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1. WO2020112404 - BIOACTIVE SILICATE GLASSES

Note: Text based on automatic Optical Character Recognition processes. Please use the PDF version for legal matters

[ EN ]

BIOACTIVE SILICATE GLASSES

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application claims the benefit of priority of U.S. Provisional Application Serial No. 62/771,341 filed on November 26, 2018 and U.S. Provisional Application Serial No. 62/796,859 filed on January 25, 2019 the contents of which are relied upon and incorporated herein by reference in their entirety as if fully set forth below.

BACKGROUND

1. Field

[0002] The disclosure relates to bioactive glasses for use in biomedical applications. In particular, the glasses described herein are silicate glasses that show fast filling rates of dentin tubules and have advantageous release rates of metal ions, which provide advantages in antibacterial applications and wound healing.

2. Technical Background

[0003] Bioactive glasses are a group of glass and glass ceramic materials that have shown biocompatibility or bioactivity, which has allowed them to be incorporated into human or animal physiology. A number of these materials exist on the market already, such as Bioglass 8625, a soda-lime glass used for encapsulation of implanted devices, and Bioglass 45S5, a bioactive glass composition used in bone repair. However, there continues to be an unmet need for solutions to biomedical problems that novel biocompatible inorganic compositions may help resolve.

[0004] This disclosure presents improved biocompatible inorganic compositions and methods of manufacturing thereof for biomedical applications.

SUMMARY

[0005] In some embodiments, an antibacterial composition, comprises: a silicate-based glass material having a composition of: 55-70 wt.% S1O2, 0-10 wt.% B2O3, 3-18 wt.% P2O5, 0-10 wt.% AI2O3, 0-5 wt.% LhO, 12-30 wt.% Na20, 0-15 wt.% K2O, 0-10 wt.% MgO, 1-15 wt.% CaO, 2-20 wt.% MO, and 15-35 wt.% R2O, wherein MO is the sum of MgO, CaO, SrO, and BaO, wherein R2O is the sum of Na20, K2O, LhO, and Rb20, and wherein the silicate-

based glass material is configured to achieve a 6-log kill rate of at least one of E. coli , P. gingivalis, or S. mutans bacteria.

[0006] In one aspect, which is combinable with any of the other aspects or embodiments, the glass material is a particle, bead, particulate, fiber, fibers, woolen mesh, or combination thereof.

[0007] In one aspect, which is combinable with any of the other aspects or embodiments, the glass material has at least one size dimension in a range of 1-100 pm.

[0008] In one aspect, which is combinable with any of the other aspects or embodiments, the glass material has at least one size dimension in a range of 1-10 pm.

[0009] In one aspect, which is combinable with any of the other aspects or embodiments, the glass material has a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of at most 10 mg/mL in the composition.

[0010] In one aspect, which is combinable with any of the other aspects or embodiments, the glass material has a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) in a range of 10 to 50 mg/mL in the composition.

[0011] In one aspect, which is combinable with any of the other aspects or embodiments, the antibacterial composition further comprises: a culture medium having a pH in a range of 7 to 11.

[0012] In one aspect, which is combinable with any of the other aspects or embodiments, the antibacterial composition does not comprise silver (Ag)- or copper (Cu)-based materials.

[0013] In one aspect, which is combinable with any of the other aspects or embodiments, the antibacterial composition is colorless or essentially colorless.

[0014] In one aspect, which is combinable with any of the other aspects or embodiments, the antibacterial composition comprises at least one of: 60-70 wt.% S1O2, 5-15 wt.% P2O5, 15-25 wt.% Na20, 0-8 wt.% K2O, 1-10 wt.% CaO, 0-5 wt.% MgO, or >0-8 wt.% ZnO.

[0015] In one aspect, which is combinable with any of the other aspects or embodiments, the antibacterial composition comprises: 59-70 wt.% S1O2; 5-15 wt.% P2O5; and 1-10 wt.% CaO.

[0016] In one aspect, which is combinable with any of the other aspects or embodiments, the antibacterial composition comprises: 59-70 wt.% S1O2; 1-10 wt.% CaO; and is essential free of AI2O3.

[0017] In one aspect, which is combinable with any of the other aspects or embodiments, the antibacterial composition comprises: 9-70 wt.% S1O2; 1-10 wt.% CaO; and is essential free of B2O3.

[0018] In one aspect, which is combinable with any of the other aspects or embodiments, the antibacterial composition further comprises: 0-5 wt.% ZrCfe.

[0019] In one aspect, which is combinable with any of the other aspects or embodiments, the antibacterial composition is essentially free of or comprises 1 wt.% or less of LhO.

[0020] In one aspect, which is combinable with any of the other aspects or embodiments, the antibacterial composition is essentially free of or comprises 1 wt.% or less of B2O3, AI2O3, and LEO.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0021] The disclosure will become more fully understood from the following detailed description, taken in conjunction with the accompanying figures, in which:

[0022] FIG. 1 illustrates a particle size distribution of Example Composition 5 after air jet milling, according to some embodiments.

[0023] FIG. 2 illustrates pH changes of a culture medium as a function of time after soaking with Example Composition 5, according to some embodiments.

[0024] FIG. 3 illustrates a bar graph plot of kill rate of E. coli as a function of pH change of a culture medium, according to some embodiments.

[0025] FIG. 4 illustrates a bar graph plot of the kill rate of P. Gingivalis after 1, 2 and 7 days of incubation with Example Composition 5, according to some embodiments.

[0026] FIG. 5 illustrates a bar graph plot of the kill rate of S. Mutans after 1, 2 and 7 days of incubation with Example Composition 5, according to some embodiments.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0027] In the following description, whenever a group is described as comprising at least one of a group of elements and combinations thereof, it is understood that the group may comprise, consist essentially of, or consist of any number of those elements recited, either individually or in combination with each other. Similarly, whenever a group is described as consisting of at least one of a group of elements or combinations thereof, it is understood that the group may consist of any number of those elements recited, either individually or in combination with each other. Unless otherwise specified, a range of values, when recited,

includes both the upper and lower limits of the range as well as any ranges therebetween. As used herein, the indefinite articles“a,”“an,” and the corresponding definite article“the” mean“at least one” or“one or more,” unless otherwise specified. It also is understood that the various features disclosed in the specification and the drawings can be used in any and all combinations.

[0028] Where a range of numerical values is recited herein, comprising upper and lower values, unless otherwise stated in specific circumstances, the range is intended to include the endpoints thereof, and all integers and fractions within the range. It is not intended that the scope of the claims be limited to the specific values recited when defining a range. Further, when an amount, concentration, or other value or parameter is given as a range, one or more preferred ranges or a list of upper preferable values and lower preferable values, this is to be understood as specifically disclosing all ranges formed from any pair of any upper range limit or preferred value and any lower range limit or preferred value, regardless of whether such pairs are separately disclosed. Finally, when the term "about" is used in describing a value or an end-point of a range, the disclosure should be understood to include the specific value or end-point referred to. When a numerical value or end-point of a range does not recite “about,” the numerical value or end-point of a range is intended to include two embodiments: one modified by“about,” and one not modified by“about.”

[0029] As used herein, the term "about" means that amounts, sizes, formulations, parameters, and other quantities and characteristics are not and need not be exact, but may be approximate and/or larger or smaller, as desired, reflecting tolerances, conversion factors, rounding off, measurement error and the like, and other factors known to those of skill in the art. It is noted that the terms "substantially" may be utilized herein to represent the inherent degree of uncertainty that may be attributed to any quantitative comparison, value, measurement, or other representation. These terms are also utilized herein to represent the degree by which a quantitative representation may vary from a stated reference without resulting in a change in the basic function of the subject matter at issue. Thus, a glass that is “free” or“essentially free” of AI2O3 is one in which AI2O3 is not actively added or batched into the glass, but may be present in very small amounts as a contaminant (e.g., 500, 400,

300, 200, or 100 parts per million (ppm) or less or).

[0030] Herein, glass compositions are expressed in terms of wt% amounts of particular components included therein on an oxide bases unless otherwise indicated. Any component having more than one oxidation state may be present in a glass composition in any oxidation state. However, concentrations of such component are expressed in terms of the oxide in which such component is at its lowest oxidation state unless otherwise indicated.

[0031] Unless otherwise specified, all compositions are expressed in terms of weight percent (wt%). Coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) are expressed in terms of 10 7/°C, unless otherwise specified. The CTE can be determined, for example, using the procedure described in ASTM E228“Standard Test Method for Linear Thermal Expansion of Solid Materials with a Push-Rod Dilatometer” or ISO 7991 : 1987“Glass— Determination of coefficient of mean linear thermal expansion.” The density in terms of grams/cm3 was measured via the Archimedes method (ASTM C693). Young’s modulus, shear modulus, and Poisson’s Ratio were measured via the ASTM C623 standard.

[0032] Glass Compositions

[0033] Bioactive glasses are a group of glass and glass ceramic materials that have shown biocompatibility or bioactivity, which has allowed them to be incorporated into human or animal physiology. The biocompatibility and in vivo properties of the glass are influenced by the glass composition. In the glass compositions described herein, S1O2 serves as the primary glass-forming oxide in combination with the bioactive oxides of calcium and phosphorous.

[0034] In some examples, the glass comprises a combination of S1O2, Na20, P2O5, and CaO. In some examples, the glass further comprises AI2O3, B2O3, K2O, and/or LEO. For example, examples may comprise a glass composition comprising, in wt.%: 55-70 S1O2, 0-10 B2O3, 3-18 P2O5, 0-10 AI2O3, 0-5 LhO, 12-30 Na20, 0-15 K2O, 0-10 MgO, 1-15 CaO, 2-20 MO, and 15-35 R2O, wherein MO is the sum of MgO, CaO, SrO, and BaO, R2O is the sum of Na20, K2O, L12O, and Rb20. In other examples, the glass composition comprises 60-70 wt.% S1O2. In some examples, the glass composition comprises 5-15 wt.% P2O5. In some examples, the glass composition additionally comprises >0-8 wt.% ZnO. The silicate glasses disclosed herein are particularly suitable for biomedical or bioactive applications.

[0035] Silicon dioxide (S1O2), which is the major oxide component of the embodied glasses, may be included to provide high temperature stability and chemical durability. In some embodiments, the glass can comprise 55-70 wt.% S1O2. In some examples, the glass may comprise 60-70 wt.% S1O2. In some examples, the glass can comprise 55-70 wt.%, 55-65 wt.%, 55-60 wt.%, 60-70 wt.%, 60-65 wt.%, or 65-70 wt.% S1O2. In some examples, the glass is essentially free of S1O2 or comprises 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70 wt.% S1O2.

[0036] In some examples, the glass can comprise 0-10 wt.% B2O3. In some examples, the glass can comprise >0-10 wt.% B2O3. In some examples, the glass can comprise 0-5 wt.% B2O3. In some examples, the glass can comprise from 0-10 wt.%, >0-10 wt.%, 2-10 wt.%, 5-10 wt.%, 0-8 wt.%, >0-8 wt.%, 2-8 wt.%, 5-8 wt.%, 0-5 wt.%, >0-5 wt.%, or 2-5 wt.% B2O3. In some examples, the glass can comprise 0, >0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10 wt.% B2O3.

[0037] Alumina (AI2O3) may influence the structure of the glass and, additionally, lower the liquidus temperature and coefficient of thermal expansion, or enhance the strain point. In addition to its role as a network former, AI2O3 (and ZrCk) help improve the chemical durability in silicate glass while having no toxicity concerns. In some examples, the glass can comprise 0-10 wt.% AI2O3. In some examples, the glass can comprise from 0 to 10 wt.%, 0 to 8 wt.%, 0 to 6 wt.%, 0 to 4 wt.%, 0 to 2 wt.%, >0 to 10 wt.%, >0 to 8 wt.%, >0 to 6 wt.%, >0 to 4 wt.%, >0 to 2 wt.%, 1 to 10 wt.%, 1 to 8 wt.%, 1 to 6 wt.%, 1 to 4 wt.%, 1 to 2 wt.%, 3 to 8 wt.%, 3 to 6 wt.%, 3 to 10 wt.%, 5 to 8 wt.%, 5 to 10 wt.%, 7 to 10 wt.%, or 8 to 10 wt.% AI2O3. In some examples, the glass can comprise 0, >0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10 wt.% AI2O3.

[0038] Phosphorus pentoxide (P2O5) also serves as a network former. Furthermore, the liberation of phosphate ions to the surface of bioactive glasses contributes to the formation of apatite. The inclusion of phosphate ions in the bioactive glass increases apatite formation rate and the binding capacity of the bone tissue. In addition, P2O5 increases the viscosity of the glass, which in turn expands the range of operating temperatures, and is therefore an advantage to the manufacture and formation of the glass. In some examples, the glass can comprise 3-18 wt.% P2O5. In some examples, the glass can comprise 3-18 wt.%, 3-15 wt.%, 3-12 wt.%, 3-10 wt.%, 3-8 wt.%, 3-5 wt.%, 5-18 wt.%, 5-15 wt.%, 5-12 wt.%, 5-10 wt.%, 5-8 wt.%, 8-18 wt.%, 8-15 wt.%, 8-12 wt.%, 8-10 wt.%, 10-18 wt.%, 10-15 wt.%, 10-12 wt.%, 12-18 wt.%, or 12-15 wt.% P2O5. In some examples, the glass can comprise about 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, or 18 wt.% P205.

[0039] Alkali oxides (L12O, Na20, K2O, Rb20, or CS2O) serve as aids in achieving low melting temperature and low liquidus temperatures. Meanwhile, the addition of alkali oxides can improve bioactivity. Further, Na20 and K2O may influence the coefficient of thermal expansion, especially at low temperatures. In some examples, the glass can comprise from 12-30 wt.% Na20. In some examples, the glass can comprise 15-25 wt.% Na20. In some examples, the glass can comprise 20-25 wt.% Na20. In some examples, the glass can comprise from 12-30 wt.%, 12-28 wt.%, 12-25 wt.%, 12-20 wt.%, 12-18 wt.%, 15-30 wt.%,

15-28 wt.%, 15-25 wt.%, 15-20 wt.%, 15-18 wt.%, 18-30 wt.%, 18-28 wt.%, 18-25 wt.%, 18-20 wt.%, 20-30 wt.%, 20-28 wt.%, 20-25 wt.%, or 25-30 wt.% Na20. In some examples, the glass can comprise 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, or 30 wt.% Na20.

[0040] In some examples, the glass can comprise from 0-15 wt.% K2O. In some examples, the glass can comprise 0-10 wt.% K2O. In some examples, the glass can comprise >0-5 wt.% K2O. In some examples, the glass can comprise from 0-15 wt.%, >0-15 wt.%, 2-15 wt.%, 5-15 wt.%, 8-15 wt.%, 10-15 wt.%, 0-10 wt.%, >0-10 wt.%, 2-10 wt.%, 5-10 wt.%, 0-8 wt.%, >0-8 wt.%, 2-8 wt.%, 5-8 wt.%, 0-5 wt.%, >0-5 wt.%, or 2-5 wt.% K2O. In some examples, the glass can comprise 0, >0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, or 15 wt.% K2O.

[0041] In some examples, the total amount of Na20 and K2O is important to the properties of the glass. In such examples, the glass can comprise a total of 15-35 wt.% Na20 and K2O combined.

[0042] In some examples, the glass can comprise from 0-5 wt.% LriO. In some examples, the glass can comprise from >0-5 wt.% LriO. In some examples, the glass can comprise from about >0-3.5 wt.% LriO. In some examples, the glass can comprise from 1-4 wt.% LriO. In some examples, the glass can comprise from 0-5 wt.%, 0-4 wt.%, 0-3 wt.%, 0-2 wt.%, >0 to 5 wt.%, >0 to 4 wt.%, >0 to 3 wt.%, >0 to 2 wt.%, 1 to 5 wt.%, 1 to 4 wt.%, or 1 to 3 wt.% LriO. In some examples, the glass can comprise about 0, >0, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 wt.% LriO.

[0043] In some examples, the total amount of the alkalis LriO, Na20, and K2O (R2O) is important to the glass properties. In some examples, the glass can comprise 12-35 wt.% R2O, wherein R2O is the sum or LriO, Na20, and K2O. In some examples, the glass can comprise 15-35 wt.% R2O. In some examples, the glass can comprise from 12-35 wt.%, 12-30 wt.%, 12-28 wt.%, 12-25 wt.%, 12-20 wt.%, 12-18 wt.%, 15-35 wt.%, 15-30 wt.%, 15-28 wt.%, 15-25 wt.%, 15-20 wt.%, 15-18 wt.%, 18-35 wt.%, 18-30 wt.%, 18-28 wt.%, 18-25 wt.%, 20-35 wt.%, 20-30 wt.%, 20-28 wt.%, 20-25 wt.%, 22-35 wt.%, 22-30 wt.%, 22-28 wt.%, 25-35 wt.%, or 25-30 wt.% R2O. In some examples, the glass can comprise 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, or 35 wt.% R2O.

[0044] Divalent cation oxides (such as alkaline earth oxides) also improve the melting behavior and the bioactivity of the glass. Particularly, CaO is found to be able to react with P2O5 to form apatite when immersed in a simulated body fluid (SBF) or in vivo. The release of Ca2+ ions from the surface of the glass contributes to the formation of a layer rich in calcium phosphate.

[0045] In some examples, the glass can comprise 1-15 wt.% CaO. In some examples, the glass can comprise 1-10 wt.% CaO. In some examples, the glass can comprise 3 to 12 wt.% R2O. In some examples, the glass can comprise from 1-15 wt.%, 1-12 wt.%, 1-10 wt.%, 1-8 wt.%, 3-15 wt.%, 3-12 wt.%, 3-10 wt.%, 3-8 wt.%, 5-15 wt.%, 5-12 wt.%, 3-10 wt.%, 5-8 wt.%, 8-15 wt.%, 8-12 wt.%, 8-10 wt.%, or 10-15 wt.% CaO. In some examples, the glass can comprise 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, or 15 wt.% CaO.

[0046] The combination of P2O5 and CaO may provide advantageous compositions for bioactive glasses. In some examples, the glass compositions comprise P2O5 and CaO with the sum of P2O5 and CaO being from 6-25 wt.%, 8-20 wt.% or 8-15 wt.%.

[0047] In some examples, the glasses comprise MgO. In some examples, the glass can comprise 0-10 wt.% MgO. In some examples, the glass can comprise from 0 to 5 wt.% MgO. In some examples, the glass can comprise from >0 to 10 wt.%, 3 to 10 wt.%, or 3 to 8 wt.% MgO. In some examples, the glass can comprise from 0 to 10 wt.%, 0 to 8 wt.%, 0 to 6 wt.%, 0 to 4 wt.%, 0 to 2 wt.%, >0 to 10 wt.%, >0 to 8 wt.%, >0 to 6 wt.%, >0 to 4 wt.%, >0 to 2 wt.%,1 to 10 wt.%, 1 to 8 wt.%, 1 to 6 wt.%, 1 to 4 wt.%, 1 to 2 wt.%, 3 to 8 wt.%, 3 to 6 wt.%, 3 to 10 wt.%, 5 to 8 wt.%, 5 to 10 wt.%, 7 to 10 wt.%, or 8 to 10 wt.% MgO. In some examples, the glass can comprise about 0, >0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10 wt.% MgO.

[0048] Strontium oxide (SrO) may be present in some embodiments and in such examples, the glass can comprise from 0 to 10 wt.% SrO. In some examples, the glass can comprise from >0 to 10 wt.% SrO. In some examples, the glass can comprise from 3 to 10 wt.%, 5 to

10 wt.%, 5 to 8 wt.% SrO. In some examples, the glass can comprise from 0 to 10 wt.%, 0 to 8 wt.%, 0 to 6 wt.%, 0 to 4 wt.%, 0 to 2 wt.%, >0 to 10 wt.%, >0 to 8 wt.%, >0 to 6 wt.%, >0 to 4 wt.%, >0 to 2 wt.%, 1 to 10 wt.%, 1 to 8 wt.%, 1 to 6 wt.%, 1 to 4 wt.%, 1 to 2 wt.%, 3 to 8 wt.%, 3 to 6 wt.%, 3 to 10 wt.%, 5 to 8 wt.%, 5 to 10 wt.%, 7 to 10 wt.%, or 8 to 10 wt.% SrO. In some examples, the glass can comprise about >0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10 wt.% SrO.

[0049] Barium oxide (BaO) may be present in some examples and in such examples, the glass can comprise from 0 to 15 wt.% BaO. In some examples, the glass can comprise from 0 to 10 wt.%, >0 to 5 wt.%, 6 to 13 wt.%, 5 to 15 wt.%, 7 to 13 wt.%, 7 to 11 wt.%, 8 to 12 wt.% BaO. In some examples, the glass can comprise from 0 to 15 wt.%, 0 to 13 wt.%, 0 to

11 wt.%, 0 to 9 wt.%, 0 to 7 wt.%, 0 to 5 wt.%, >0 to 15 wt.%, >0 to 13 wt.%, >0 to 11 wt.%, >0 to 9 wt.%, >0 to 7 wt.%, >0 to 5 wt.%, 1 to 15 wt.%, 1 to 13 wt.%, 1 to 11 wt.%, 1 to 9 wt.%, 1 to 7 wt.%, 1 to 5 wt.%, 3 to 15 wt.%, 3 to 13 wt.%, 3 to 11 wt.%, 3 to 9 wt.%, 3 to 7 wt.%, 3 to 5 wt.%, 5 to 15 wt.%, 5 to 13 wt.%, 5 to 11 wt.%, 5 to 9 wt.%, 5 to 7 wt.%, 7 to 15 wt.%, 7 to 13 wt.%, 7 to 11 wt.%, 7 to 9 wt.%, 9 to 15 wt.%, 9 to 13 wt.%, 9 to 11 wt.%, 11 to 15 wt.%, or 11 to 13 wt.% BaO. In some examples, the glass can comprise about 0, >0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, or 15 wt.% BaO.

[0050] Alkaline earth oxides may improve other desirable properties in the materials, including influencing the Young’s modulus and the coefficient of thermal expansion. In some examples, the glass comprises from 2-20 wt.% MO (2 wt.% < MO < 20 wt.%), where M is the sum of the alkaline earth metals Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba, in the glass. In some examples, the glass can comprise from 2 to 15 wt.% MO. In some examples, the glass can comprise about 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, or 20 wt.% MO.

[0051] In some embodiments, the glasses comprise ZnO. In some examples, the glass can comprise 0-10 wt.% ZnO. In some examples, the glass can comprise from 0 to 5 wt.% ZnO. In some examples, the glass can comprise from >0 to 10 wt.%, 3 to 10 wt.%, or 3 to 8 wt.% ZnO. In some examples, the glass can comprise from 0 to 10 wt.%, 0 to 8 wt.%, 0 to 6 wt.%, 0 to 4 wt.%, 0 to 2 wt.%, >0 to 10 wt.%, >0 to 8 wt.%, >0 to 6 wt.%, >0 to 4 wt.%, >0 to 2 wt.%, 1 to 10 wt.%, 1 to 8 wt.%, 1 to 6 wt.%, 1 to 4 wt.%, 1 to 2 wt.%, 3 to 8 wt.%, 3 to 6 wt.%, 3 to 10 wt.%, 5 to 8 wt.%, 5 to 10 wt.%, 7 to 10 wt.%, or 8 to 10 wt.% ZnO. In some examples, the glass can comprise about 0, >0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10 wt.% ZnO.

[0052] Additional components can be incorporated into the glass to provide additional benefits or may be incorporated as contaminants typically found in commercially-prepared glass. For example, additional components can be added as coloring or fining agents (e.g., to facilitate removal of gaseous inclusions from melted batch materials used to produce the glass) and/or for other purposes. In some examples, the glass may comprise one or more compounds useful as ultraviolet radiation absorbers. In some examples, the glass can comprise 3 wt.% or less ZnO, Ti02, CeO, MnO, Nb20s, M0O3, Ta20s, WO3, Sn02, Fe203, AS2O3, Sb203, Cl, Br, or combinations thereof. In some examples, the glass can comprise from 0 to about 3 wt.%, 0 to about 2 wt.%, 0 to about 1 wt.%, 0 to 0.5 wt.%, 0 to 0.1 wt.%, 0 to 0.05 wt.%, or 0 to 0.01 wt.% ZnO, T1O2, CeO, MnO, Nb20s, M0O3, Ta20s, WO3, Sn02, Fe203, AS2O3, Sb203, Cl, Br, or combinations thereof. The glasses, according to some examples, can also include various contaminants associated with batch materials and/or introduced into the glass by the melting, fining, and/or forming equipment used to produce the glass. For example, in some embodiments, the glass can comprise from 0 to about 3

wt.%, 0 to about 2 wt.%, 0 to about 1 wt.%, 0 to about 0.5 wt.%, 0 to about 0.1 wt.%, 0 to about 0.05 wt.%, or 0 to about 0.01 wt.% SnCh or Fe2Cb, or combinations thereof.

[0053] Non-limiting examples of amounts of precursor oxides for forming the embodied glasses are listed in Table 1, along with the properties of the resulting glasses.

Table 1


[0054] The glass compositions disclosed herein can be in any form that is useful for the medical and dental processes disclosed. The compositions can be in the form of, for example, particles, powder, microspheres, fibers, sheets, beads, scaffolds, woven fibers.

[0055] Processes for Making Glasses

[0056] Glasses having the oxide contents listed in Table 1 can be made via traditional methods. For example, in some examples, the precursor glasses can be formed by thoroughly mixing the requisite batch materials (for example, using a turbular mixer) in order to secure a homogeneous melt, and subsequently placing into silica and/or platinum crucibles. The crucibles can be placed into a furnace and the glass batch melted and maintained at temperatures ranging from 1250-1650°C for times ranging from about 6-16 hours. The melts can thereafter be poured into steel molds to yield glass slabs. Subsequently, those slabs can be transferred immediately to an annealer operating at about 500-650°C, where the glass is held at temperature for about 1 hour and subsequently cooled overnight. In another non limiting example, precursor glasses are prepared by dry blending the appropriate oxides and mineral sources for a time sufficient to thoroughly mix the ingredients. The glasses are melted in platinum crucibles at temperatures ranging from about 1100°C to about 1650°C and held at temperature for about 16 hours. The resulting glass melts are then poured onto a steel table to cool. The precursor glasses are then annealed at appropriate temperatures.

[0057] The embodied glass compositions can be ground into fine particles in the range of 1-10 microns (pm) by air jet milling or short fibers. For example, FIG. 1 illustrates a particle size distribution of Example Composition 5 after air jet milling, according to some embodiments. The particle size can be varied in the range of 1-100 pm using attrition milling or ball milling of glass frits. Furthermore, these glasses can be processed into short fibers, beads, sheets or three-dimensional scaffolds using different methods. Short fibers are made by melt spinning or electric spinning; beads can be produced by flowing glass particles through a hot vertical furnace or a flame torch; sheets can be manufactured using thin rolling, float or fusion-draw processes; and scaffolds can be produced using rapid prototyping, polymer foam replication and particle sintering. Glasses of desired forms can be used to support cell growth, soft and hard tissue regeneration, stimulation of gene expression or angiogenesis.

[0058] Continuous fibers can be easily drawn from the claimed composition using processes known in the art. For example, fibers can be formed using a directly heated (electricity passing directly through) platinum bushing. Glass cullet is loaded into the bushing, heated up until the glass can melt. Temperatures are set to achieve a desired glass viscosity (usually <1000 poise) allowing a drip to form on the orifice in the bushing (Bushing size is selected to create a restriction that influences possible fiber diameter ranges). The drip is pulled by hand to begin forming a fiber. Once a fiber is established it is connected to a rotating pulling/collection drum to continue the pulling process at a consistent speed. Using the drum speed (or revolutions per minute RPM) and glass viscosity the fiber diameter can be manipulated - in general the faster the pull speed, the smaller the fiber diameter. Glass fibers with diameters in the range of 1-100 pm can be drawn continuously from a glass melt. Fibers can also be created using an updraw process. In this process, fibers are pulled from a glass melt surface sitting in a box furnace. By controlling the viscosity of the glass, a quartz rod is used to pull glass from the melt surface to form a fiber. The fiber can be continuously pulled upward to increase the fiber length. The velocity that the rod is pulled up determines the fiber thickness along with the viscosity of the glass.

[0059] Glass Bioactivity

[0060] Aspects are related to compositions or matrices containing embodied bioactive glass compositions and the methods of using the matrices to treat medical conditions. The matrices can be a toothpaste, mouthwash, rinse, spray, ointment, salve, cream, bandage, polymer film, oral formulation, pill, capsule, transdermal formulation, and the like. The bioactive glass compositions claimed can be physically or chemically attached to matrices or other matrix components, or simply mixed in. As noted above, the bioactive glass can be in any form that works in the application, including particles, beads, particulates, short fibers, long fibers, or woolen meshes. The methods of using the glass-containing matrices to treat a medical condition can be simply like the use of matrix as normally applied.

[0061] E. Coli Applications

[0062] Glass particles comprising the compositions disclosed herein may demonstrate strong antimicrobial effectiveness against E. coli bacteria. A minimal inhibitory

concentration (MIC, corresponding to a 6-log kill rate) as low as 10 mg/mL was determined for Example Composition 5 from Table 1, which is lower than conventional glass particles, such as those with CuNCh-IOX’d soda lime silicate glass compositions. Table 2 describes the MIC of Example Composition 5 and CuNCh-IOX’d soda lime silicate glass, both as particles, required to exhibit strong antimicrobial effectiveness against E. coli bacteria.

Table 2


[0063] Testing for the E. coli kill rate was determined by first culturing the test bacteria in a suitable medium for 16 to 18 hrs till a saturation point and calculating bacteria concentration by spectrophotometer. Thereafter, the E. coli bacteria (107 live E. coli ) medium is infused with varying concentrations of glass particles. For example, each broth comprises approximately 5 mL of E. coli bacteria medium and 0.5, 1, 10, 20, 50, or 200 mg of glass particles per mL of broth, respectively. In addition, a separate broth comprises E. coli bacteria medium without glass particles. The inoculation of the bacteria/glass is cultured for 24 hrs and thereafter, 10 pL bacteria/broth is plated and cultured for an additional 16 hrs on Agar plates. After culturing, the E. coli colony number for each condition (glass types, concentrations) is counted.

[0064] Depending on the Example Glass composition, MIC may vary from 10 to 50 mg/mL. In some examples, antimicrobial effectiveness is associated with alkali and alkali earth ion release from the glass particles. This release may be suggested by pH changes of the broth during testing. For example, FIG. 2 illustrates pH changes of the culture medium as a function of time after soaking with Example Composition 5, according to some embodiments. Rapid pH changes occur from pH=7 to pH=l 1 within the first 5-7 hrs of culturing and then relatively stabilizes at the upper pH bound thereafter. However, increases of pH alone cannot achieve the required 6-log bacteria kill rates. FIG. 3 illustrates a bar graph plot of kill rate of E. coli as a function of pH change of a culture medium, according to some embodiments. None of pH=9, pH=10, or pH=12.5 culture mediums are able to achieve 6-log bacteria kill rates. Although addition of NaOH to the culture medium shows an inhibitory effect on E. coli growth, a maximum 3.4-log kill rate was reached at pH=10 (FIG. 3). Further increases to pH do not show advantageous inhibitory effect on the bacteria. Without being bound to theory, it is believed that multiple killing mechanisms, which include pH changes and alkali/alkali earth ion-bacterial interaction, account for the excellent antimicrobial effectiveness from the disclosed compositions.

[0065] P. Ginsivalis / S. Mutans Applications

[0066] Antibacterial effectiveness may also be demonstrated against other bacteria, such as P. gingivalis and S. mutans , which are two representative oral bacteria in dental applications. P. gingivalis is associated with chronic periodontitis, while S. mutans is associated with oral cavity. All disclosed compositions (for example, those in Table 1) demonstrated a 6-log kill rate after 7 days in medium containing either/1 gingivalis or S. mutans bacteria. For example, FIGS. 4 and 5 illustrate bar graph plots of the kill rate of P. Gingivalis and S.

Mutans , respectively, after 1, 2 and 7 days of incubation with Example Composition 5, according to some embodiments. Example Composition 5 showed a 4-log kill rate to both bacteria after one day of testing, at least a 5-log kill rate to both bacteria after two days of testing, and a 6-log kill rate to both bacteria after seven days of testing. The antibacterial effectiveness against at least these two representative oral bacteria implies the potential improvement to human oral care using the disclosed glass compositions.

[0067] Moreover, because the disclosed compositions (1) show little to no coloring effects of the bacteria-containing medium after soaking for up to 24 hrs or (2) do not contain silver (Ag)- or copper (Cu)-based materials, the compositions are particularly attractive food, water treatment, and paint industry applications.

[0068] While typical embodiments have been set forth for the purpose of illustration, the foregoing description should not be deemed to be a limitation on the scope of the disclosure or appended claims. Accordingly, various modifications, adaptations, and alternatives may

occur to one skilled in the art without departing from the spirit and scope of the present disclosure or appended claims.