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1. WO2020113247 - METASURFACE COVERING MATERIALS FOR ANTENNA ARRAY RADIATION RECOVERY, GAIN ENHANCEMENT, AND MPE REDUCTION

Note: Text based on automatic Optical Character Recognition processes. Please use the PDF version for legal matters

[ EN ]

METASURFACE COVERING MATERIALS FOR ANTENNA ARRAY RADIATION RECOVERY, GAIN ENHANCEMENT, AND MPE REDUCTION

TECHNICAL FIELD

[0001] This disclosure relates to metasurface covering materials, particularly, for antenna array radiation recovery, gain enhancement, and compliance with maximum permissible exposure (MPE) requirements.

BACKGROUND

[0002] 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) user equipment (UE) maximum power for power class 3 limits the minimum equivalent isotropic radiated power (EIRP) peak, maximum output power limit, and minimum 50th percentile cumulative distribution function (CDF) distribution of radiated power. In addition, Federal Communications Commission (FCC) MPE requirements limit the maximum radio frequency (RF) exposure. Current covering material for antenna array distorts radiation pattern, reduces gain, and suffers from MPE issues, thereby limiting the antenna array scanning coverage, reducing communication range and data throughput, and consuming more power.

SUMMARY

[0003] The present disclosure describes metasurface covering materials for antenna array radiation recovery, gain enhancement, and exposure reduction as measured by the maximum permissible exposure (MPE) standards.

[0004] In a first implementation, an antenna assembly includes an antenna array, a dielectric cover, and a superstrate metal patch with coupling lines, where the superstrate metal patch with coupling lines is placed under the dielectric cover and above the antenna array.

[0005] In a second implementation, an electronic device includes a non-transitory memory storage, one or more hardware processors, an antenna array, a dielectric cover, and a superstrate metal patch with coupling lines, where the superstrate metal patch with coupling lines is placed under the dielectric cover and above the antenna array.

[0006] An antenna assembly according to the present disclosure may include one, some, or all of the following features. For example, the superstrate metal patch with coupling lines can be placed on a surface of the dielectric cover, within the dielectric cover, or both. As another example, the antenna array can be a 5G mmWave antenna array covering 24 Gigahertz (GHz) to 100 GHz, including 60 GHz IEEE 802. llad WiFi and 76 GHz Car Radar. As yet another example, the dielectric cover can be a glass, plastic, or ceramic dielectric cover or any dielectric non-conductor. As yet another example, the coupling lines can be connected to the superstrate metal patch and have a length of about l/2. l is the wavelength of the antenna array operating frequency.

[0007] The details of one or more implementations of the subject matter of this specification are set forth in the accompanying drawings and the description. Other features, aspects, and advantages of the subject matter will become apparent from the description, the drawings, and the claims.

DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS

[0008] FIG. 1 is a diagram illustrating performance measurements of an antenna array, according to an implementation.

[0009] FIG. 2 is a graph illustrating cumulative distribution function (CDF) of equivalent isotropic radiated power (EIRP) of an antenna array, according to an implementation.

[0010] FIG. 3 is a diagram illustrating current density on a superstate metal patch below a glass surface, according to an implementation.

[0011] FIG. 4 is a schematic exploded view of an antenna assembly, according to an implementation.

[0012] FIG. 5 is a top view of a superstate metal patch with coupling lines, according to an implementation.

[0013] FIG. 6 is a diagram illustrating array pattern scanning of a superstate metal patch, according to an implementation.

[0014] FIG. 7 is a diagram illustrating other examples of a superstate metal patch with coupling lines, according to an implementation.

[0015] FIG. 8 is a block diagram of an example system, according to an implementation.

[0016] Like reference numbers and designations in the various drawings indicate like elements.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0017] The following detailed description describes metasurface covering materials for antenna array and is presented to enable any person skilled in the art to make and use the disclosed subject matter in the context of one or more particular implementations.

[0018] Various modifications, alterations, and permutations of the disclosed implementations can be made and will be readily apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art, and the general principles defined may be applied to other implementations and applications, without departing from scope of the disclosure. In some instances, details unnecessary to obtain an understanding of the described subject matter may be omitted so as to not obscure one or more described implementations with unnecessary detail inasmuch as such details are within the skill of one of ordinary skill in the art. The present disclosure is not intended to be limited to the described or illustrated implementations, but to be accorded the widest scope consistent with the described principles and features.

[0019] 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) user equipment (UE) maximum power for power class 3 limits the minimum equivalent isotropic radiated power (EIRP) peak, maximum output power limit, and minimum 50th percentile cumulative distribution function (CDF) distribution of radiated power. In addition, Federal Communications Commission (FCC) maximum permissible exposure (MPE) requirements limit the maximum radio frequency (RF) exposure. Current covering material for antenna arrays distorts radiation pattern, reduces gain, and suffers from MPE issues, thereby limiting the antenna array scanning coverage, reducing communication range and data throughput, and consuming more power. Using many sets of antenna arrays and complex algorithms can mitigate part of the problem. However, it is expensive, inefficient, and sometimes impractical. In some implementations, antenna arrays can be designed with complicated 3-dimensional (3D) structures. However, such antenna arrays have a large volume, and are thereby not suitable for a low profile smart phone.

[0020] The present disclosure describes example implementations of an antenna assembly. For example, proposed antenna assemblies described herein are conformal to the current smart phone form factor, have a low profile and thin layer(s), are passive, and are easy to implement and modify according to antenna design type and antenna location. By using passive conductive coupling patches with coupling lines above an antenna array and below covering material, antenna gain can be improved, radiation patterns distorted by the covering material can be restored, and an exposure as measured by the MPE standards can be reduced.

In addition, the proposed antenna assembly does not require active circuits or algorithms. It can be applied to various placement and types of antenna, and it is suitable for low profile wireless UEs with dielectric covers.

[0021] The subject matter described in the present disclosure can be implemented in particular implementations so as to realize one or more of the following advantages. First, the described approach can reduce power consumption (e.g., by 1.0 dB) of antenna array after normalizing the 3GPP maximum UE power. Second, the described approach applies a passive structure and does not require changes to the antenna array. Third, the described approach can reduce an exposure as measured by the MPE standards of the antenna array (e.g., with a reduction capability of up to 2.0 dB). Fourth, the described approach is a passive technique to improve antenna gain and reduce the exposure as measured by the MPE standards at the same time, and has the ability to choose or tune the balance between the antenna gain and the exposure as measured by the MPE standards as required. Fifth, the described approach can be applied to various wireless devices, and material properties and coupling structures can be modified based on placement and type of the antenna array. Sixth, the described approach can reduce or reverse radiation distortion caused by dielectric cover of the antenna array. Seventh, the described approach can preserve the scanning range of the antenna array, and satisfy the EIRP 50 percentile 3D coverage requirement for 3GPP. Eighth, the FCC MPE reduction capability can achieve less power back-off, thereby ensuring maximum range of coverage. Ninth, the described approach can be used in 5G antenna technology.

[0022] FIG. 1 is a diagram 100 illustrating performance measurements of an antenna array, according to an implementation. The diagram 100 includes performance measurements for an antenna array with four antennas 102, the antenna array with a dielectric cover 104, the antenna array with the dielectric cover and a superstrate metal patch 106, the antenna array with the dielectric cover and the superstrate metal patch with six sets of coupling lines 108, and the antenna array with the dielectric cover and the superstrate metal patch with two sets of coupling lines 110. For each antenna array structure 120, the diagram 100 shows glass relative dielectric permittivity (Er) 112, antenna gain 114, MPE 116, antenna radiation pattern 118, and energy density diagram 122.

[0023] As illustrated in FIG. 1, the antenna array with four antennas 102 has an Er of

7, an antenna gain of8.62 decibels relative to isotropic (dBi), and an exposure of 1.91 milliwatts per square centimeter (mW/cm2). With the dielectric cover, the antenna gain decreases to 7 dBi and the exposure decreases to 1.26 mW/cm2. In addition, with the dielectric cover, antenna radiation pattern is distorted, and energy is concentrated toward the center as shown on energy density diagram. To improve the antenna gain, three superstrate metal patches (e.g., 106, 108, and 110) are tested.

[0024] By adding a superstrate metal patch (e.g., each antenna of the four antennas is covered with a metal patch) 106, the antenna gain increases to 10.42 dBi. However, the exposure also increases to 2.99 mW/cm2. By adding a superstrate metal patch with six sets of coupling lines 108, the antenna gain increases to 9.64 dBi, and the exposure slightly increases to 2.03 mW/cm2. By adding a superstrate metal patch with two sets of coupling lines 110, the antenna gain increases to 8.68 dBi, and the exposure decreases to 1.14 mW/cm2. In addition, with a superstrate metal patch, the antenna radiation pattern is restored, and energy is dispersed as shown on the energy density diagram.

[0025] As illustrated in FIG. 1, adding a superstrate metal patch with coupling lines over a 5G mmWave array, 2.64/1.86 dB gain improvement and 0.57/2.29 dB exposure reduction can be achieved. The radiation pattern can be restored from dielectric cover distortion. In addition, the passive coupling structure can enhance radiation aperture of the antenna array with controlled amplitude and phase for enhanced antenna gain. The coupling lines can spread near field energy, thereby reducing exposure as measured by the MPE standards, restoring radiation pattern from dielectric cover distortion, and further improving antenna gain.

[0026] The dielectric cover can be made of a dielectric and non-conductive material.

In some implementations, the dielectric cover can include a glass cover, a plastic cover, and a ceramic cover. The superstrate metal patch with coupling lines can be on the surface of the dielectric cover, within the dielectric cover, or a combination of both. The antenna array can be a 5G mmWave antenna covering, for example, 24 GHz to 100 GHz. In some implementations, the antenna array can be a 60 GHz IEEE 802.1 lad WiFi antenna or a 76 GHz car radar antenna.

[0027] For example, a superstrate metal patch with coupling lines can be a passive coupling patch and coupling line structure under a glass dielectric cover. In some implementations, the passive structure can be conformal to the dielectric cover. Each antenna in an antenna array has a corresponding coupling patch above it to increase radiation aperture of the particular antenna. The coupling patch can be relatively larger than the antenna element below. For example, if an antenna element is a square with a side length of about half a wavelength (l), the corresponding coupling patch can be a square with a side length of about 50% to 80% of l based on the height of the dielectric material l is the wavelength of the operating frequency of the antenna. For example, at 30 GHz, one l is 10 millimeter (mm). In some implementations, the superstrate metal patch with coupling lines is placed approximately l/2 above the antenna. Coupling lines can be extended from coupling patches to control phase and amplitude of antenna resonance. For example, coupling lines can be extended outward from coupling patches in opposite directions (e.g., at about 90 degree angle to the side of coupling patches from which coupling lines extend outward). In some implementations, coupling patches can be planar or substantially planar. In some implementations, the coupling lines can be straight lines, curved lines, or closed-loop lines. The coupling lines are connected to the coupling patches and are extended from adjacent coupling patches. For example, a pair of coupling lines can extend outward from two adjacent coupling patches. The pair of coupling lines can be parallel or substantially parallel to each other. Further, as shown in the figures, the pair of coupling lines can be matched with another pair of coupling lines extending outward in the opposite direction. The coupling lines can also extend from comers of the coupling patches. In some implementations, the coupling lines and the coupling patches can be made as a single piece. In some implementations, the coupling lines and the coupling patches can be made as separated pieces and assembled together. For example, the coupling lines and the coupling patches can be glued, soldered, or welded together. The coupling lines and the coupling patches can be on a same layer or on different layers (e.g., in a 3D structure). In some implementations, the coupling lines can have a length of about l/2 and a width of about 10% of l. A coupling line can be coupled with an adjacent coupling line (e.g., a set of coupling lines) to distribute energy to reduce nearfield power density and to reduce exposure as measured by the MPE standards. In some implementations, the number of coupling patches and the number of coupling lines can be varied to achieve a certain gain improvement and a certain exposure reduction.

[0028] By engineering the passive conductive surface of the dielectric material, radiation aperture of the antenna can be enlarged to increase antenna gain. In addition, the coupling lines can control amplitude and phase of the antenna, thereby restoring radiation pattern distorted by applying the dielectric glass cover.

[0029] FIG. 2 is a graph 200 illustrating a cumulative distribution function (CDF) of equivalent isotropic radiated power (EIRP) of an antenna array, according to an implementation. The graph 200 includes CDF of EIRP for an antenna array without a dielectric cover 202, the antenna array with the dielectric cover and a superstrate metal patch 204, the antenna array with the dielectric cover and the superstate metal patch with six sets of coupling lines 206, and the antenna array with the dielectric cover and the superstate metal patch with two sets of coupling lines 208.

[0030] For example, regulating the maximum power to 22.5 dBm, the input power for

202, 204, 206, and 208 are 12.8 dBm, 11.2 dBm, 11.8 dBm, and 11.7 dBm, respectively. As illustated in FIG. 2, all of 202, 204, 206, and 208 satisfy the EIRP 50th percentile at 11.5 dBm requirement. In addition, the antenna array with the dielectric cover and the superstate metal patch with six sets of coupling lines 206 shows its array coverage performance between the antenna array without a dielectric cover 202 and the antenna array with the dielectric cover and a substarte metal patch 204.

[0031] In operation, with one unit of energy delivered to an antenna, a high gain antenna can have a narrow beam width, and a low gain antenna can have a broad beam width. The high gain antenna can improve distance of communication in one direction. However, with the narrow beam width, the high gain antenna can provide less coverage in the 360 degrees coverage. The low gain antenna cannot improve distance of communication in one direction. However, with the broad beam width, the low gain antenna can provide more coverage in the 360 degrees coverage.

[0032] The graph 200 shows the 360 degrees coverage of different antenna scanning arrays. The antenna array without a dielectric cover 202 can have a low antenna gain and a broad beam width. As illustrated in FIG. 2, the CDF for the antenna array without a dielectric cover 202 at 50% is about 15 EIRP. EIRP is conducted power plus antenna gain. In other words, using the antenna array without a dielectric cover 202, the antenna array can provide a high overall coverage but with a short one directional communication range. The antenna array with the dielectric cover and a superstate metal patch 204 can have a high antenna gain and a narrow beam width. As illustrated in FIG. 2, the CDF for the antenna array with the dielectric cover and a superstate metal patch 204 at 50% is about 12 EIRP, and the CDF for the antenna array with the dielectric cover and the superstate metal patch with six sets of coupling lines 206 at 50% is about 14 EIRP. In other words, the antenna array with the dielectric cover and the superstate metal patch with six sets of coupling lines 206 can reduce exposure as measured by the MPE standards, and achieve antenna gain between the antenna array without a dielectric cover 202 and the antenna array with the dielectric cover and a substarte metal patch 204.

[0033] FIG. 3 is a diagram 300 illustrating current density on a superstrate metal patch below a glass surface, according to an implementation. The diagram 300 includes a current

density diagram 302 of a superstate metal patch without coupling lines and a current density diagram 304 of a superstate metal patch with six sets of coupling lines.

[0034] As illustrated in FIG. 3, l/2 arrows, shown on the superstate metal patch, are in phase and well defined on the coupling patches, and results in a good boresight radiation pattern. In 304, left-pair and right-pair of l/2 current, shown next to the coupling lines, are well defined and opposite in phase, thereby cancelling each other at bore-sight and ensuring a good boresight radiation pattern. This extended self-resonating structure can trap and radiate energy between open circuit and virtual open circuit. As a result, power density can be spread out, thereby reducing exposure while increasing antenna gain. In other words, a large radiation aperture can achieve increased antenna gain and a controlled radiation pattern.

[0035] FIG. 4 is a schematic exploded view 400 of an antenna assembly, according to an implementation. The antenna assembly includes an antenna array having four antennas (402, 404, 406, and 408) and a superstate metal patch having four coupling patches (412, 414, 416, and 418). For example, each antenna is about 2.4 mm2 in size. Each coupling patch is about 4.5 mm2 in size and is a superstrate coupling patch under a glass. In some implementations, each coupling patch can have a thickness between 0.1 mm and 1 mm. For example, each coupling patch can have a thickness of about 0.5 mm. A gap between an antenna and a corresponding coupling patch (e.g., antenna 402 and coupling patch 412) has a height of about 0.5 mm.

[0036] Table 1 shows antenna gain by varying the coupling patch size and the gap height. As shown in Table 1, when the coupling patch size is 4.5 mm2 and the gap height is 0.5 mm, a maximum antenna gain of 10.42 dBi is achieved.


Table 1

[0037] Table 2 shows exposure by varying the coupling patch size and the gap height.

As shown in Table 2, when the coupling patch size is 4.5 mm2 and the gap height is 0.5 mm, the exposure as measured by the MPE standards is 2.99 mW/cm2. As described in FIG. 1 above and shown in Tables 1-2, adding a superstrate metal patch to an antenna array with a glass dielectric cover can increase antenna gain from 7.0 dBi to 10.42 dBi. However, the exposure is also increased from 1.26 mW/cm2 to 2.99 mW/cm2. That is 3.42 dB gain improvement and 0.34 dB of exposure increment.


Table 2

[0038] FIG. 5 is a top view 500 of a superstrate metal patch with coupling lines, according to an implementation. The top view 500 includes a top view 502 of a superstrate metal patch with six sets of coupling lines and a top view 504 of a superstrate metal patch with two sets of coupling lines. Both superstrate metal patches have four coupling patches. For example, each coupling patch is about 4.5 mm2 in size, and is a superstrate coupling patch under a glass. Each coupling line has a thickness of about 0.5 mm and a length between 3 mm and 7 mm.

[0039] Table 3 shows antenna gain and exposure as measured by the MPE standards by varying the coupling line length for the superstrate metal patch with six sets of coupling lines. As shown in Table 3, when the coupling line length is 5 mm, antenna gain is 9.64 dBi and exposure is 2.03 mW/cm2. That is 2.64 dB gain improvement and 0.34 dB of exposure reduction. Therefore, 5 mm coupling lines can be used for six sets of coupling lines to balance gain improvement and exposure reduction.


Table 3

[0040] Table 4 shows antenna gain and exposure as measured by the MPE standards by varying the coupling line length for the superstate metal patch with two sets of coupling lines. As shown in Table 4, when the coupling line length is 7 mm, antenna gain is 8.86 dBi and exposure is 1.14 mW/cm2. That is 1.86 dB gain improvement and 2.29 dB of exposure reduction. Therefore, 7 mm coupling lines can be used for two sets of coupling lines to balance gain improvement and exposure reduction.


Table 4

[0041] FIG. 6 is a diagram 600 illustrating array pattern scanning of a superstate metal patch, according to an implementation. The diagram 600 includes array pattern scanning of a superstate metal patch without coupling lines 602 and array pattern scanning of a superstate metal patch with six sets of coupling lines 604. As illustrated in FIG. 6, adding six sets of coupling lines causes current density to be more evenly distributed. In addition, adding six sets of coupling lines causes exposure reduction, which reflects less power back off and corresponding gain or range improvement.

[0042] FIG. 7 is a diagram 700 illustrating other examples of a superstrate metal patch with coupling lines, according to an implementation. The diagram 700 includes a superstrate metal patch using a same surface (or layer) 702 and a superstrate metal patch using different surfaces (or layers) 704. As illustrated in FIG. 7, 704 provides a 3D structure for a superstrate metal patch. While conforming to a low-profile structure of a dielectric cover, the conductive patches can have 3D structures. For example, the coupling patches and the coupling lines can be on different surfaces (or layers). In addition, the coupling patches can have different shapes and the coupling lines can be curved or closed-loop. The 3D structure can be complicated, but provide large degree of freedom for optimization. In some implementations, active RF components (e.g., RF switches) can be added to further enhance performance.

[0043] FIG. 8 is a block diagram of an example system 800, according to an implementation. The system 800 can include a terminal 802 and a network 830. The terminal can include an antenna assembly 820 described previously in this disclosure, e.g., the antenna assembly in FIG. 4.

[0044] In some aspects, the terminal 802 may comprise a computer that includes an input device, such as a keypad, keyboard, touch screen, or other device that can accept user information, and an output device that conveys information associated with the operation of the terminal 802, including digital data, visual, or audio information (or a combination of information), or a graphical user interface (GUI).

[0045] The terminal 802 can serve in a role as a client, network component, a server, a database or other persistency, or any other component (or a combination of roles) of a computer system for performing the subject matter described in the instant disclosure. The illustrated terminal 802 is communicably coupled with the network 830. In some implementations, one or more components of the terminal 802 may be configured to operate within environments, including cloud-computing-based, local, global, or other environment (or a combination of environments).

[0046] At a high level, the terminal 802 is an electronic computing device operable to receive, transmit, process, store, or manage data and information associated with the described subject matter. According to some implementations, the terminal 802 may also include, or be communicably coupled with, an application server, e-mail server, web server, caching server, streaming data server, or other server (or a combination of servers).

[0047] The terminal 802 can receive requests over the network 830 from a client application (for example, executing on another terminal 802) and respond to the received requests by processing the received requests using an appropriate software application(s). In addition, requests may also be sent to the terminal 802 from internal users (for example, from a command console or by other appropriate access methods), external or third-parties, other automated applications, as well as any other appropriate entities, individuals, systems, or computers.

[0048] Each of the components of the terminal 802 can communicate using a system bus 803. In some implementations, any or all of the components of the terminal 802, hardware or software (or a combination of both hardware and software), may interface with each other or the interface 804 (or a combination of both), over the system bus 803 using an application programming interface (API) 812 or a service layer 813 (or a combination of the API 812 and service layer 813). The API 812 may include specifications for routines, data structures, and object classes. The API 812 may be either computer-language independent or dependent and refer to a complete interface, a single function, or even a set of APIs. The service layer 813 provides software services to the terminal 802 or other components (whether or not illustrated) that are communicably coupled to the terminal 802. The functionality of the terminal 802 may be accessible for all service consumers using this service layer. Software services, such as those provided by the service layer 813, provide reusable, defined functionalities through a defined interface. For example, the interface may be software written in JAVA, C++, or other suitable language providing data in extensible markup language (XML) format or other suitable formats. While illustrated as an integrated component of the terminal 802, alternative implementations may illustrate the API 812 or the service layer 813 as stand-alone components in relation to other components of the terminal 802 or other components (whether or not illustrated) that are communicably coupled to the terminal 802. Moreover, any or all parts of the API 812 or the service layer 813 may be implemented as child or sub-modules of another software module, enterprise application, or hardware module without departing from the scope of this disclosure.

[0049] The terminal 802 includes an interface 804. Although illustrated as a single interface 804 in FIG. 8, two or more interfaces 804 may be used according to particular needs, desires, or particular implementations of the terminal 802. The interface 804 is used by the terminal 802 for communicating with other systems that are connected to the network 830 (whether illustrated or not) in a distributed environment. Generally, the interface 804 includes logic encoded in software or hardware (or a combination of software and hardware) and is operable to communicate with the network 830. More specifically, the interface 804 may include software supporting one or more communication protocols associated with communications such that the network 830 or interface’s hardware is operable to communicate physical signals within and outside of the illustrated terminal 802.

[0050] The terminal 802 includes a processor 805. Although illustrated as a single processor 805 in FIG. 8, two or more processors may be used according to particular needs, desires, or particular implementations of the terminal 802. Generally, the processor 805 executes instructions and manipulates data to perform the operations of the terminal 802 and any algorithms, methods, functions, processes, flows, and procedures as described in the instant disclosure.

[0051] The terminal 802 also includes a database 806 that can hold data for the terminal 802 or other components (or a combination of both) that can be connected to the network 830 (whether illustrated or not). For example, database 806 can be an in-memory, conventional, or other type of database storing data consistent with this disclosure. In some implementations, database 806 can be a combination of two or more different database types (for example, a hybrid in-memory and conventional database) according to particular needs, desires, or particular implementations of the terminal 802 and the described functionality. Although illustrated as a single database 806 in FIG. 8, two or more databases (of the same or combination of types) can be used according to particular needs, desires, or particular implementations of the terminal 802 and the described functionality. While database 806 is illustrated as an integral component of the terminal 802, in alternative implementations, database 806 can be external to the terminal 802.

[0052] The terminal 802 also includes a memory 807 that can hold data for the terminal

802 or other components (or a combination of both) that can be connected to the network 830 (whether illustrated or not). For example, memory 807 can be Random Access Memory (RAM), Read-Only Memory (ROM), optical, magnetic, and the like, storing data consistent with this disclosure. In some implementations, memory 807 can be a combination of two or more different types of memory (for example, a combination of RAM and magnetic storage) according to particular needs, desires, or particular implementations of the terminal 802 and the described functionality. Although illustrated as a single memory 807 in FIG. 8, two or more memories 807 (of the same or a combination of types) can be used according to particular needs, desires, or particular implementations of the terminal 802 and the described functionality. While memory 807 is illustrated as an integral component of the terminal 802, in alternative implementations, memory 807 can be external to the terminal 802.

[0053] The application 808 is an algorithmic software engine providing functionality according to particular needs, desires, or particular implementations of the terminal 802, particularly with respect to functionality described in this disclosure. For example, application 808 can serve as one or more components, modules, or applications. Further, although illustrated as a single application 808, the application 808 may be implemented as multiple applications 808 on the terminal 802. In addition, although illustrated as integral to the terminal 802, in alternative implementations, the application 808 can be external to the terminal 802.

[0054] The terminal 802 can also include a power supply 814. The power supply 814 can include a rechargeable or non-rechargeable battery that can be configured to be either user-or non-user-replaceable. In some implementations, the power supply 814 can include power-

conversion or management circuits (including recharging, standby, or other power management functionality). In some implementations, the power supply 814 can include a power plug to allow the terminal 802 to be plugged into a wall socket or other power source to, for example, power the terminal 802 or recharge a rechargeable battery.

[0055] The terminal 802 can also include an antenna assembly 820. For example, the antenna assembly 820 can include an antenna array, a dielectric cover, and a superstrate metal patch with coupling lines. The superstate metal patch with coupling lines can be placed under the dielectric cover and above the antenna array.

[0056] There may be any number of terminals 802 associated with, or external to, a computer system containing terminal 802, each terminal 802 communicating over network 830. Further, the term “client,” “user,” and other appropriate terminology may be used interchangeably, as appropriate, without departing from the scope of this disclosure. Moreover, this disclosure contemplates that many users may use one terminal 802, or that one user may use multiple terminals 802.

[0057] Described implementations of the subject matter can include one or more features, alone or in combination.

[0058] In a first implementation, an antenna assembly includes an antenna array, a dielectric cover, and a superstrate metal patch with coupling lines, where the superstrate metal patch with coupling lines is placed under the dielectric cover and above the antenna array.

[0059] The foregoing and other described implementations can each, optionally, include one or more of the following features:

[0060] A first feature, combinable with any of the following features, wherein the antenna array is a 5G mmWave antenna array, and the dielectric cover is a glass dielectric cover.

[0061] A second feature, combinable with any of the previous or following features, wherein the superstrate metal patch and the coupling lines are connected on a same layer, and the coupling lines are extended from the superstrate metal patch.

[0062] A third feature, combinable with any of the previous or following features, wherein the superstrate metal patch comprises more than one metal patches, each of the more than one metal patches is a square, and each coupling line is straight.

[0063] A fourth feature, combinable with any of the previous or following features, wherein the antenna array includes four connected antennas, the superstrate metal patch with coupling lines includes four metal patches, each metal patch is placed above a corresponding antenna, the coupling lines includes six pairs of coupling lines, and each pair of coupling lines have the same length.

[0064] A fifth feature, combinable with any of the previous or following features, wherein each antenna of the antenna array is about 2.4 square millimeters (mm2), each metal patch of the superstrate metal patch is about 4.5 mm2 and has a thickness less than 1 mm, a gap height between an antenna and a corresponding metal patch is about 0.5 mm, and each coupling line of the coupling lines has a thickness of about 0.5 mm and a length between 3 mm and 7 mm.

[0065] A sixth feature, combinable with any of the previous or following features, wherein the superstrate metal patch with coupling lines is placed about l/2 above the antenna array and l is wavelength of operating frequency of the antenna array.

[0066] In a second implementation, an electronic device includes a non-transitory memory storage, one or more hardware processors, an antenna array, a dielectric cover, and a superstrate metal patch with coupling lines, where the superstrate metal patch with coupling lines is placed under the dielectric cover and above the antenna array.

[0067] The foregoing and other described implementations can each, optionally, include one or more of the following features:

[0068] A first feature, combinable with any of the following features, wherein the antenna array is a 5G mmWave antenna array, and the dielectric cover is a glass dielectric cover.

[0069] A second feature, combinable with any of the previous or following features, wherein the superstrate metal patch and the coupling lines are connected on a same layer, and the coupling lines are extended from the superstrate metal patch.

[0070] A third feature, combinable with any of the previous or following features, wherein the superstrate metal patch comprises more than one metal patches, each of the more than one metal patches is a square, and each coupling line is straight.

[0071] A fourth feature, combinable with any of the previous or following features, wherein the antenna array includes four connected antennas, the superstrate metal patch with coupling lines includes four metal patches, each metal patch is placed above a corresponding antenna, the coupling lines includes six pairs of coupling lines, and each pair of coupling lines have the same length.

[0072] A fifth feature, combinable with any of the previous or following features, wherein each antenna of the antenna array is about 2.4 square millimeters (mm2), each metal

patch of the superstrate metal patch is about 4.5 mm2 and has a thickness less than 1 mm, a gap height between an antenna and a corresponding metal patch is about 0.5 mm, and each coupling line of the coupling lines has a thickness of about 0.5 mm and a length between 3 mm and 7 mm.

[0073] A sixth feature, combinable with any of the previous or following features, wherein the superstrate metal patch with coupling lines is placed about l/2 above the antenna array, and l is wavelength of operating frequency of the antenna array.

[0074] Implementations of the subject matter and the functional operations described in this specification can be implemented in digital electronic circuitry, in tangibly embodied computer software or firmware, in computer hardware, including the structures disclosed in this specification and their structural equivalents, or in combinations of one or more of them. Implementations of the subject matter described in this specification can be implemented as one or more computer programs, that is, one or more modules of computer program instructions encoded on a tangible, non-transitory, computer-readable computer-storage medium for execution by, or to control the operation of, data processing apparatus. Alternatively, or additionally, the program instructions can be encoded in/on an artificially generated propagated signal, for example, a machine-generated electrical, optical, or electromagnetic signal that is generated to encode information for transmission to suitable receiver apparatus for execution by a data processing apparatus. The computer-storage medium can be a machine-readable storage device, a machine-readable storage substrate, a random or serial access memory device, or a combination of computer-storage mediums.

[0075] The term“real-time,”“real time,”“realtime,”“real (fast) time (RFT),”“near(ly) real-time (NRT),”“quasi real-time,” or similar terms (as understood by one of ordinary skill in the art), means that an action and a response are temporally proximate such that an individual perceives the action and the response occurring substantially simultaneously. For example, the time difference for a response to display (or for an initiation of a display) of data following the individual’s action to access the data may be less than 1 ms, less than 1 sec., or less than 5 secs. While the requested data need not be displayed (or initiated for display) instantaneously, it is displayed (or initiated for display) without any intentional delay, taking into account processing limitations of a described computing system and time required to, for example, gather, accurately measure, analyze, process, store, or transmit the data.

[0076] The terms“data processing apparatus,”“computer,” or“electronic computer device” (or equivalent as understood by one of ordinary skill in the art) refer to data processing hardware and encompass all kinds of apparatus, devices, and machines for processing data, including by way of example, a programmable processor, a computer, or multiple processors or computers. The apparatus can also be or further include special purpose logic circuitry, for example, a Central Processing Unit (CPU), a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), or an Application-specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC). In some implementations, the data processing apparatus or special purpose logic circuitry (or a combination of the data processing apparatus or special purpose logic circuitry) may be hardware- or software-based (or a combination of both hardware- and software-based). The apparatus can optionally include code that creates an execution environment for computer programs, for example, code that constitutes processor firmware, a protocol stack, a database management system, an operating system, or a combination of execution environments. The present disclosure contemplates the use of data processing apparatuses with or without conventional operating systems, for example LINUX, UNIX, WINDOWS, MAC OS, ANDROID, IOS, or any other suitable conventional operating system.

[0077] A computer program, which may also be referred to or described as a program, software, a software application, a module, a software module, a script, or code can be written in any form of programming language, including compiled or interpreted languages, or declarative or procedural languages, and it can be deployed in any form, including as a stand-alone program or as a module, component, subroutine, or other unit suitable for use in a computing environment. A computer program may, but need not, correspond to a file in a file system. A program can be stored in a portion of a file that holds other programs or data, for example, one or more scripts stored in a markup language document, in a single file dedicated to the program in question, or in multiple coordinated files, for example, files that store one or more modules, sub-programs, or portions of code. A computer program can be deployed to be executed on one computer or on multiple computers that are located at one site or distributed across multiple sites and interconnected by a communication network. While portions of the programs illustrated in the various figures are shown as individual modules that implement the various features and functionality through various objects, methods, or other processes, the programs may instead include a number of sub-modules, third-party services, components, libraries, and such, as appropriate. Conversely, the features and functionality of various components can be combined into single components, as appropriate. Thresholds used to make computational determinations can be statically, dynamically, or both statically and dynamically determined.

[0078] The methods, processes, or logic flows described in this specification can be performed by one or more programmable computers executing one or more computer programs to perform functions by operating on input data and generating output. The methods, processes, or logic flows can also be performed by, and apparatus can also be implemented as, special purpose logic circuitry, for example, a CPU, an FPGA, or an ASIC.

[0079] Computers suitable for the execution of a computer program can be based on general or special purpose microprocessors, both, or any other kind of CPU. Generally, a CPU will receive instructions and data from a ROM or a Random Access Memory (RAM), or both. The essential elements of a computer are a CPU, for performing or executing instructions, and one or more memory devices for storing instructions and data. Generally, a computer will also include, or be operatively coupled to, receive data from or transfer data to, or both, one or more mass storage devices for storing data, for example, magnetic, magneto-optical disks, or optical disks. However, a computer need not have such devices. Moreover, a computer can be embedded in another device, for example, a mobile telephone, a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA), a mobile audio or video player, a game console, a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, or a portable storage device, for example, a Universal Serial Bus (USB) flash drive, to name just a few.

[0080] Computer-readable media (transitory or non-transitory, as appropriate) suitable for storing computer program instructions and data includes non-volatile memory, media and memory devices, including by way of example, semiconductor memory devices, for example, Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EPROM), Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EEPROM), and flash memory devices; magnetic disks, for example, internal hard disks or removable disks; magneto-optical disks; and CD-ROM, DVD+/-R, DVD-RAM, and DVD-ROM disks. The memory may store various objects or data, including caches, classes, frameworks, applications, backup data, jobs, web pages, web page templates, database tables, repositories storing dynamic information, and any other appropriate information including any parameters, variables, algorithms, instructions, rules, constraints, or references thereto. Additionally, the memory may include any other appropriate data, such as logs, policies, security or access data, reporting files, as well as others. The processor and the memory can be supplemented by, or incorporated in, special purpose logic circuitry.

[0081] To provide for interaction with a user, implementations of the subject matter described in this specification can be implemented on a computer having a display device, for example, a Cathode Ray Tube (CRT), Liquid Crystal Display (LCD), Light Emiting Diode

(LED), or plasma monitor, for displaying information to the user and a keyboard and a pointing device, for example, a mouse, trackball, or trackpad by which the user can provide input to the computer. Input may also be provided to the computer using a touchscreen, such as a tablet computer surface with pressure sensitivity, a multi-touch screen using capacitive or electric sensing, or other type of touchscreen. Other kinds of devices can be used to provide for interaction with a user as well; for example, feedback provided to the user can be any form of sensory feedback, for example, visual feedback, auditory feedback, or tactile feedback; and input from the user can be received in any form, including acoustic, speech, or tactile input. In addition, a computer can interact with a user by sending documents to and receiving documents from a device that is used by the user; for example, by sending web pages to a web browser on a user’s client device in response to requests received from the web browser.

[0082] The term“graphical user interface,” or“GUI,” may be used in the singular or the plural to describe one or more graphical user interfaces and each of the displays of a particular graphical user interface. Therefore, a GUI may represent any graphical user interface, including but not limited to, a web browser, a touch screen, or a Command Line Interface (CLI) that processes information and efficiently presents the information results to the user. In general, a GUI may include a plurality of User Interface (UI) elements, some or all associated with a web browser, such as interactive fields, pull-down lists, and buttons. These and other UI elements may be related to or represent the functions of the web browser.

[0083] Implementations of the subject matter described in this specification can be implemented in a computing system that includes a back-end component, for example, as a data server, or that includes a middleware component, for example, an application server, or that includes a front-end component, for example, a client computer having a graphical user interface or a Web browser through which a user can interact with an implementation of the subject matter described in this specification, or any combination of one or more such back-end, middleware, or front-end components. The components of the system can be interconnected by any form or medium of wireline or wireless digital data communication (or a combination of data communication), for example, a communication network. Examples of communication networks include a Local Area Network (LAN), a Radio Access Network (RAN), a Metropolitan Area Network (MAN), a Wide Area Network (WAN), Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WIMAX), a Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) using, for example, 802.11 a/b/g/n or 802.20 (or a combination of 802.1 lx and 802.20 or other protocols consistent with this disclosure), all or a portion of the Internet, or any other

communication system or systems at one or more locations (or a combination of communication networks). The network may communicate with, for example, Internet Protocol (IP) packets, Frame Relay frames, Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) cells, voice, video, data, or other suitable information (or a combination of communication types) between network addresses.

[0084] The computing system can include clients and servers. A client and server are generally remote from each other and typically interact through a communication network. The relationship of client and server arises by virtue of computer programs running on the respective computers and having a client-server relationship to each other.

[0085] While this specification contains many specific implementation details, these should not be construed as limitations on the scope of any invention or on the scope of what may be claimed, but rather as descriptions of features that may be specific to particular implementations of particular inventions. Certain features that are described in this specification in the context of separate implementations can also be implemented, in combination, in a single implementation. Conversely, various features that are described in the context of a single implementation can also be implemented in multiple implementations, separately, or in any suitable sub-combination. Moreover, although previously described features may be described as acting in certain combinations and even initially claimed as such, one or more features from a claimed combination can, in some cases, be excised from the combination, and the claimed combination may be directed to a sub-combination or variation of a sub-combination.

[0086] Particular implementations of the subject maher have been described. Other implementations, alterations, and permutations of the described implementations are within the scope of the following claims as will be apparent to those skilled in the art. While operations are depicted in the drawings or claims in a particular order, this should not be understood as requiring that such operations be performed in the particular order shown or in sequential order, or that all illustrated operations be performed (some operations may be considered optional), to achieve desirable results. In certain circumstances, multitasking or parallel processing (or a combination of multitasking and parallel processing) may be advantageous and performed as deemed appropriate.

[0087] Moreover, the separation or integration of various system modules and components in the previously described implementations should not be understood as requiring such separation or integration in all implementations, and it should be understood that the described program components and systems can generally be integrated together in a single software product or packaged into multiple software products.

[0088] Accordingly, the previously described example implementations do not define or constrain this disclosure. Other changes, substitutions, and alterations are also possible without departing from the spirit and scope of this disclosure.

[0089] Furthermore, any claimed implementation is considered to be applicable to at least a computer-implemented method; a non-transitory, computer-readable medium storing computer-readable instructions to perform the computer-implemented method; and a computer system comprising a computer memory interoperably coupled with a hardware processor configured to perform the computer-implemented method or the instructions stored on the non-transitory, computer-readable medium.