mode, or directional modes, e.g. as defined for VVC.
[0113]
The intra-prediction unit 254 is configured to use reconstructed samples of neighboring blocks of the same current picture to generate an intra-prediction block 265 according to an intra-prediction mode of the set of intra-prediction modes.
[0114]
The intra prediction unit 254 (or in general the mode selection unit 260) is further configured to output intra-prediction parameters (or in general information indicative of the selected intra prediction mode for the block) to the entropy encoding unit 270 in form of syntax elements 266 for inclusion into the encoded picture data 21, so that, e.g., the video decoder 30 may receive and use the prediction parameters for decoding.
[0115]
Inter-Prediction
[0116]
The set of (or possible) inter-prediction modes depends on the available reference pictures (i.e. previous at least partially decoded pictures, e.g. stored in DBP 230) and other inter-prediction parameters, e.g. whether the whole reference picture or only a part, e.g. a search window area around the area of the current block, of the reference picture is used for searching for a best matching reference block, and/or e.g. whether pixel interpolation is applied, e.g. half/semi-pel and/or quarter-pel interpolation, or not.
[0117]
Additional to the above prediction modes, skip mode and/or direct mode may be applied.
[0118]
The inter prediction unit 244 may include a motion estimation (ME) unit and a motion compensation (MC) unit (both not shown in Fig. 2) . The motion estimation unit may be configured to receive or obtain the picture block 203 (current picture block 203 of the current picture 17) and a decoded picture 231, or at least one or a plurality of previously reconstructed blocks, e.g. reconstructed blocks of one or a plurality of other/different previously decoded pictures 231, for motion estimation. E. g. a video sequence may comprise the current picture and the previously decoded pictures 231, or in other words, the current picture and the previously decoded pictures 231 may be part of or form a sequence of pictures forming a video sequence.
[0119]
The encoder 20 may, e.g., be configured to select a reference block from a plurality of reference blocks of the same or different pictures of the plurality of other pictures and provide a reference picture (or reference picture index) and/or an offset (spatial offset) between the position (x, y coordinates) of the reference block and the position of the current block as inter prediction parameters to the motion estimation unit. This offset is also called motion vector (MV) .
[0120]
The motion compensation unit is configured to obtain, e.g. receive, an inter prediction parameter and to perform inter prediction based on or using the inter prediction parameter to obtain an inter prediction block 265. Motion compensation, performed by the motion compensation unit, may involve fetching or generating the prediction block based on the motion/block vector determined by motion estimation, possibly performing interpolations to sub-pixel precision. Interpolation filtering may generate additional pixel samples from known pixel samples, thus potentially increasing the number of candidate prediction blocks that may be used to code a picture block. Upon receiving the motion vector for the PU of the current picture block, the motion compensation unit may locate the prediction block to which the motion vector points in one of the reference picture lists.
[0121]
Motion compensation unit may also generate syntax elements associated with the blocks and the video slice for use by video decoder 30 in decoding the picture blocks of the video slice.
[0122]
Entropy Coding
[0123]
The entropy encoding unit 270 is configured to apply, for example, an entropy encoding algorithm or scheme (e.g. a variable length coding (VLC) scheme, an context adaptive VLC scheme (CAVLC) , an arithmetic coding scheme, a binarization, a context adaptive binary arithmetic coding (CABAC) , syntax-based context-adaptive binary arithmetic coding (SBAC) , probability interval partitioning entropy (PIPE) coding or another entropy encoding methodology or technique) or bypass (no compression) on the quantized coefficients 209, inter prediction parameters, intra prediction parameters, loop filter parameters and/or other syntax elements to obtain encoded picture data 21 which can be output via the output 272, e.g. in the form of an encoded bitstream 21, so that, e.g., the video decoder 30 may receive and use the parameters for decoding, . The encoded bitstream 21 may be transmitted to video decoder 30, or stored in a memory for later transmission or retrieval by video decoder 30.
[0124]
Other structural variations of the video encoder 20 can be used to encode the video stream. For example, a non-transform based encoder 20 can quantize the residual signal directly without the transform processing unit 206 for certain blocks or frames. In another implementation, an encoder 20 can have the quantization unit 208 and the inverse quantization unit 210 combined into a single unit.
[0125]
Decoder and Decoding Method
[0126]
Fig. 3 shows an example of a video decoder 30 that is configured to implement the techniques of this present application. The video decoder 30 is configured to receive encoded picture data 21 (e.g. encoded bitstream 21) , e.g. encoded by encoder 20, to obtain a decoded picture 331. The encoded picture data or bitstream comprises information for decoding the encoded picture data, e.g. data that represents picture blocks of an encoded video slice and associated syntax elements.
[0127]
In the example of Fig. 3, the decoder 30 comprises an entropy decoding unit 304, an inverse quantization unit 310, an inverse transform processing unit 312, a reconstruction unit 314 (e.g. a summer 314) , a loop filter 320, a decoded picture buffer (DBP) 330, an inter prediction unit 344 and an intra prediction unit 354. Inter prediction unit 344 may be or include a motion compensation unit. Video decoder 30 may, in some examples, perform a decoding pass generally reciprocal to the encoding pass described with respect to video encoder 100 from FIG. 2.
[0128]
As explained with regard to the encoder 20, the inverse quantization unit 210, the inverse transform processing unit 212, the reconstruction unit 214 the loop filter 220, the decoded picture buffer (DPB) 230, the inter prediction unit 344 and the intra prediction unit 354 are also referred to as forming the “built-in decoder” of video encoder 20. Accordingly, the inverse quantization unit 310 may be identical in function to the inverse quantization unit 110, the inverse transform processing unit 312 may be identical in function to the inverse transform processing unit 212, the reconstruction unit 314 may be identical in function to reconstruction unit 214, the loop filter 320 may be identical in function to the loop filter 220, and the decoded picture buffer 330 may be identical in function to the decoded picture buffer 230. Therefore, the explanations provided for the respective units and functions of the video 20 encoder apply correspondingly to the respective units and functions of the video decoder 30.
[0129]
Entropy Decoding
[0130]
The entropy decoding unit 304 is configured to parse the bitstream 21 (or in general encoded picture data 21) and perform, for example, entropy decoding to the encoded picture data 21 to obtain, e.g., quantized coefficients 309 and/or decoded coding parameters (not shown in Fig. 3) , e.g. any or all of inter prediction parameters (e.g. reference picture index and motion vector) , intra prediction parameter (e.g. intra prediction mode or index) , transform parameters, quantization parameters, loop filter parameters, and/or other syntax elements. Entropy decoding unit 304 maybe configured to apply the decoding algorithms or schemes corresponding to the encoding schemes as described with regard to the entropy encoding unit 270 of the encoder 20. Entropy decoding unit 304 may be further configured to provide inter prediction parameters, intra prediction parameter and/or other syntax elements to the mode selection unit 360 and other parameters to other units of the decoder 30. Video decoder 30 may receive the syntax elements at the video slice level and/or the video block level.
[0131]
Inverse Quantization
[0132]
The inverse quantization unit 310 may be configured to receive quantization parameters (QP) (or in general information related to the inverse quantization) and quantized coefficients from the encoded picture data 21 (e.g. by parsing and/or decoding, e.g. by entropy decoding unit 304) and to apply based on the quantization parameters an inverse quantization on the decoded quantized coefficients 309 to obtain dequantized coefficients 311, which may also be referred to as transform coefficients 311. The inverse quantization process may include use of a quantization parameter determined by video encoder 20 for each video block in the video slice to determine a degree of quantization and, likewise, a degree of inverse quantization that should be applied.
[0133]
Inverse Transform
[0134]
Inverse transform processing unit 312 may be configured to receive dequantized coefficients 311, also referred to as transform coefficients 311, and to apply a transform to the dequantized coefficients 311 in order to obtain reconstructed residual blocks 213 in the sample domain. The reconstructed residual blocks 213 may also be referred to as transform blocks 313. The transform may be an inverse transform, e.g., an inverse DCT, an inverse DST, an inverse integer transform, or a conceptually similar inverse transform process. The inverse transform processing unit 312 may be further configured to receive transform parameters or corresponding information from the encoded picture data 21 (e.g. by parsing and/or decoding, e.g. by entropy decoding unit 304) to determine the transform to be applied to the dequantized coefficients 311.
[0135]
Reconstruction
[0136]
The reconstruction unit 314 (e.g. adder or summer 314) may be configured to add the reconstructed residual block 313, to the prediction block 365 to obtain a reconstructed block 315 in the sample domain, e.g. by adding the sample values of the reconstructed residual block 313 and the sample values of the prediction block 365.
[0137]
Filtering
[0138]
The loop filter unit 320 (either in the coding loop or after the coding loop) is configured to filter the reconstructed block 315 to obtain a filtered block 321, e.g. to smooth pixel transitions, or otherwise improve the video quality. The loop filter unit 320 may comprise one or more loop filters such as a de-blocking filter, a sample-adaptive offset (SAO) filter or one or more other filters, e.g. a bilateral filter, an adaptive loop filter (ALF) , a sharpening, a smoothing filters or a collaborative filters, or any combination thereof. Although the loop filter unit 320 is shown in FIG. 3 as being an in loop filter, in other configurations, the loop filter unit 320 may be implemented as a post loop filter.
[0139]
Decoded Picture Buffer
[0140]
The decoded video blocks 321 of a picture are then stored in decoded picture buffer 330, which stores the decoded pictures 331 as reference pictures for subsequent motion compensation for other pictures and/or for output respectively display.
[0141]
The decoder 30 is configured to output the decoded picture 311, e.g. via output 312, for presentation or viewing to a user.
[0142]
Prediction
[0143]
The inter prediction unit 344 may be identical to the inter prediction unit 244 (in particular to the motion compensation unit) and the intra prediction unit 354 may be identical to the inter prediction unit 254 in function, and performs split or partitioning decisions and prediction based on the partitioning and/or prediction parameters or respective information received from the encoded picture data 21 (e.g. by parsing and/or decoding, e.g. by entropy decoding unit 304) . Mode selection unit 360 may be configured to perform the prediction (intra or inter prediction) per block based on reconstructed pictures, blocks or respective samples (filtered or unfiltered) to obtain the prediction block 365.
[0144]
When the video slice is coded as an intra coded (I) slice, intra prediction unit 354 of mode selection unit 360 is configured to generate prediction block 365 for a picture block of the current video slice based on a signaled intra prediction mode and data from previously decoded blocks of the current picture. When the video picture is coded as an inter coded (i.e., B, or P) slice, inter prediction unit 344 (e.g. motion compensation unit) of mode selection unit 360 is configured to produce prediction blocks 365 for a video block of the current video slice based on the motion vectors and other syntax elements received from entropy decoding unit 304. For inter prediction, the prediction blocks may be produced from one of the reference pictures within one of the reference picture lists. Video decoder 30 may construct the reference frame lists, List 0 and List 1, using default construction techniques based on reference pictures stored in DPB 330.
[0145]
Mode selection unit 360 is configured to determine the prediction information for a video block of the current video slice by parsing the motion vectors and other syntax elements, and uses the prediction information to produce the prediction blocks for the current video block being decoded. For example, the mode selection unit 360 uses some of the received syntax elements to determine a prediction mode (e.g., intra or inter prediction) used to code the video blocks of the video slice, an inter prediction slice type (e.g., B slice, P slice, or GPB slice) , construction information for one or more of the reference picture lists for the slice, motion vectors for each inter encoded video block of the slice, inter prediction status for each inter coded video block of the slice, and other information to decode the video blocks in the current video slice.
[0146]
Other variations of the video decoder 30 can be used to decode the encoded picture data 21. For example, the decoder 30 can produce the output video stream without the loop filtering unit 320. For example, a non-transform based decoder 30 can inverse-quantize the residual signal directly without the inverse-transform processing unit 312 for certain blocks or frames. In another implementation, the video decoder 30 can have the inverse-quantization unit 310 and the inverse-transform processing unit 312 combined into a single unit.
[0147]
It should be understood that, in the encoder 20 and the decoder 30, a processing result of a current step may be further processed and then output to the next step. For example, after interpolation filtering, motion vector derivation or loop filtering, a further operation, such as Clip or shift, may be performed on the processing result of the interpolation filtering, motion vector derivation or loop filtering.
[0148]
It should be noted that further operations may be applied to the derived motion vectors of current block (including but not limit to control point motion vectors of affine mode, sub-block motion vectors in affine, planar, ATMVP modes, temporal motion vectors, and so on) . For example, the value of motion vector is constrained to a predefined range according to its representing bit. If the representing bit of motion vector is bitDepth, then the range is -2^ (bitDepth-1) ~ 2^ (bitDepth-1) -1, where “^” means exponentiation. For example, if bitDepth is set equal to 16, the range is -32768 ~ 32767; if bitDepth is set equal to 18, the range is -131072~131071. For example, the value of the derived motion vector (e.g. the MVs of four 4x4 sub-blocks within one 8x8 block) is constrained such that the max difference between integer parts of the four 4x4 sub-block MVs is no more than N pixels, such as no more than 1 pixel.
[0149]
Here provides two methods for constraining the motion vector according to the bitDepth.
[0150]
Method 1: remove the overflow MSB (most significant bit) by flowing operations
[0151]
ux= (mvx+2 bitDepth) %2 bitDepth (1)
[0152]
mvx = (ux >= 2 bitDepth-1) ? (ux -2 bitDepth) : ux (2)
[0153]
uy= (mvy+2 bitDepth) %2 bitDepth (3)
[0154]
mvy = (uy >= 2 bitDepth-1) ? (uy -2 bitDepth) : uy (4)
[0155]
where mvx is a horizontal component of a motion vector of an image block or a sub-block, mvy is a vertical component of a motion vector of an image block or a sub-block, and ux and uy indicates an intermediate value;
[0156]
For example, if the value of mvx is -32769, after applying formula (1) and (2) , the resulting value is 32767. In computer system, decimal numbers are stored as two’s complement. The two’s complement of -32769 is 1, 0111, 1111, 1111, 1111 (17 bits) , then the MSB is discarded, so the resulting two’s complement is 0111, 1111, 1111, 1111 (decimal number is 32767) , which is same as the output by applying formula (1) and (2) .
[0157]
ux= (mvpx + mvdx +2 bitDepth) %2 bitDepth (5)
[0158]
mvx = (ux >= 2 bitDepth-1) ? (ux -2 bitDepth ) : ux (6)
[0159]
uy= (mvpy + mvdy +2 bitDepth) %2 bitDepth (7)
[0160]
mvy = (uy >= 2 bitDepth-1) ? (uy -2 bitDepth) : uy (8)
[0161]
The operations may be applied during the sum of mvp and mvd, as shown in formula (5) to (8) .
[0162]
Method 2: remove the overflow MSB by clipping the value
[0163]
vx = Clip3 (-2 bitDepth-1, 2 bitDepth-1 -1, vx)
[0164]
vy = Clip3 (-2 bitDepth-1, 2 bitDepth-1 -1, vy)
[0165]
where vx is a horizontal component of a motion vector of an image block or a sub-block, vy is a vertical component of a motion vector of an image block or a sub-block; x, y and z respectively correspond to three input value of the MV clipping process, and the definition of function Clip3 is as follow:
[0166]
[0167]
FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram of a video coding device 400 according to an embodiment of the disclosure. The video coding device 400 is suitable for implementing the disclosed embodiments as described herein. In an embodiment, the video coding device 400 may be a decoder such as video decoder 30 of FIG. 1A or an encoder such as video encoder 20 of FIG. 1A.
[0168]
The video coding device 400 comprises ingress ports 410 (or input ports 410) and receiver units (Rx) 420 for receiving data; a processor, logic unit, or central processing unit (CPU) 430 to process the data; transmitter units (Tx) 440 and egress ports 450 (or output ports 450) for transmitting the data; and a memory 460 for storing the data. The video coding device 400 may also comprise optical-to-electrical (OE) components and electrical-to-optical (EO) components coupled to the ingress ports 410, the receiver units 420, the transmitter units 440, and the egress ports 450 for egress or ingress of optical or electrical signals.
[0169]
The processor 430 is implemented by hardware and software. The processor 430 may be implemented as one or more CPU chips, cores (e.g., as a multi-core processor) , FPGAs, ASICs, and DSPs. The processor 430 is in communication with the ingress ports 410, receiver units 420, transmitter units 440, egress ports 450, and memory 460. The processor 430 comprises a coding module 470. The coding module 470 implements the disclosed embodiments described above. For instance, the coding module 470 implements, processes, prepares, or provides the various coding operations. The inclusion of the coding module 470 therefore provides a substantial improvement to the functionality of the video coding device 400 and effects a transformation of the video coding device 400 to a different state. Alternatively, the coding module 470 is implemented as instructions stored in the memory 460 and executed by the processor 430.
[0170]
The memory 460 may comprise one or more disks, tape drives, and solid-state drives and may be used as an over-flow data storage device, to store programs when such programs are selected for execution, and to store instructions and data that are read during program execution. The memory 460 may be, for example, volatile and/or non-volatile and may be a read-only memory (ROM) , random access memory (RAM) , ternary content-addressable memory (TCAM) , and/or static random-access memory (SRAM) .
[0171]
Fig. 5 is a simplified block diagram of an apparatus 500 that may be used as either or both of the source device 12 and the destination device 14 from Fig. 1 according to an exemplary embodiment.
[0172]
A processor 502 in the apparatus 500 can be a central processing unit. Alternatively, the processor 502 can be any other type of device, or multiple devices, capable of manipulating or processing information now-existing or hereafter developed. Although the disclosed implementations can be practiced with a single processor as shown, e.g., the processor 502, advantages in speed and efficiency can be achieved using more than one processor.
[0173]
A memory 504 in the apparatus 500 can be a read only memory (ROM) device or a random access memory (RAM) device in an implementation. Any other suitable type of storage device can be used as the memory 504. The memory 504 can include code and data 506 that is accessed by the processor 502 using a bus 512. The memory 504 can further include an operating system 508 and application programs 510, the application programs 510 including at least one program that permits the processor 502 to perform the methods described here.
[0174]
For example, the application programs 510 can include applications 1 through N, which further include a video coding application that performs the methods described here. The apparatus 500 can also include one or more output devices, such as a display 518. The display 518 may be, in one example, a touch sensitive display that combines a display with a touch sensitive element that is operable to sense touch inputs. The display 518 can be coupled to the processor 502 via the bus 512.
[0175]
Although depicted here as a single bus, the bus 512 of the apparatus 500 can be composed of multiple buses. Further, the secondary storage 514 can be directly coupled to the other components of the apparatus 500 or can be accessed via a network and can comprise a single integrated unit such as a memory card or multiple units such as multiple memory cards. The apparatus 500 can thus be implemented in a wide variety of configurations.
[0176]
Combined Inter-Intra Prediction (CIIP)
[0177]
Conventionally, a coding unit is either intra-predicted (i.e. using the reference samples in the same picture) or inter-predicted (i.e. using the reference samples in other pictures) . The multi-hypothesis prediction combines these two prediction approaches. Therefore, it is sometimes also called as combined inter-intra prediction (CIIP) . When combined inter-intra prediction is enabled, the intra-predicted and inter-predicted samples are applied by weights, and the final prediction is derived as the weighted average samples.
[0178]
A flag, multi-hypothesis prediction (CIIP) flag, is used to indicate when a block is applied with combined inter-intra prediction.
[0179]
A block applied with CIIP can be further divided into several sub-blocks, as shown in Figure 6A. In one example, its sub-blocks are derived by dividing the block in horizontal direction, with each sub block has a same width as the original block but 1/4 height of the original block. In one example, its sub-blocks are derived by divide the block in vertical direction, with each sub block has a same height as the original block but 1/4 width of the original block.
[0180]
Blocking artifacts might be introduced due to CIIP prediction, as it involves results with intra prediction which usually has more residual signals. The blocking artifacts not only occurs to boundaries of CIIP block, but also the sub-block edges inside a CIIP block, such as vertical sub-block edge A, B, C in Figure 6A. The horizontal sub-block edges can be identified correspondingly.
[0181]
Although block artifacts can occur to both CIIP boundaries and sub-block edges inside CIIP blocks, the distortion caused by these two boundaries might be different, and different boundaries strength might be needs.
[0182]
In the rest of the application the following terminology is used:
[0183]
CIIP blocks: The coding blocks that are predicted by application of multi-hypothesis prediction (CIIP) .
[0184]
Intra blocks: The coding blocks that are predicted by application of intra prediction but not CIIP prediction.
[0185]
Inter blocks: The coding blocks that are predicted by application of inter prediction but not CIIP prediction.
[0186]
Deblocking Filter and Boundary Strength
[0187]
Video coding schemes such as HEVC and VVC are designed along the successful principle of block-based hybrid video coding. Using this principle a picture is first partitioned into blocks and then each block is predicted by using intra-picture or inter-picture prediction. These blocks are coded relatively from the neighboring blocks and approximate the original signal with some degree of similarity. Since coded blocks only approximate the original signal, the difference between the approximations may cause discontinuities at the prediction and transform block boundaries. These discontinuities are attenuated by the deblocking filter. A decision whether to filter a block boundary uses the bitstream information such as prediction modes and motion vectors. Some coding conditions are more likely to create strong block artifacts, which are represented by a so-called boundary strength (Bs or BS) variable that is assigned to every block boundary and is determined as in Table 1.
[0188]
Table 1
[0189]
[0190]
The deblocking is only applied to the block boundaries with Bs greater than zero for a luma component and Bs greater than 1 for chroma components. Higher values of Bs enable stronger filtering by using higher clipping parameter values. The Bs derivation conditions reflect the probability that the strongest block artifacts appear at the intra-predicted block boundaries.
[0191]
Usually, the two adjacent blocks of a boundary is labeled as P and Q, as shown in Figure 6B. The Figure 6B depicts the case of a vertical boundary. If a horizontal boundary is considered, then Figure 6B shall be rotated 90 degree clock wise, where P would be in upside and Q the downside.
[0192]
Most Probable Mode list construction
[0193]
Most Probable Mode (MPM) list is used in intra mode coding to improve coding efficiency. Due to the large number of intra modes (e.g. 35 in HEVC and 67 in VVC) , the intra mode of current block is not signaled directly. Instead, a Most Probable Mode list of current block is constructed based on its neighboring blocks’ intra prediction modes. As current block’s intra mode is relevant to its neighbors’, the MPM list usually provides a good prediction as its name (Most Probable Mode list) indicates, thus the intra mode of current block has a high chance falling into its MPM list. In this way, to derive the intra mode of current block, only the index of MPM list is signaled. Compared to the number of total intra modes, the length of MPM list is much smaller (e.g. 3-MPM list is used in HEVC and 6-MPM list is used in VVC) , thus less bits are required to code the intra mode. A flag (mpm_flag) is used to indicate whether current block’s intra mode belongs to its MPM list or not. If it is true, the intra mode of current block can be indexed using MPM list. Otherwise, the intra mode is directly signaled using a binarized code. In both VVC and HEVC, the MPM list is constructed based on its neighboring left and top blocks. When the left neighbor block and top neighbor block of the current block are unavailable for prediction, a default mode list is used.
[0194]
Motion Vector Prediction
[0195]
Motion Vector Prediction is a technique used in motion data coding. Motion Vector usually has two components x and y, refereeing to the motion in horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. Motion vectors of the current block are usually correlated with the motion vectors of neighboring blocks in the current picture or in the earlier coded pictures. This is because neighboring blocks are likely to correspond to the same moving object with similar motion and the motion of the object is not likely to change abruptly over time. Consequently, using the motion vectors in neighboring blocks as predictors reduces the size of the signaled motion vector difference. The Motion Vector Predictors (MVPs) are usually derived from already decoded motion vectors from spatial neighboring blocks or from temporally neighboring blocks in the co-located picture.
[0196]
If a block is determined to be predicted by the application of CIIP prediction, its final predicted samples are partially based on the intra predicted samples. Since Intra prediction is also involved, generally the residual and transform coefficients are more when compared to the INTER blocks (mvd, merge, skip) . Therefore when these MH blocks are adjacent to other blocks, then across the boundary there will be more discontinuities. In HEVC and VVC, when any of the two adjacent blocks of a boundary is intra predicted, a strong deblocking filter is applied for this boundary, wherein the parameter of Boundary Strength (BS) is set to 2 (the strongest) .
[0197]
In VTM3.0, however, the potential block artifact caused by blocks predicted by CIIP prediction is NOT considered. The boundary strength derivation still considers the blocks with CIIP predictions as inter-blocks. Under certain circumstances, such a processing approach may cause inferior subjective and objective quality.
[0198]
The embodiments of this invention provide several alternatives to incorporate MH blocks in order to improve deblocking filter, wherein the boundary strength derivation of a certain boundary is impacted by MH blocks.
[0199]
A reference document Versatile Video Coding (Draft 3) is defined as VVC Draft 3.0, and can be found via the following link
[0200]
http: //phenix. it-sudparis. eu/jvet/doc_end_user/documents/12_Macao/wg11/JVET-L1001-v3. zip.
[0201]
Embodiment 1
[0202]
For a boundary with two sides (where the spatially adjacent blocks on each side are denoted as P block and Q block) , the boundary strength is determined as follows:
[0203]
● As shown in figure 7, if at least one block of P and Q is a block with CIIP prediction, then the boundary strength parameter of this boundary is set to a first value, for example, the first value may equal to 2.
[0204]
● If both P and Q block are not predicted by application of CIIP prediction and if at least one of Block Q or Block P are predicted by application of intra prediction, the boundary strength is determined to be equal to 2.
[0205]
● If both P and block Q are not predicted by application of CIIP prediction and if both of blocks Q and P are predicted by application of inter prediction, then the boundary strength is determined to be smaller than 2 (exact value of the boundary strength is determined according to further conditional evaluations) , the derivation of boundary strength of this boundary is shown in Figure 7.
[0206]
● To compare, a method specified in VVC or ITU-H. 265 video coding standard is provided in Figure 8.
[0207]
● The pixel samples comprised in block Q and Block P are filtered with application of a deblocking filter according to the determined boundary strength.
[0208]
Embodiment 2
[0209]
As shown in Figure 9, for a boundary with two sides (where the spatially adjacent blocks on each side are denoted as P block and Q block) , the boundary strength is derived as follows:
[0210]
● If at least one block of P and Q is a block with intra prediction, then the boundary strength is set to 2
[0211]
● Otherwise, if at least one block of P and Q is a block with CIIP prediction, then the boundary strength parameter of this boundary is set to a first value, for example, 1 or 2.
[0212]
● Otherwise, if at least one of the adjacent blocks P and Q has non-zero transform coefficients. then the boundary strength parameter of this boundary is set to a second value, for example, 1
[0213]
● Otherwise, if absolute difference between the motion vectors that belong to the P and Q blocks is greater than or equal to one integer luma sample, then the boundary strength parameter of this boundary is set to a second value, for example, 1.
[0214]
● Otherwise, if motion prediction in the adjacent blocks refers to different reference pictures or number of motion vectors is different, then the boundary strength parameter of this boundary is set to 1
[0215]
● Otherwise, the boundary strength parameter of this boundary is set to 0.
[0216]
● The pixel samples comprised in block Q and Block P are filtered with application of a deblocking filter according to the determined boundary strength.
[0217]
Embodiment 3
[0218]
As shown in Figure 10, for a boundary with two sides (where the spatially adjacent blocks on each side are denoted as P block and Q block) , the boundary strength parameter of this boundary is set as follows:
[0219]
● If at least one block of P and Q is predicted by application of intra prediction and not by application of CIIP prediction (possibilities include P block being predicted by intra prediction and not by multi-hypothesis prediction and Q block being predicted by any prediction function, and vice versa. ) , then the boundary strength is set equal to 2.
[0220]
● If both of the blocks Q and P are predicted by either the application of inter prediction or by the application of CIIP prediction (Possibilities include P block being inter block and Q block being inter block, or alternatively P block being inter block and Q block being MH block, or alternatively P block being MH block and Q block being inter block, or alternatively P block being MH block and Q block being MH block)
[0221]
○ If at least one of the blocks P and Q has non-zero transform coefficients, then the boundary strength parameter of the said boundary is set equal to 1.
[0222]
○ Otherwise (if the blocks Q and P have no non-zero transform coefficients) if the absolute difference between the motion vectors that are used to predict the blocks P and Q is greater than or equal to one integer sample, then the boundary strength parameter of this boundary is set equal to 1.
[0223]
○ Otherwise (if the blocks Q and P have no non-zero transform coefficients and the absolute difference between motion vectors is smaller than 1 sample) , if blocks P and Q are predicted on the basis of different reference pictures or number of motion vectors that are used to predict block Q and block P are not equal, then the boundary strength parameter of this boundary is set equal to 1.
[0224]
○ Otherwise (if the above 3 conditions are evaluated to be false) , the boundary strength parameter of this boundary is set equal to 0.
[0225]
● If at least one block of P and Q is a block with CIIP prediction, then the boundary strength is modified as follows:
[0226]
○ If the boundary strength is not equal to a predefined first value (in one example the predefined first value is equal to 2) , then the boundary strength is incremented by a predefined second value (in one example the predefined second value is equal to 1) .
[0227]
● The pixel samples comprised in block Q and Block P are filtered with application of a deblocking filter according to the determined boundary strength.
[0228]
Embodiment 4
[0229]
For a boundary with two sides (P and Q, as described in VVC Draft 3.0) , the boundary strength is derived as follows:
[0230]
● If this boundary is a horizontal boundary and P and Q belongs to different CTUs, then
[0231]
○ If block Q is a block with CIIP prediction, then the boundary strength is set to 2.
[0232]
○ Otherwise, the boundary strength is derived as defined in VVC Draft 3.0.
[0233]
● Otherwise,
[0234]
○ If at least one block of P and Q is a block with CIIP prediction, then the boundary strength parameter of this boundary is set to 2.
[0235]
Otherwise, derive boundary strength of this boundary as defined in VVC Draft 3.0.
[0236]
Embodiment 5
[0237]
For a boundary with two sides (where the spatially adjacent blocks on each side are denoted as P block and Q block) , the boundary strength is determined as follows:
[0238]
● If at least one of the P block or Q block is predicted by application of intra prediction and not by the application of CIIP prediction (possibilities include P block being predicted by intra prediction and not by multi-hypothesis prediction and Q block being predicted by any prediction function, and vice versa. ) , then the boundary strength is set equal to 2.
[0239]
● If both of the blocks are predicted by application of either inter prediction or CIIP prediction (Possibilities include P block being inter block and Q block being inter block, or alternatively P block being inter block and Q block being MH block, or alternatively P block being MH block and Q block being inter block, or alternatively P block being MH block and Q block being MH block) ,
[0240]
○ If the said boundary is a horizontal boundary and P and Q are located in two different CTUs, then
[0241]
■ if block Q (where Q block is denoted as the block that is located at the bottom direction compared to P Block) is predicted by application of CIIP prediction, then the boundary strength parameter of the said boundary is set equal to 1.
[0242]
■ Otherwise (if block Q is not predicted by application of CIIP prediction) , if at least one of the adjacent blocks P and Q has non-zero transform coefficients, then the boundary strength parameter of the said boundary is set equal to 1
[0243]
■ Otherwise, if absolute difference between the motion vectors that that are used to predict the blocks P and Q is greater than or equal to one integer luma sample, then the boundary strength parameter of the said boundary is set equal to 1.
[0244]
■ Otherwise, if motion compensated prediction in the adjacent blocks P and Q is performed on the basis of different reference pictures or if the number of motion vectors that are used to predict blocks Q and P are not equal, then the boundary strength parameter of the said boundary is set equal to 1
[0245]
■ Otherwise, the boundary strength parameter of the said boundary is set equal to 0.
[0246]
○ Otherwise (if the said boundary is a vertical boundary or if block Q and Block P are comprised inside a same CTU) ,
[0247]
■ if at least one of the blocks P and Q is predicted by application of CIIP prediction, then the boundary strength parameter of the said boundary is set equal to 1.
[0248]
■ Otherwise, if at least one of the adjacent blocks P and Q has non-zero transform coefficients, then the boundary strength parameter of the said boundary is set equal to 1
[0249]
■ Otherwise, if absolute difference between the motion vectors that are used to predict the blocks P and Q blocks is greater than or equal to one integer luma sample, then the boundary strength parameter of the said boundary is set equal to 1.
[0250]
■ Otherwise, if motion compensated prediction in the adjacent blocks P and Q is performed on the basis of different reference pictures or if the number of motion vectors that are used to predict blocks Q and P are not equal, then the boundary strength parameter of the said boundary is set equal to 1
[0251]
■ Otherwise, the boundary strength parameter of this boundary is set equal to 0.
[0252]
● The pixel samples comprised in block Q and Block P are filtered with application of a deblocking filter according to the determined boundary strength.
[0253]
Embodiment 6
[0254]
For a boundary with two sides (where the spatially adjacent blocks on each side are denoted as P block and Q block) , the boundary strength is determined as follows:
[0255]
● First determine the boundary strength of the said boundary according to a method specified in VVC or ITU-H. 265 video coding standard.
[0256]
● If the said boundary is a horizontal boundary and P and Q are located in two different CTUs, then
[0257]
○ If block Q is predicted by application of CIIP prediction, then the boundary strength is modified as follows:
[0258]
■ If the boundary strength is not equal to 2, then the boundary strength is incremented by 1.
[0259]
● Otherwise (if the said boundary is a vertical boundary or if block Q and Block P are comprised inside a same CTU) ,
[0260]
○ If at least one of block P or block Q is predicted by application of CIIP prediction, then the boundary strength parameter of the said boundary is adjusted as follows:
[0261]
■ If the boundary strength is not equal to 2, then the boundary strength is incremented by 1.
[0262]
● The pixel samples comprised in block Q and Block P are filtered with application of a deblocking filter according to the determined boundary strength.
[0263]
Embodiment 7
[0264]
For a boundary with two sides (where the spatially adjacent blocks on each side are denoted as P block and Q block) , the boundary strength is derived as follows:
[0265]
● If the said boundary is a horizontal boundary and blocks P and Q are located in different CTUs, then
[0266]
○ If block Q (where Q block is denoted as the block that is located at the bottom direction compared to P Block) is predicted by application of CIIP prediction, then the boundary strength is set equal to 2.
[0267]
○ If the Q block is not predicted by application of CIIP prediction and if at least one of the blocks Q or Block P is predicted by application of intra prediction, the boundary strength is determined to be equal to 2.
[0268]
○ If block Q is not predicted by application of CIIP prediction and if both of blocks Q and P are predicted by application of inter prediction, then the boundary strength is determined to be smaller than 2 (exact value of the boundary strength is determined according to further conditional evaluations) .
[0269]
● Otherwise (if the said boundary is a vertical boundary or if block Q and Block P are comprised inside a same CTU) ,
[0270]
○ If at least one of the blocks P or Q is predicted by application of CIIP prediction, then the boundary strength parameter of the said boundary is set equal to 2.
[0271]
○ If both P and Q block are not predicted by application of CIIP prediction and if at least one of Block Q or Block P are predicted by application of intra prediction, the boundary strength is determined to be equal to 2.
[0272]
○ If both P and block Q are not predicted by application of CIIP prediction and if both of blocks Q and P are predicted by application of inter prediction, then the boundary strength is determined to be smaller than 2 (exact value of the boundary strength is determined according to further conditional evaluations) .
[0273]
● The pixel samples comprised in block Q and Block P are filtered with application of a deblocking filter according to the determined boundary strength.
[0274]
Embodiment 8
[0275]
For a boundary with two sides (where the spatially adjacent blocks on each side are denoted as P block and Q block) , the boundary strength is determined as follows:
[0276]
● If at least one block of P and Q is predicted by application of intra prediction and not by application of CIIP prediction (possibilities include P block being predicted by intra prediction and not by multi-hypothesis prediction and Q block being predicted by any prediction function, and vice versa. ) , then the boundary strength is set equal to 2.
[0277]
● If both of the blocks Q and P are predicted by either the application of inter prediction or by the application of CIIP prediction (Possibilities include P block being inter block and Q block being inter block, or alternatively P block being inter block and Q block being MH block, or alternatively P block being MH block and Q block being inter block, or alternatively P block being MH block and Q block being MH block)
[0278]
○ If at least one of the blocks P and Q has non-zero transform coefficients, then the boundary strength parameter of the said boundary is set equal to 1.
[0279]
○ Otherwise (if the blocks Q and P have no non-zero transform coefficients) if the absolute difference between the motion vectors that are used to predict the blocks P and Q is greater than or equal to one integer sample, then the boundary strength parameter of this boundary is set equal to 1.
[0280]
○ Otherwise (if the blocks Q and P have no non-zero transform coefficients and the absolute difference between motion vectors is smaller than 1 sample) , if blocks P and Q are predicted on the basis of different reference pictures or number of motion vectors that are used to predict block Q and block P are not equal, then the boundary strength parameter of this boundary is set equal to 1.
[0281]
○ Otherwise (if the above 3 conditions are evaluated to be false) , the boundary strength parameter of this boundary is set equal to 0.
[0282]
● If the said boundary is a horizontal boundary and P and Q are located in two different CTUs, then
[0283]
○ If block Q is predicted by application of CIIP prediction, then the determined boundary strength is modified as follows:
[0284]
■ If the boundary strength is not equal to 2, then the boundary strength is incremented by 1.
[0285]
● If the said boundary is a vertical boundary or if block Q and Block P are comprised within a same CTU,
[0286]
○ If at least one of block P and block Q is predicted by application of CIIP prediction, then the boundary strength parameter of the said boundary is adjusted as follows:
[0287]
■ If the boundary strength is not equal to 2, then the boundary strength is incremented by 1.
[0288]
● The pixel samples comprised in block Q and Block P are filtered with application of a deblocking filter according to the determined boundary strength.
[0289]
Embodiment 9
[0290]
In one example, set boundary strength (Bs) of boundaries of CIIP blocks to a value of 2, but set the boundary strength of boundaries of sub-blocks inside CIIP to a value of 1. When the boundaries of sub-blocks are not aligned with an 8x8 sample grid, then set the boundary strength of such edges to a value of 0. An 8x8 grid is shown in Figure 11.
[0291]
In another example, determine the boundary strength of an edge as follows:
[0292]
For a boundary with two sides (where the spatially adjacent blocks on each side are denoted as P block and Q block) , the boundary strength is derived as follows:
[0293]
● If the said boundary is a horizontal boundary and blocks P and Q are located in different CTUs, then
[0294]
○ If block Q (where Q block is denoted as the block that is located at the bottom direction compared to P Block) is predicted by application of CIIP prediction, then the boundary strength is set equal to 2.
[0295]
○ If the Q block is not predicted by application of CIIP prediction and if at least one of the blocks Q or Block P is predicted by application of intra prediction, the boundary strength is determined to be equal to 2.
[0296]
○ If block Q is not predicted by application of CIIP prediction and if both of blocks Q and P are predicted by application of inter prediction, then the boundary strength is determined to be smaller than 2 (exact value of the boundary strength is determined according to further conditional evaluations) .
[0297]
● Otherwise (if P and Q corresponding to two sub-blocks inside a CIIP block, i.e. the target boundary is a sub-block boundary inside a CIIP block)
[0298]
○ If the sub-block boundary is aligned with an 8x8 grid, set the boundary strength to a value of 1.
[0299]
○ Otherwise (the sub-block boundary is not aligned with an 8x8 grid) , set the boundary strength to a value of 0.
[0300]
● Otherwise (if the said boundary is a vertical boundary or if block Q and block P are comprised inside a same CTU, and P and Q are not in the same CIIP block)
[0301]
○ If at least one of the blocks P or Q is predicted by application of CIIP prediction, then the boundary strength parameter of the said boundary is set equal to 2.
[0302]
○ If both P and Q block are not predicted by application of CIIP prediction and if at least one of Block Q or Block P are predicted by application of intra prediction, the boundary strength is determined to be equal to 2.
[0303]
○ If both P and block Q are not predicted by application of CIIP prediction and if both of blocks Q and P are predicted by application of inter prediction, then the boundary strength is determined to be smaller than 2 (exact value of the boundary strength is determined according to further conditional evaluations) .
[0304]
● The pixel samples comprised in block Q and Block P are filtered with application of a deblocking filter according to the determined boundary strength.
[0305]
Embodiment 10
[0306]
In one example, set boundary strength (Bs) of boundaries of CIIP blocks to a value of 2, but set the boundary strength of boundaries of sub-blocks inside CIIP to a value of 1. When the boundaries of sub-blocks are not aligned with a 4x4 sample grid, then set the boundary strength of such edges to a value of 0. A 4x4 grid is shown in Figure 12.
[0307]
In another example, determine the boundary strength of an edge as follows:
[0308]
For a boundary with two sides (where the spatially adjacent blocks on each side are denoted as P block and Q block) , the boundary strength is derived as follows:
[0309]
● If the said boundary is a horizontal boundary and blocks P and Q are located in different CTUs, then
[0310]
○ If block Q (where Q block is denoted as the block that is located at the bottom direction compared to P Block) is predicted by application of CIIP prediction, then the boundary strength is set equal to 2.
[0311]
○ If the Q block is not predicted by application of CIIP prediction and if at least one of the blocks Q or Block P is predicted by application of intra prediction, the boundary strength is determined to be equal to 2.
[0312]
○ If block Q is not predicted by application of CIIP prediction and if both of blocks Q and P are predicted by application of inter prediction, then the boundary strength is determined to be smaller than 2 (exact value of the boundary strength is determined according to further conditional evaluations) .
[0313]
● Otherwise (if P and Q corresponding to two sub-blocks inside a CIIP block, i.e. the target boundary is a sub-block boundary inside a CIIP block)
[0314]
○ If the sub-block boundary is aligned with a 4x4 grid, set the boundary strength to a value of 1.
[0315]
○ Otherwise (the sub-block boundary is not aligned with a 4x4 grid) , set the boundary strength to a value of 0.
[0316]
● Otherwise (if the said boundary is a vertical boundary or if block Q and block P are comprised inside a same CTU, and P and Q are not in the same CIIP block)
[0317]
○ If at least one of the blocks P or Q is predicted by application of CIIP prediction, then the boundary strength parameter of the said boundary is set equal to 2.
[0318]
○ If both P and Q block are not predicted by application of CIIP prediction and if at least one of Block Q or Block P are predicted by application of intra prediction, the boundary strength is determined to be equal to 2.
[0319]
○ If both P and block Q are not predicted by application of CIIP prediction and if both of blocks Q and P are predicted by application of inter prediction, then the boundary strength is determined to be smaller than 2 (exact value of the boundary strength is determined according to further conditional evaluations) .
[0320]
● The pixel samples comprised in block Q and Block P are filtered with application of a deblocking filter according to the determined boundary strength.
[0321]
The present application further provides the following embodiments:
[0322]
Embodiment 1. A coding method, wherein the coding includes decoding or encoding, and the method comprises:
[0323]
determining whether a current coding unit (or coding block) is predicted by application of combined inter-intra prediction or not;
[0324]
when the current coding unit is predicted by application of combined inter-intra prediction, setting a boundary strength (Bs) of a boundary of the current coding unit to a first value; and
[0325]
setting a boundary strength (Bs) of a boundary of a sub-coding unit to a second value, the current coding unit comprises at least two sub-coding units, and the boundary of the sub-coding unit is a boundary between the at least two sub-coding units.
[0326]
Embodiment 2. The method of embodiment 1, wherein the method further comprising: performing deblocking when a value of the Bs is greater than zero for a luma component; or performing deblocking when the value of the Bs is greater than 1 for chroma components, wherein the value of the Bs is one of the first value or the second value.
[0327]
Embodiment 3. The method of embodiment 1 or 2, wherein when the current coding unit (or block) is predicted by application of combined inter-intra prediction, the current coding unit is considered as a unit with intra prediction when performing deblocking.
[0328]
FIG. 13 is a block diagram showing an example structure of an apparatus 1300 for derivation process of boundary strength. The apparatus 1300 is configured to carry out the above methods, and may include:
[0329]
a determining unit 1302, configured to determine whether at least one of two blocks is predicted by application of combined inter-intra prediction (CIIP) , wherein the two blocks include a first block (block Q) and a second block (block P) , and wherein the two blocks are associated with a boundary;
[0330]
a setting unit 1304, configured to set a boundary strength (Bs) of the boundary to a first value when at least one of the two blocks is predicted by application of CIIP; and set a boundary strength (Bs) of the boundary to a second value when none of the two blocks is predicted by application of CIIP.
[0331]
As an example, the setting unit is configured to set the Bs of the boundary to the first value when the first block is predicted by application of CIIP, or when the second block is predicted by application of CIIP.
[0332]
The apparatus 2500 may further include a parsing unit (not shown in FIG. 13) , configured to parse a bitstream to obtain a flag, wherein the flag is used to indicate whether at least one of the two blocks is predicted by application of CIIP.
[0333]
The determining unit 1302 may be further configured to determine whether at least one of two blocks is predicted by application of intra prediction. The setting unit 1304 is configured to set the Bs of the boundary to the first value when none of the two blocks is predicted by application of intra prediction and when at least one of the two blocks is predicted by application of CIIP. For example, the first value may be 1 or 2.
[0334]
The setting unit 1304 is configured to set the Bs of the boundary to the second value when none of the two blocks is predicted by application of intra prediction and when none of the two blocks is predicted by application of CIIP. For example, the second value may be 1 when at least one of the two blocks (P and Q) has non-zero transform coefficients.
[0335]
Benefit of the Embodiment
[0336]
Deblocking filtering of blocks that are predicted by application of multi-hypothesis prediction with a deblocking filter with medium strength (boundary strength equal to 1) .
[0337]
If a block is predicted by application of CIIP prediction, a first prediction is obtained by application of inter prediction and a second prediction is obtained by application of intra prediction, which are later combined. Since the final prediction includes an intra prediction part, which typically is observed with more block artifacts. Therefore, it is possible that there might be block artifacts also at the boundaries of a block that is predicted by CIIP prediction. In order to mitigate this problem, the boundary strength is set to 2 according to embodiments of the invention, the chances of deblock filtering of block edges that are predicted by application of CIIP prediction is increased.
[0338]
Furthermore embodiments of the invention reduces the required line memory as follows. The line memory is defined as the memory necessary to be store the information corresponding to a top CTU row and that are needed during the processing of a neighboring bottom CTU row. For example in order to filter the horizontal boundary between two CTU rows, the prediction mode information (intra prediction/inter prediction/multi-hypothesis prediction) of the top CTU need to be stored in the list memory. Since 3 states (intra prediction/inter prediction/multi-hypothesis prediction) are possible to describe the prediction mode of a block, line memory requirement can be defined as 2 bits per block.
[0339]
According to embodiments of the invention, if a block (P block in the embodiments) belongs to a top CTU row, the deblocking operation requires the information only about whether the block is predicted by inter prediction or intra prediction (therefore only 2 states, which can be stored using one bit per block) . The reason is as follows:
[0340]
If a boundary between P block and Q block is a horizontal boundary, and if Q block and P block belong to 2 different CTUs (Q block is the one at the bottom with regard to P block in all embodiments) , then the information whether P block is predicted by application of CIIP prediction is not utilized in determination of boundary strength parameter. Therefore it is not necessary to be stored. With the help of embodiments of the invention in a hardware implementation the prediction mode of P block can be temporarily changed as inter prediction (when P block is predicted by CIIP prediction) , and the boundary strength determination can be performed according to the changed prediction mode. Afterwards (after the determination of the boundary strength) the prediction mode can be changed back CIIP prediction. It is noted that the hardware implementations are not limited to the method described here (changing the prediction mode of P block at the CTU boundary) , it is just presented as an example to explain that according to embodiments of the invention the information of whether the P block is prediction by CIIP prediction is not necessary in the boundary strength determination (at the horizontal CTU boundaries) .
[0341]
Therefore according to embodiments of the invention, the required line memory is reduced from 2 bits per block to 1 bit per block. It is noted that the total line memory that is necessary to be implemented in hardware is proportional to the picture with and inversely proportional to the minimum block width.
[0342]
It is noted that according to embodiments all embodiments above, if a block is predicted by application of CIIP prediction, a first prediction is obtained by application of inter prediction and a second prediction is obtained by application of intra prediction, which are later combined.
[0343]
The above embodiments indicate that the CIIP blocks are considered as intra block to different extent when performing deblocking filter. Embodiment 1, 2, and 3 use three different strategies to adjust the boundary strength of a boundary. Embodiment 1 regards the MH blocks completely as intra blocks. Therefore, the condition of setting Bs to 2 are the same to Table 1.
[0344]
Embodiment 2 also considers the distortion caused by MH blocks is not as high as intra blocks. Therefore, the boundary strength conditions are checked first for intra blocks and then the CIIP blocks. However, when CIIP block is detected, the Bs is still considered as 2.
[0345]
Embodiment 3 regards the MH blocks partially as intra blocks, where the Bs is increased by one if at least one adjacent block of a boundary is MH block. If the Bs is already 2 using the conventional derivation strategy, then the Bs is not changed.
[0346]
Figure 8 illustrates the derivation of Bs in VVC Draft 3.0. Figure 7, 9 and 10 depict the changes to Bs derivation for embodiment 1, 2, and 3, respectively.
[0347]
It is worth noting that for embodiment 1 and 2, not only the potential distortion is reduced, but also the processing logic. In embodiment 1 and 2, as long as P or Q block is an MH block, the checking for coefficients and motion vector is not necessary anymore, thus shorten the latency for condition checks.
[0348]
Embodiment 4, 5, 6 are respective variations of embodiment 1, 2, and 3 where line buffer memory is considered. Their core change to embodiment 1, 2 and 3 is that when two sides P and Q located in different CTUs and the edge is horizontal, the checking for MH block is performed asymmetrically. Namely, the P side block (i.e. the up side) is not checked, but only the Q side (i.e. the down side) is checked. In this way, no additional line buffer memory is allocated for storing CIIP flag of the P side block, which is located in another CTU.
[0349]
In addition to above six embodiments, one additional feature of MH blocks can be that MH blocks do not have to be considered as intra blocks consistently. In one example, when searching for motion vector predictors of the current block, if its neighboring blocks are MH block then these MH blocks’ motion vector can be considered as motion vector predictors. In this case, the inter-prediction information of MH blocks is used and hence MH blocks are not considered as intra blocks anymore. In another example, when constructing MPM list for intra blocks, the neighboring MH blocks of the current block can be considered as including no intra information. Therefore, when checking those MH blocks’ availability for current block’s MPM list construction, they are labeled as NOT available. Note that the MH blocks mentioned in this paragraph is not only limited to the MH blocks that are used to determine the Bs value of the deblocking filter.
[0350]
In addition to above six embodiments, one additional feature of MH blocks can be that MH blocks are considered as intra blocks consistently. In one example, when searching for motion vector predictors of the current block, if its neighboring blocks are MH block then these MH blocks’ motion vector are excluded from motion vector predictors. In this case, the inter-prediction information of MH blocks is NOT used and hence MH blocks are considered as intra blocks. In another example, when constructing MPM list for intra blocks, the neighboring MH blocks of the current block can be considered as including intra information. Therefore, when checking those MH blocks’ availability for current block’s MPM list construction, they are labeled as available. Note that the MH blocks mentioned in this paragraph is not only limited to the MH blocks that are used to determine the Bs value of the deblocking filter.
[0351]
Following is an explanation of the applications of the encoding method as well as the decoding method as shown in the above-mentioned embodiments, and a system using them. FIG. 14 is a block diagram showing a content supply system 3100 for realizing content distribution service. This content supply system 3100 includes capture device 3102, terminal device 3106, and optionally includes display 3126. The capture device 3102 communicates with the terminal device 3106 over communication link 3104. The communication link may include the communication channel 13 described above. The communication link 3104 includes but not limited to WIFI, Ethernet, Cable, wireless (3G/4G/5G) , USB, or any kind of combination thereof, or the like.
[0352]
The capture device 3102 generates data, and may encode the data by the encoding method as shown in the above embodiments. Alternatively, the capture device 3102 may distribute the data to a streaming server (not shown in the Figures) , and the server encodes the data and transmits the encoded data to the terminal device 3106. The capture device 3102 includes but not limited to camera, smart phone or Pad, computer or laptop, video conference system, PDA, vehicle mounted device, or a combination of any of them, or the like. For example, the capture device 3102 may include the source device 12 as described above. When the data includes video, the video encoder 20 included in the capture device 3102 may actually perform video encoding processing. When the data includes audio (i.e., voice) , an audio encoder included in the capture device 3102 may actually perform audio encoding processing. For some practical scenarios, the capture device 3102 distributes the encoded video and audio data by multiplexing them together. For other practical scenarios, for example in the video conference system, the encoded audio data and the encoded video data are not multiplexed. Capture device 3102 distributes the encoded audio data and the encoded video data to the terminal device 3106 separately.
[0353]
In the content supply system 3100, the terminal device 310 receives and reproduces the encoded data. The terminal device 3106 could be a device with data receiving and recovering capability, such as smart phone or Pad 3108, computer or laptop 3110, network video recorder (NVR) /digital video recorder (DVR) 3112, TV 3114, set top box (STB) 3116, video conference system 3118, video surveillance system 3120, personal digital assistant (PDA) 3122, vehicle mounted device 3124, or a combination of any of them, or the like capable of decoding the above-mentioned encoded data. For example, the terminal device 3106 may include the destination device 14 as described above. When the encoded data includes video, the video decoder 30 included in the terminal device is prioritized to perform video decoding. When the encoded data includes audio, an audio decoder included in the terminal device is prioritized to perform audio decoding processing.
[0354]
For a terminal device with its display, for example, smart phone or Pad 3108, computer or laptop 3110, network video recorder (NVR) /digital video recorder (DVR) 3112, TV 3114, personal digital assistant (PDA) 3122, or vehicle mounted device 3124, the terminal device can feed the decoded data to its display. For a terminal device equipped with no display, for example, STB 3116, video conference system 3118, or video surveillance system 3120, an external display 3126 is contacted therein to receive and show the decoded data.
[0355]
When each device in this system performs encoding or decoding, the picture encoding device or the picture decoding device, as shown in the above-mentioned embodiments, can be used. FIG. 15 is a diagram showing a structure of an example of the terminal device 3106. After the terminal device 3106 receives stream from the capture device 3102, the protocol proceeding unit 3202 analyzes the transmission protocol of the stream. The protocol includes but not limited to Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP) , Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) , HTTP Live streaming protocol (HLS) , MPEG-DASH, Real-time Transport protocol (RTP) , Real Time Messaging Protocol (RTMP) , or any kind of combination thereof, or the like.
[0356]
After the protocol proceeding unit 3202 processes the stream, stream file is generated. The file is outputted to a demultiplexing unit 3204. The demultiplexing unit 3204 can separate the multiplexed data into the encoded audio data and the encoded video data. As described above, for some practical scenarios, for example in the video conference system, the encoded audio data and the encoded video data are not multiplexed. In this situation, the encoded data is transmitted to video decoder 3206 and audio decoder 3208 without through the demultiplexing unit 3204.
[0357]
Via the demultiplexing processing, video elementary stream (ES) , audio ES, and optionally subtitle are generated. The video decoder 3206, which includes the video decoder 30 as explained in the above mentioned embodiments, decodes the video ES by the decoding method as shown in the above-mentioned embodiments to generate video frame, and feeds this data to the synchronous unit 3212. The audio decoder 3208, decodes the audio ES to generate audio frame, and feeds this data to the synchronous unit 3212. Alternatively, the video frame may store in a buffer (not shown in FIG. Y) before feeding it to the synchronous unit 3212. Similarly, the audio frame may store in a buffer (not shown in FIG. Y) before feeding it to the synchronous unit 3212.
[0358]
The synchronous unit 3212 synchronizes the video frame and the audio frame, and supplies the video/audio to a video/audio display 3214. For example, the synchronous unit 3212 synchronizes the presentation of the video and audio information. Information may code in the syntax using time stamps concerning the presentation of coded audio and visual data and time stamps concerning the delivery of the data stream itself.
[0359]
If subtitle is included in the stream, the subtitle decoder 3210 decodes the subtitle, and synchronizes it with the video frame and the audio frame, and supplies the video/audio/subtitle to a video/audio/subtitle display 3216.
[0360]
The present invention is not limited to the above-mentioned system, and either the picture encoding device or the picture decoding device in the above-mentioned embodiments can be incorporated into other system, for example, a car system.
[0361]
Although embodiments of the invention have been primarily described based on video coding, it should be noted that embodiments of the coding system 10, encoder 20 and decoder 30 (and correspondingly the system 10) and the other embodiments described herein may also be configured for still picture processing or coding, i.e. the processing or coding of an individual picture independent of any preceding or consecutive picture as in video coding. In general only inter-prediction units 244 (encoder) and 344 (decoder) may not be available in case the picture processing coding is limited to a single picture 17. All other functionalities (also referred to as tools or technologies) of the video encoder 20 and video decoder 30 may equally be used for still picture processing, e.g. residual calculation 204/304, transform 206, quantization 208, inverse quantization 210/310, (inverse) transform 212/312, partitioning 262/362, intra-prediction 254/354, and/or loop filtering 220, 320, and entropy coding 270 and entropy decoding 304.
[0362]
Embodiments, e.g. of the encoder 20 and the decoder 30, and functions described herein, e.g. with reference to the encoder 20 and the decoder 30, may be implemented in hardware, software, firmware, or any combination thereof. If implemented in software, the functions may be stored on a computer-readable medium or transmitted over communication media as one or more instructions or code and executed by a hardware-based processing unit. Computer-readable media may include computer-readable storage media, which corresponds to a tangible medium such as data storage media, or communication media including any medium that facilitates transfer of a computer program from one place to another, e.g., according to a communication protocol. In this manner, computer-readable media generally may correspond to (1) tangible computer-readable storage media which is non-transitory or (2) a communication medium such as a signal or carrier wave. Data storage media may be any available media that can be accessed by one or more computers or one or more processors to retrieve instructions, code and/or data structures for implementation of the techniques described in this disclosure. A computer program product may include a computer-readable medium.
[0363]
By way of example, and not limitating, such computer-readable storage media can comprise RAM, ROM, EEPROM, CD-ROM or other optical disk storage, magnetic disk storage, or other magnetic storage devices, flash memory, or any other medium that can be used to store desired program code in the form of instructions or data structures and that can be accessed by a computer. Also, any connection is properly termed a computer-readable medium. For example, if instructions are transmitted from a website, server, or other remote source using a coaxial cable, fiber optic cable, twisted pair, digital subscriber line (DSL) , or wireless technologies such as infrared, radio, and microwave, then the coaxial cable, fiber optic cable, twisted pair, DSL, or wireless technologies such as infrared, radio, and microwave are included in the definition of medium. It should be understood, however, that computer-readable storage media and data storage media do not include connections, carrier waves, signals, or other transitory media, but are instead directed to non-transitory, tangible storage media. Disk and disc, as used herein, includes compact disc (CD) , laser disc, optical disc, digital versatile disc (DVD) , floppy disk and Blu-ray disc, where disks usually reproduce data magnetically, while discs reproduce data optically with lasers. Combinations of the above should also be included within the scope of computer-readable media.
[0364]
Instructions may be executed by one or more processors, such as one or more digital signal processors (DSPs) , general purpose microprocessors, application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) , field programmable logic arrays (FPGAs) , or other equivalent integrated or discrete logic circuitry. Accordingly, the term “processor, ” as used herein may refer to any of the foregoing structure or any other structure suitable for implementation of the techniques described herein. In addition, in some aspects, the functionality described herein may be provided within dedicated hardware and/or software modules configured for encoding and decoding, or incorporated in a combined codec. Also, the techniques could be fully implemented in one or more circuits or logic elements.
[0365]
The techniques of this disclosure may be implemented in a wide variety of devices or apparatuses, including a wireless handset, an integrated circuit (IC) or a set of ICs (e.g., a chip set) . Various components, modules, or units are described in this disclosure to emphasize functional aspects of devices configured to perform the disclosed techniques, but do not necessarily require realization by different hardware units. Rather, as described above, various units may be combined in a codec hardware unit or provided by a collection of interoperative hardware units, including one or more processors as described above, in conjunction with suitable software and/or firmware.

Claims

[Claim 1]
A coding method, wherein the coding includes decoding or encoding, and the method comprises: determining whether at least one of two blocks is predicted by application of combined inter-intra prediction (CIIP) , wherein the two blocks include a first block (block Q) and a second block (block P) , and wherein the two blocks are associated with a boundary; and setting a boundary strength (Bs) of the boundary to a first value when at least one of the two blocks is predicted by application of CIIP; or setting a boundary strength (Bs) of the boundary to a second value when none of the two blocks is predicted by application of CIIP.
[Claim 2]
The method of claim 1, wherein the setting the Bs of the boundary to the first value comprises: setting the Bs of the boundary to the first value when the first block is predicted by application of CIIP, or when the second block is predicted by application of CIIP.
[Claim 3]
The method of claim 1 or 2, wherein the method further comprises: parsing a bitstream to obtain a flag, wherein the flag is used to indicate whether at least one of the two blocks is predicted by application of CIIP.
[Claim 4]
The method of any one of claims 1-3, wherein the method further comprises. determining whether at least one of two blocks is predicted by application of intra prediction.
[Claim 5]
The method of claim 4, wherein the method comprises: setting the Bs of the boundary to the first value when none of the two blocks is predicted by application of intra prediction and when at least one of the two blocks is predicted by application of CIIP.
[Claim 6]
The method of any one of claim 1-5, the first value 2 or 1.
[Claim 7]
The method of claim 4, wherein the method comprises: setting the Bs of the boundary to the second value when none of the two blocks is predicted by application of intra prediction and when none of the two blocks is predicted by application of CIIP.
[Claim 8]
The method of any one of claims 1-7, wherein the second value is 1 when at least one of the two blocks (P and Q) has non-zero transform coefficients.
[Claim 9]
The method of claim 1, wherein the method further comprises: deriving an original Bs of the boundary based on VVC draft 3.0; wherein when a value of the original Bs is less than a threshold, the first value equals to a sum of the value of the original Bs and a constant; wherein when a value of the original Bs is no less than the threshold, wherein the first value equals to the value of the original Bs.
[Claim 10]
The method of claim 9, wherein the threshold equals to 2.
[Claim 11]
The method of claim 9 or 10, wherein the constant equals to 1.
[Claim 12]
The method of any one claims 1-11, wherein the first value is same as or different from the second value.
[Claim 13]
The method of any one claims 1-12, wherein the method further comprising: performing deblocking when a value of the Bs is greater than zero for a luma component; or performing deblocking when the value of the Bs is greater than 1 for chroma components, wherein the value of the Bs is one of the first value or the second value.
[Claim 14]
The method of any one of claim 1-13, wherein when a block is predicted by application of CIIP, the block is considered as a block with intra prediction when performing deblocking, and wherein the block is the first block or the second block.
[Claim 15]
The method of any one of claim 1-14, wherein when a block is predicted by application of CIIP, the block is considered as a block that is predicted by application of inter prediction when constructing Most Probable Mode (MPM) list, and wherein the block is the first block or the second block.
[Claim 16]
The method of any one of claim 1-15, wherein when a block is predicted by application of CIIP, the block is considered as a block that is predicted by application of inter prediction when performing Motion Vector Prediction (MVP) , and wherein the block is the first block or the second block.
[Claim 17]
The method of any one of claim 1-16, wherein when a block is predicted by application of CIIP, the block is considered as a block that is predicted by application of intra prediction when constructing Most Probable Mode (MPM) list, and wherein the block is the first block or the second block.
[Claim 18]
The method of any one of claim 1-17, wherein when a block is predicted by application of CIIP, the block is considered as a block that is predicted by application of intra prediction when performing Motion Vector Prediction (MVP) , and wherein the block is the first block or the second block.
[Claim 19]
A coding method, wherein the coding includes encoding or decoding, comprising: determining whether a coding block of a boundary is predicted by application of combined inter-intra prediction (CIIP) ; and setting a boundary strength (Bs) of the boundary to a first value when the coding block is a block that is predicted by application of CIIP; or setting a boundary strength (Bs) of the boundary to a second value when the coding block is not a block that is predicted by application of CIIP.
[Claim 20]
The method of claim 19, wherein two blocks are associated with the boundary, wherein the two blocks include a first block (block Q) and a second block (block P) , and the coding block of the boundary is the first block.
[Claim 21]
The method of claim 20, wherein when the boundary is a horizontal boundary, and wherein the two blocks belong to different Coding Tree Units (CTUs) , the first block belongs to a down side of the boundary.
[Claim 22]
The method of any one of claims 19-21, the method further comprises: parsing a bitstream to obtain a flag, wherein the flag is used to indicate whether the coding block of the boundary is predicted by application of CIIP.
[Claim 23]
The method of any one of claims 19-22, the method further comprises. determining whether the coding block of the boundary is predicted by application of intra prediction.
[Claim 24]
The method of claim 23, wherein the method comprises: setting the Bs of the boundary to the first value when the coding block is not predicted by application of intra prediction and when the coding block is predicted by application of CIIP, wherein the first value is 2 or 1.
[Claim 25]
The method of claim 23, wherein when the coding block is not predicted by application of intra prediction and is not predicted by application of CIIP, the second value is 1 when the coding block has non-zero transform coefficients.
[Claim 26]
The method of any one of claims 19-22, wherein the method further comprises: deriving an original Bs of the boundary based on VVC draft 3.0; wherein when a value of the original Bs is less than a threshold, the first value equals a sum of the value of the original Bs and a constant; wherein when a value of the original Bs is no less than the threshold, wherein the first value equals to the value of the original Bs.
[Claim 27]
The method of claim 26, wherein the threshold equals to 2.
[Claim 28]
The method of claim 26 or 27, wherein the constant equals to 1.
[Claim 29]
The method of any one claims 19-28, wherein the method further comprising: performing deblocking when a value of the Bs is greater than zero for a luma component; or performing deblocking when the value of the Bs is greater than 1 for chroma components, wherein the value of the Bs is one of the first value or the second value.
[Claim 30]
The method of any one of claim 19-29, wherein when the coding block is predicted by application of CIIP, the coding block is considered as a block that is predicted by application of intra prediction when performing deblocking.
[Claim 31]
The method of any one of claim 19-30, wherein when the coding block is predicted by application of CIIP, the coding block is considered as a block that is predicted by application of inter prediction when constructing Most Probable Mode (MPM) list.
[Claim 32]
The method of any one of claim 19-31, wherein when the coding block is predicted by application of CIIP, the coding block is considered as a block that is predicted by application of inter prediction when performing Motion Vector Prediction.
[Claim 33]
The method of any one of claim 19-32, wherein when the coding block is predicted by application of CIIP, the coding block is considered as a block that is predicted by application of intra prediction when constructing Most Probable Mode (MPM) list.
[Claim 34]
The method of any one of claim 19-33, wherein when the coding block is predicted by application of CIIP, the coding block is considered as a block that is predicted by application of intra prediction when performing Motion Vector Prediction.
[Claim 35]
The method of any one claims 19-34, wherein the first value is same as or different from the second value.
[Claim 36]
An apparatus for deriving a boundary strength, wherein the apparatus is an encoder or a decoder, and the apparatus comprises: a determining unit, configured to determine whether at least one of two blocks is predicted by application of combined inter-intra prediction (CIIP) , wherein the two blocks include a first block (block Q) and a second block (block P) , and wherein the two blocks are associated with a boundary; a setting unit, configured to set a boundary strength (Bs) of the boundary to a first value when at least one of the two blocks is predicted by application of CIIP, and set a boundary strength (Bs) of the boundary to a second value when none of the two blocks is predicted by application of CIIP.
[Claim 37]
The apparatus of claim 36, wherein the setting unit is configured to set the Bs of the boundary to the first value when the first block is predicted by application of CIIP, or when the second block is predicted by application of CIIP.
[Claim 38]
The apparatus of claim 36 or 37, wherein the apparatus further comprises: a parsing unit, configured to parse a bitstream to obtain a flag, wherein the flag is used to indicate whether at least one of the two blocks is predicted by application of CIIP.
[Claim 39]
The apparatus of any one of claims 36-38, wherein the determining unit is further configured to determine whether at least one of two blocks is predicted by application of intra prediction.
[Claim 40]
The apparatus of claim 39, wherein the setting unit is configured to set the Bs of the boundary to the first value when none of the two blocks is predicted by application of intra prediction and when at least one of the two blocks is predicted by application of CIIP.
[Claim 41]
The apparatus of any one of claim 36-40, the first value 2 or 1.
[Claim 42]
The apparatus of claim 39, wherein the setting unit is configured to set the Bs of the boundary to the second value when none of the two blocks is predicted by application of intra prediction and when none of the two blocks is predicted by application of CIIP.
[Claim 43]
The apparatus of any one of claims 36-42, wherein the second value is 1 when at least one of the two blocks (P and Q) has non-zero transform coefficients.
[Claim 44]
An encoder (20) comprising processing circuitry for carrying out the method according to any one of claims 1 to 35.
[Claim 45]
A decoder (30) comprising processing circuitry for carrying out the method according to any one of claims 1 to 35.
[Claim 46]
A computer program product comprising a program code for performing the method according to any one of claims 1 to 35.
[Claim 47]
A decoder, comprising: one or more processors; and a non-transitory computer-readable storage medium coupled to the processors and storing programming for execution by the processors, wherein the programming, when executed by the processors, configures the decoder to carry out the method according to any one of claims 1 to 35.
[Claim 48]
An encoder, comprising: one or more processors; and a non-transitory computer-readable storage medium coupled to the processors and storing programming for execution by the processors, wherein the programming, when executed by the processors, configures the encoder to carry out the method according to any one of claims 1 to 35.

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