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1. WO2020112351 - COUPLED DIELECTRIC RESONATOR AND DIELECTRIC WAVEGUIDE

Note: Text based on automatic Optical Character Recognition processes. Please use the PDF version for legal matters

[ EN ]

CLAIMS -

1. An electromagnetic, EM, device, comprising:

at least one dielectric resonator antenna, DRA; and

at least one dielectric waveguide, DWG, configured so that during operation of the electromagnetic device, the at least one DRA provides an electromagnetic signal to the at least one DWG, or the at least one DWG provides an electromagnetic signal to the at least one DRA;

wherein the at least one DWG has a three-dimensional, 3D, shape that is different from a 3D shape of the at least one DRA.

2. The device of Claim 1, wherein the at least one DRA and the at least one DWG are in direct contact with each other.

3. The device of Claim 1, wherein the at least one DRA and the at least one DWG form an integral monolithic structure.

4. The device of any of Claims 1 to 3, further comprising:

a substrate;

wherein the at least one DRA has a proximal end disposed on the substrate, and a distal end; and

wherein the at least one DWG has a proximal end disposed proximate the distal end of the DRA.

5. The device of Claim 4, wherein:

the substrate comprises at least one signal feed disposed and adapted to

electromagnetically excite corresponding ones of the at least one DRA.

6. The device of any of Claims 4 to 5, wherein the proximal end of the DWG is disposed on the substrate.

7. The device of any of Claims 1 to 6, wherein:

the at least one DRA comprises a dielectric material other than air; and

the at least one DWG comprises a dielectric material other than air.

8. The device of any of Claims 1 to 7, wherein:

the at least one DRA when electromagnetically excited radiates an EM signal to the at least one DWG;

the at least one DWG is adapted and disposed to internally propagate the EM signal.

9. The device of Claim 8, wherein:

the at least one DWG is adapted and disposed to internally propagate the EM signal with total internal reflection of the EM signal within the at least one DWG.

10. The device of any of Claims 1 to 9, wherein:

the at least one DRA is an all-dielectric material having a first average dielectric constant;

the at least one DWG is an all-dielectric material having a second average dielectric constant; and

the first average dielectric constant is greater than the second average dielectric constant.

11. The device of Claim 10, wherein:

the first average dielectric constant is equal to or greater than 4 and equal to or less than 18; and

the second average dielectric constant is greater than 1 and equal to or less than 9.

12. The device of any of Claims 1 to 11, wherein:

the at least one DRA comprises a plurality of the at least one DRA;

the at least one DWG is a single DWG; and

each of the plurality of the at least one DRA is electromagnetically coupled to the single DWG.

13. The device of Claim 12, wherein:

each DRA of the plurality of the at least one DRA is configured to radiate a corresponding one of the EM signal; and

the single DWG is configured to collectively propagate the corresponding EM signals.

14. The device of any of Claims 1 to 13, wherein:

the at least one DWG has a convex shaped distal end.

15. An electromagnetic, EM, device, comprising:

a connected array of dielectric resonator antennas, DRAs, comprising at least one non-gaseous dielectric material, the array of DRAs having a proximal end and a distal end; and

an adhesive layer disposed under the connected array of DRAs at the proximal end, wherein the adhesive layer comprises a material different from the at least one non-gaseous dielectric material.

16. The EM device of Claim 15, further comprising:

at least one dielectric waveguide, DWG, disposed in EM signal communication with and attached to the connected array of DRAs, the at least one DWG being oriented upward parallel with a z-axis of the EM device;

wherein the connected array of DRAs comprises a dielectric material having a first average dielectric constant;

wherein the at least one DWG comprises a dielectric material having a second average dielectric constant that is less than the first average dielectric constant; and

further comprising at least one dielectric pin integrally formed with the at least one DWG, such that the DWG and the at least one pin form a monolithic, wherein the at least one pin is oriented downward parallel with the z-axis of the EM device.

17. The EM device of Claim 16, further comprising:

a non-metallic all-dielectric structure disposed substantially around the array of

DRAs.

18. The EM device of Claim 17, wherein:

the non-metallic all-dielectric structure comprises a curved surface having a focal point substantially coincidental with a geometrical center of the array of DRAs.

19. The EM device of Claim 18, wherein the curved surface has a concave-up shape.

20. The EM device of Claim 18, wherein the curved surface has a concave-down shape.

21. The EM device of any of Claims 17 to 20, wherein:

the non-metallic all-dielectric structure is an all-dielectric material having a dielectric constant that substantially matches the dielectric constant of the array of DRAs.

22. The EM device of Claim 21, wherein:

the non-metallic all-dielectric structure is integrally formed with and monolithic with the array of DRAs.

23. The EM device of any of Claims 17 to 20, wherein:

the non-metallic all-dielectric structure is an all-dielectric material having a dielectric constant that substantially matches the dielectric constant of the at least one DWG.

24. The EM device of Claim 23, wherein:

the non-metallic all-dielectric structure is integrally formed with and monolithic with the at least one DWG.

25. The EM device of any of Claims 16 to 24, further comprising:

a substrate comprising a plurality of pockets arranged in alignment with

corresponding ones of the at least one dielectric pin integrally formed with the at least one DWG; and

an engagement surface arranged in corresponding alignment with the adhesive layer; wherein the array of DRAs and the at least one DWG are alignable and securely attachable with the substrate via the at least one dielectric pin being insertable into corresponding ones of the plurality of pockets, and the adhesive layer being securely attachable to the engagement surface.

26. An electromagnetic device, comprising:

at least one first dielectric portion, 1DP, having a proximal end and a distal end, each of the at least one 1DP comprising a dielectric material other than air;

at least one second dielectric portion, 2DP, having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of a given 2DP being disposed proximate the distal end of a corresponding 1DP, the at least one 2DP comprising a dielectric material other than air; and

at least a portion of the at least one 2DP forming a dielectric waveguide, DWG, adapted for internal transmission of an electromagnetic, EM, radiation field originating from the at least one 1DP when the at least one 1DP is electromagnetically excited.

27. The device of Claim 26, wherein the DWG is absent any surrounding metallic cavity wall in close proximity to the DWG.

28. The device of any of Claims 26 to 27, wherein the at least one 1DP forms at least a portion of a dielectric resonator antenna, DRA.

29. The device of any of Claims 26 to 28, wherein the at least one 1DP and at least a portion of the at least one 2DP form a dielectric resonator antenna, DRA.

30. The device of any of Claims 26 to 29, wherein the at least one 2DP is configured to radiate electromagnetic, EM, radiation through the distal end of the at least one 2DP, when the at least one 1DP is electromagnetically excited.

31. The device of any of Claims 26 to 30, wherein:

the at least one 1DP is an all-dielectric material having a first average dielectric constant;

the at least one 2DP is an all-dielectric material having a second average dielectric constant; and

the first average dielectric constant is greater than the second average dielectric constant.

32. The device of any of Claims 26 to 31, wherein:

the at least one 1DP comprises a plurality of the 1DP ; and

the at least one 2DP is a single 2DP, the single 2DP forming a single one of the DWG that is electromagnetically coupled to each of the plurality of the 1DP, such that each of the plurality of the 1DP collectively electromagnetically feed the single DWG when the plurality of the 1DP are electromagnetically excited.

33. The device of any of Claims 26 to 31, wherein:

the at least one 1DP comprises a plurality of the 1DP; and

the at least one 2DP comprises a plurality of the 2DP, the plurality of the 2DP forming a plurality of the DWG, wherein each of the plurality of the DWG is

electromagnetically coupled to a corresponding one of the plurality of the 1DP, such that each of the plurality of the 1DP is disposed to individually electromagnetically feed a corresponding one of the plurality of the DWG.

34. The device of any of Claims 31 to 33, further comprising:

a non-metallic all-dielectric structure disposed substantially around a collective grouping of the at least one 1DP.

35. The device of Claim 34, wherein:

the non-metallic all-dielectric structure comprises a curved surface having a focal point substantially coincidental with a geometrical center of the collective grouping of the at least one 1DP.

36. The device of Claim 35, wherein the curved surface has a concave-up shape.

37. The device of Claim 35, wherein the curved surface has a concave-down shape.

38. The device of any of Claims 34 to 37, wherein:

the non-metallic all-dielectric structure is disposed at the proximal end of the at least one 2DP.

39. The device of any of Claims 34 to 38, wherein:

the non-metallic all-dielectric structure is an all-dielectric material having the first average dielectric constant and is integrally formed with and monolithic with the at least one 1DP.

40. The device of any of Claims 34 to 38, wherein:

the non-metallic all-dielectric structure is an all-dielectric material having the second average dielectric constant and is integrally formed with and monolithic with the at least one 2DP.

41. The device of any of Claims 26 to 37, wherein:

the at least one 1DP has a first overall width dimension Wl, as observed in an elevation or rotated isometric view, orthogonal to a z-axis of the device;

the at least one 2DP has a second overall width dimension W2, as observed in an elevation or rotated isometric view, orthogonal to the z-axis of the device; and

W2 is equal to or greater than W 1.

42. The device of any of Claims 26 to 41, wherein:

the at least one 1DP has a first overall length dimension LI, as observed in an elevation or rotated isometric view, parallel to a z-axis of the device;

the at least one 2DP has a second overall length dimension L2, as observed in an elevation or rotated isometric view, parallel to the z-axis of the device; and

L2 is greater than LI .

43. The device of Claim 42, wherein:

L2 is greater than 10 times LI.

44. The device of Claim 42, wherein:

L2 is greater than 15 times LI.

45. The device of Claim 42, wherein:

L2 is greater than 20 times LI .

46. The device of Claim 42, wherein:

L2 is equal to or greater than 20 times l, where l is an operating wavelength of the EM radiation field originating from the at least one 1DP when the at least one 1DP is electromagnetically excited.

47. The device of Claim 46, wherein:

L2 is equal to or greater than 30 times l.

48. The device of Claim 46, wherein:

L2 is equal to or greater than 40 times l.

49. The device of any of Claims 26 to 48, further comprising:

a substrate, the at least one 1DP and the at least one 2DP disposed on the substrate.

50. The device of Claim 49, wherein:

the substrate comprises at least one signal feed disposed and adapted to

electro magnetically excite corresponding ones of the at least one 1DP.

51 The device of Claim 50, wherein:

the at least one signal feed comprises a waveguide.

52. The device of Claim 50, wherein:

the at least one signal feed comprises an opening in a metallic plane.

53. The device of Claim 50, wherein:

the at least one signal feed is a single signal feed disposed and adapted to

electro magnetically excite each of the at least one 1DP.

54. The device of Claim 50, wherein:

the at least one signal feed is a plurality of signal feeds disposed and adapted to electro magnetically excite a corresponding one or more of the at least one 1DP.

55. An electromagnetic device, comprising:

at least one first dielectric portion, 1DP, having a proximal end and a distal end, the 1DP comprising a dielectric material other than air;

at least one second dielectric portion, 2DP, having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of a given 2DP being disposed proximate the distal end of a corresponding 1DP, the at least one 2DP comprising a dielectric material other than air;

at least one third dielectric portion, 3DP, having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of a given 3DP being disposed proximate the distal end of a corresponding

2DP, the at least one 3DP comprising a dielectric material other than air; and

the at least one 3DP forming a dielectric waveguide, DWG, adapted for internal transmission of an electromagnetic, EM, radiation field originating from the at least one 1DP when the at least one 1DP is electromagnetically excited.

56. The device of Claim 55, wherein the DWG is absent any surrounding metallic cavity wall in close proximity to the DWG.

57. The device of Claim 55, wherein:

the at least one 2DP forms in combination an EM beam shaper and a DWG, the EM beam shaper and DWG combination adapted for internal transmission and radiation of the EM radiation field originating from the at least one 1DP to the at least one 3DP.

58. The device of any of Claims 55 to 57, wherein:

the at least one 3DP is a solid medium.

59. The device of any of Claims 55 to 57, wherein:

the at least one 3DP is a hollow medium.

60. The device of any of Claims 55 to 59, wherein:

the at least one 1DP is an all-dielectric material having a first average dielectric constant;

the at least one 2DP is an all-dielectric material having a second average dielectric constant;

the at least one 3DP is an all-dielectric material having a third average dielectric constant;

the first average dielectric constant is greater than the second average dielectric constant; and

the second average dielectric constant is equal to or greater than the third average dielectric constant.

61. The device of any of Claims 55 to 60, wherein:

the at least one 1DP has a first length dimension LI, as observed in an elevation or rotated isometric view, parallel to a z-axis of the device;

the at least one 2DP has a second length dimension L2, as observed in an elevation or rotated isometric view, parallel to the z-axis of the device;

the at least one 3DP has a third length dimension L3, as observed in an elevation or rotated isometric view, parallel to the z-axis of the device;

L2 is greater than LI ; and

L3 is greater than L2.

62. The device of Claim 61, wherein:

L3 is greater than 10 times L2.

63. The device of Claim 61, wherein:

L3 is greater than 15 times L2.

64. The device of Claim 61, wherein:

L3 is greater than 20 times L2.

65. The device of Claim 61, wherein:

L3 is equal to or greater than 20 times l, where l is an operating wavelength of the EM radiation field originating from the at least one 1DP when the at least one 1DP is electromagnetically excited.

66. The device of Claim 65, wherein:

L3 is equal to or greater than 30 times l.

67. The device of Claim 65, wherein:

L3 is equal to or greater than 40 times l.

68. The device of any of Claims 55 to 67, wherein:

the at least one 2DP comprises a plurality of the 2DP integrally connected with each other via a connection.

69. The device of claim 68, where the connection is formed via a relatively thin connecting structure that forms a monolithic structure of the at least one 2DP and the relatively thin connecting structure, the relatively thin connecting structure being relatively thin in thickness t with respect to an overall length L2 of the at least one 2DP.

70. An electromagnetic device, comprising:

a substrate;

at least one first dielectric portion, 1DP, having a proximal end and a distal end, each of the at least one 1DP comprising a dielectric material other than air, the proximal end of the at least one 1DP disposed on the substrate, the at least one 1DP extending substantially perpendicular to the substrate;

at least one second dielectric portion, 2DP, having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of a given 2DP being disposed proximate the distal end of a corresponding 1DP, the at least one 2DP comprising a dielectric material other than air, the at least one 2DP disposed on the substrate and extending substantially perpendicular to the substrate;

the at least one 2DP forming a dielectric waveguide, DWG, adapted for internal transmission of an electromagnetic, EM, radiation field originating from the at least one 1DP when the at least one 1DP is electromagnetically excited.

71. The device of Claim 70, further comprising:

a third dielectric portion, 3DP, disposed sideways adjacent to and on a first side of the at least one 2DP, the 3DP comprising a dielectric material other than air, the 3DP disposed on the substrate and extending substantially perpendicular to the substrate;

a fourth dielectric portion, 4DP, disposed sideways adjacent to and on a second side opposite the first side of the at least one 2DP, the 4DP comprising a dielectric material other than air, the 4DP disposed on the substrate and extending substantially perpendicular to the substrate.

72. The device of Claim 70, wherein:

the at least one 1DP is an all-dielectric material having a first average dielectric constant;

the at least one 2DP is an all-dielectric material having a second average dielectric constant;

the 3DP is an all-dielectric material having a third average dielectric constant;

the 4DP is an all-dielectric material having a fourth average dielectric constant;

the first average dielectric constant is greater than the second average dielectric constant;

the second average dielectric constant is greater than the third average dielectric constant; and

the second average dielectric constant is greater than the fourth average dielectric constant.

73. The device of Claim 72, wherein:

the third average dielectric constant is equal to the fourth average dielectric constant.

74. The device of any of Claims 70 to 72, wherein:

the at least one 1DP has a first length dimension LI, as observed in an elevation or rotated isometric view, parallel to a z-axis of the device;

the at least one 2DP has a second length dimension L2, as observed in an elevation or rotated isometric view, parallel to the z-axis of the device;

the 3DP has a third length dimension LC, as observed in an elevation or rotated isometric view, parallel to the z-axis of the device;

the 4DP has a fourth length dimension LD, as observed in an elevation or rotated isometric view, parallel to the z-axis of the device; and

L2, LC, and LD, are each greater than LI.

75. The device of Claim 74, wherein:

L2, LC, and LD, are equal to each other.

76. The device of Claim 74, wherein:

L2, LC, and LD, are each greater than 10 times LI.

77. The device of Claim 76, wherein:

L2, LC, and LD, are each greater than 15 times LI.

78. The device of Claim 76, wherein:

L2, LC, and LD, are each greater than 20 times LI .

79. The device of Claim 74, wherein:

L2, LC, and LD, are each equal to or greater than 20 times l, where l is an operating wavelength of the EM radiation field originating from the at least one 1DP when the at least one 1DP is electromagnetically excited.

80. The device of Claim 79, wherein:

L2, LC, and LD, are each equal to or greater than 30 times l.

81. The device of Claim 79, wherein:

L2, LC, and LD are each equal to or greater than 40 times l.

82. The device of any of Claims 71 to 81, wherein:

the substrate is a printed circuit board.

83. The device of any of Claims 71 to 82, wherein:

the substrate is a flexible substrate.

84. The device of any of Claims 71 to 83, wherein:

the substrate comprises a first substrate portion, and a second substrate portion that is integral with and forms a contiguity with the first substrate portion;

the at least one 1DP is disposed on the first substrate portion and extends substantially perpendicular to the first substrate portion;

the at least one 2DP is disposed on the first substrate portion and extends substantially perpendicular to the first substrate portion;

the 3DP is disposed substantially parallel with and adjacent to the second substrate portion; and

the 4DP is disposed substantially parallel with and not adjacent to the second substrate portion.

85. The device of Claim 84, wherein:

the first substrate portion and the second substrate portion have a fold line

therebetween.

86. An electromagnetic device, comprising:

a substrate;

at least one first dielectric portion, 1DP, having a proximal end and a distal end, each of the at least one 1DP comprising a dielectric material other than air, the proximal end of the at least one 1DP disposed on the substrate and extending substantially perpendicular to the substrate;

at least one second dielectric portion, 2DP, having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of a given 2DP being disposed proximate the distal end of a corresponding 1DP, the at least one 2DP comprising a dielectric material other than air, the at least one 2DP disposed at a defined distance from the substrate and extending substantially parallel to the substrate;

a third dielectric portion, 3DP, disposed sideways adjacent to and on a first side of the at least one 2DP, the 3DP comprising a dielectric material other than air, the 3DP disposed on the substrate and extending substantially parallel to the substrate, a thickness of the 3DP defining the defined distance of the at least one 2DP from the substrate; and

the at least one 2DP forming a dielectric waveguide, DWG, adapted for internal transmission of an electromagnetic, EM, radiation field originating from the at least one 1DP when the at least one 1DP is electromagnetically excited.

87. The device of Claim 86, further comprising a fourth dielectric portion, 4DP, disposed sideways adjacent to and on a second side opposite the first side of the at least one 2DP, the 4DP comprising a dielectric material other than air, the 4DP extending substantially parallel to the substrate.

88. The device of Claim 86, wherein:

the at least one 1DP is disposed at a first end of the substrate;

the at least one 2DP, the 3DP, and the 4DP, each extend from the first end of the substrate to a second end of the substrate that opposes the first end of the substrate.

89. The device of Claim 88, further comprising:

an EM reflector disposed proximate the first end of the substrate within or adjacent to the at least one 2DP, the EM reflector disposed and adapted to reorient the EM radiation field originating from the at least one 1DP from a first direction to a second direction, the second direction being within and in a direction substantially parallel to the at least one 2DP.

90. The device of Claim 89, wherein:

the at least one 1DP is an all-dielectric material having a first average dielectric constant;

the at least one 2DP is an all-dielectric material having a second average dielectric constant;

the 3DP is an all-dielectric material having a third average dielectric constant;

the 4DP is an all-dielectric material having a fourth average dielectric constant; the first average dielectric constant is greater than the second average dielectric constant;

the second average dielectric constant is greater than the third average dielectric constant; and

the second average dielectric constant is greater than the fourth average dielectric constant.

91. The device of any of Claims 89 to 90, wherein:

the EM reflector comprises metal.

92. The device of any of Claims 89 to 90, wherein:

the EM reflector comprises a dielectric interface between the at least one 2DP and an other dielectric.

93. The device of Claim 92, wherein:

the other dielectric comprises air.

94. The device of Claim 92, wherein:

the other dielectric is a contiguous extension of the 4DP.

95. The device of any of Claims 86 to 94, wherein:

the at least one 1DP has a first length dimension LI, as observed in an elevation or rotated isometric view, parallel to a z-axis of the device;

the at least one 2DP has a second length dimension L2, as observed in an elevation or rotated isometric view, perpendicular to the z-axis of the device;

the 3DP has a third length dimension LC, as observed in an elevation or rotated isometric view, perpendicular to the z-axis of the device;

the 4DP has a fourth length dimension LD, as observed in an elevation or rotated isometric view, perpendicular to the z-axis of the device; and

L2, LC, and LD, are each greater than LI.

96. The device of Claim 95, wherein:

L2, LC, and LD, are equal.

97. The device of Claim 95, wherein:

L2, LC, and LD, are each greater than 10 times LI.

98. The device of Claim 97, wherein:

L2, LC, and LD, are each greater than 15 times LI.

99. The device of Claim 97, wherein:

L2, LC, and LD, are each greater than 20 times LI .

100. The device of Claim 95, wherein:

L2, LC, and LD, are each equal to or greater than 20 times l, where l is an operating wavelength of the EM radiation field originating from the at least one 1DP when the at least one 1DP is electromagnetically excited.

101. The device of Claim 100, wherein:

L2, LC, and LD, are each equal to or greater than 30 times l.

102. The device of Claim 100, wherein:

L2, LC, and LD are each equal to or greater than 40 times l.

103. An electromagnetic device, comprising:

at least one first dielectric portion, 1DP, having a proximal end and a distal end, each of the at least one 1DP comprising a dielectric material other than air, the distal and proximal ends of the at least one 1DP configured and adapted to emit an electromagnetic, EM,

radiation field that propagates in a first direction from the proximal end toward the distal end of the at least one 1DP when the at least one 1DP is electromagnetically excited;

at least one second dielectric portion, 2DP, having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the at least one 2DP being disposed proximate the at least one 1DP, the at least one 2DP comprising a dielectric material other than air, the at least one 2DP disposed at a defined distance from the at least one 1DP; and

the at least one 2DP forming a dielectric waveguide, DWG, adapted for internal transmission in a second direction of the EM radiation field, the second direction not parallel with the first direction, the at least one 2DP extending lengthwise from the corresponding proximal end to the corresponding distal end in the second direction.

104. The device of Claim 103, further comprising:

a third dielectric portion, 3DP, disposed sideways adjacent to and on a first side of the at least one 2DP, the 3DP comprising a dielectric material other than air, the 3DP disposed between the at least one 1DP and the at least one 2DP, a thickness of the 3DP defining the defined distance of the at least one 2DP from the at least one 1DP, the 3DP extending lengthwise substantially parallel to the at least one 2DP in the second direction; and

a fourth dielectric portion, 4DP, disposed sideways adjacent to and on a second side opposite the first side of the at least one 2DP, the 4DP comprising a dielectric material other than air, the 4DP extending lengthwise substantially parallel to the 3DP in the second direction.

105. The device of any of Claims 103 to 104, wherein:

the first direction of the EM radiation field is toward the at least one 2DP; and the second direction of the EM radiation field is from the proximal end toward the distal end of the at least one 2DP.

106. The device of any of Claims 103 to 104, wherein:

the first direction of the EM radiation field is away from the at least one 2DP; and the second direction of the EM radiation field is from the distal end toward the proximal end of the at least one 2DP.

107. The device of any of Claims 105 to 106, further comprising: an EM reflector disposed proximate the proximal end of the at least one 2DP and within or adjacent to the at least one 2DP, the EM reflector having an angle of reflection disposed and adapted to reorient the EM radiation field from the first direction to the second direction, or from the second direction to the first direction.

108. The device of Claim 107, wherein:

the at least one 1DP is an all-dielectric material having a first average dielectric constant;

the at least one 2DP is an all-dielectric material having a second average dielectric constant;

the 3DP is an all-dielectric material having a third average dielectric constant;

the 4DP is an all-dielectric material having a fourth average dielectric constant; the first average dielectric constant is greater than the second average dielectric constant;

the second average dielectric constant is greater than the third average dielectric constant; and

the second average dielectric constant is greater than the fourth average dielectric constant.

109. The device of any of Claims 107 to 108, wherein:

the EM reflector comprises metal.

110. The device of any of Claims 107 to 108, wherein:

the EM reflector comprises a dielectric interface between the at least one 2DP and an other dielectric.

111. The device of Claim 110, wherein:

the other dielectric comprises air.

112. The device of Claim 110, wherein:

the other dielectric is a contiguous extension of the 4DP.

113. The device of any of Claims 103 to 112, wherein:

the at least one 1DP has a first length dimension LI as observed in an elevation or rotated isometric view parallel to a z-axis of the device;

the at least one 2DP has a second length dimension L2 as observed in an elevation or rotated isometric view perpendicular to the z-axis of the device;

the 3DP has a third length dimension LC as observed in an elevation or rotated isometric view perpendicular to the z-axis of the device;

the 4DP has a fourth length dimension LD as observed in an elevation or rotated isometric view perpendicular to the z-axis of the device; and

L2, LC, and LD, are each greater than LI.

114. The device of Claim 113, wherein:

L2, LC, and LD, are equal.

115. The device of Claim 113, wherein:

L2, LC, and LD, are each greater than 10 times LI.

116. The device of Claim 113, wherein:

L2, LC, and LD, are each greater than 15 times LI.

117. The device of Claim 113, wherein:

L2, LC, and LD, are each greater than 20 times LI .

118. The device of Claim 113, wherein:

L2, LC, and LD, are each equal to or greater than 20 times l, where l is an operating wavelength of the EM radiation field.

119. The device of Claim 118, wherein:

L2, LC, and LD, are each equal to or greater than 30 times l.

120. The device of Claim 118, wherein:

L2, LC, and LD are each equal to or greater than 40 times l.