Processing

Please wait...

Settings

Settings

Goto Application

1. WO2020111023 - SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR SIGNALING TILE STRUCTURES FOR PICTURES OF CODED VIDEO

Document

Description

Title of Invention SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR SIGNALING TILE STRUCTURES FOR PICTURES OF CODED VIDEO

Technical Field

0001  

Background Art

0002   0003  

Summary of Invention

0004   0005  

Brief Description of Drawings

0006  

Description of Embodiments

0007   0008   0009   0010   0011   0012   0013   0014   0015   0016   0017   0018   0019   0020   0021   0022   0023   0024   0025   0026   0027   0028   0029   0030   0031   0032   0033   0034   0035   0036   0037   0038   0039   0040   0041   0042   0043   0044   0045   0046   0047   0048   0049   0050   0051   0052   0053   0054   0055   0056   0057   0058   0059   0060   0061   0062   0063   0064   0065   0066   0067   0068   0069   0070   0071   0072   0073   0074   0075   0076   0077   0078   0079   0080   0081   0082   0083   0084   0085   0086   0087   0088   0089   0090   0091   0092   0093   0094   0095   0096   0097   0098   0099   0100   0101   0102   0103   0104   0105   0106   0107   0108   0109   0110   0111   0112   0113   0114   0115   0116   0117   0118   0119   0120   0121   0122   0123   0124   0125   0126   0127   0128   0129   0130   0131   0132   0133   0134   0135   0136   0137   0138   0139   0140   0141   0142   0143   0144   0145   0146   0147   0148   0149   0150   0151   0152   0153   0154   0155   0156   0157   0158   0159   0160   0161   0162   0163   0164   0165   0166   0167   0168   0169   0170   0171   0172   0173   0174   0175   0176   0177   0178   0179   0180   0181   0182   0183   0184   0185   0186   0187   0188   0189   0190   0191   0192   0193   0194   0195   0196   0197   0198   0199   0200   0201   0202   0203   0204   0205   0206   0207   0208   0209   0210  

Claims

1   2   3   4   5  

Drawings

1   2A   2B   2C   3   4   5   6   7   8   9  

Description

Title of Invention : SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR SIGNALING TILE STRUCTURES FOR PICTURES OF CODED VIDEO

Technical Field

[0001]
This disclosure relates to video coding and more particularly to techniques for signaling of tile structures for pictures of coded video.

Background Art

[0002]
Digital video capabilities can be incorporated into a wide range of devices, including digital televisions, laptop or desktop computers, tablet computers, digital recording devices, digital media players, video gaming devices, cellular telephones, including so-called smartphones, medical imaging devices, and the like. Digital video may be coded according to a video coding standard. Video coding standards may incorporate video compression techniques. Examples of video coding standards include ISO/IEC MPEG-4 Visual and ITU-T H.264 (also known as ISO/IEC MPEG-4 AVC) and High-Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC). HEVC is described in High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC), Rec. ITU-T H.265, December 2016, which is incorporated by reference, and referred to herein as ITU-T H.265. Extensions and improvements for ITU-T H.265 are currently being considered for the development of next generation video coding standards. For example, the ITU-T Video Coding Experts Group (VCEG) and ISO/IEC (Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) (collectively referred to as the Joint Video Exploration Team (JVET)) are studying the potential need for standardization of future video coding technology with a compression capability that significantly exceeds that of the current HEVC standard. The Joint Exploration Model 7 (JEM 7), Algorithm Description of Joint Exploration Test Model 7 (JEM 7), ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11 Document: JVET-G1001, July 2017, Torino, IT, which is incorporated by reference herein, describes the coding features that are under coordinated test model study by the JVET as potentially enhancing video coding technology beyond the capabilities of ITU-T H.265. It should be noted that the coding features of JEM 7 are implemented in JEM reference software. As used herein, the term JEM may collectively refer to algorithms included in JEM 7 and implementations of JEM reference software. Further, in response to a “Joint Call for Proposals on Video Compression with Capabilities beyond HEVC,” jointly issued by VCEG and MPEG, multiple descriptions of video coding were proposed by various groups at the 10 th Meeting of ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11 16-20 April 2018, San Diego, CA. As a result of the multiple descriptions of video coding, a draft text of a video coding specification is described in “Versatile Video Coding (Draft 1),” 10 th Meeting of ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11 16-20 April 2018, San Diego, CA, document JVET-J1001-v2, which is incorporated by reference herein, and referred to as JVET-J1001. “Versatile Video Coding (Draft 2),” 11th Meeting of ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11 10-18 July 2018, Ljubljana, SI, document JVET-K1001-v7, which is incorporated by reference herein, and referred to as JVET-K1001, is an update to JVET-J1001. Further, “Versatile Video Coding (Draft 3),” 12th Meeting of ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11 3-12 October 2018, Macao, CN, document JVET-L1001-v2, which is incorporated by reference herein, and referred to as JVET-L1001, is an update to JVET-K1001.
[0003]
Video compression techniques reduce data requirements for storing and transmitting video data by exploiting the inherent redundancies in a video sequence. Video compression techniques may sub-divide a video sequence into successively smaller portions (i.e., groups of frames within a video sequence, a frame within a group of frames, slices within a frame, coding tree units (e.g., macroblocks) within a slice, coding blocks within a coding tree unit, etc.). Intra prediction coding techniques (e.g., intra-picture (spatial)) and inter prediction techniques (i.e., inter-picture (temporal)) may be used to generate difference values between a unit of video data to be coded and a reference unit of video data. The difference values may be referred to as residual data. Residual data may be coded as quantized transform coefficients. Syntax elements may relate residual data and a reference coding unit (e.g., intra-prediction mode indices, motion vectors, and block vectors). Residual data and syntax elements may be entropy coded. Entropy encoded residual data and syntax elements may be included in a compliant bitstream. Compliant bitstreams and associated metadata may be formatted according to data structures.

Summary of Invention

[0004]
In one example, a method of decoding video data, the method comprising: decoding a first flag syntax in a picture parameter set, wherein the first flag syntax specifies whether tiles within each slice are in raster scan order or the tiles within each slice cover a rectangular region of a picture; decoding a second flag syntax in the picture parameter set, wherein the second flag syntax specifies each slice includes only one rectangular region or each slice includes one or more rectangular regions; decoding a number syntax, if a value of the first flag syntax is equal to one and a value of the second flag syntax is equal to zero, wherein a value of the number syntax plus one specifies a number of slices in each picture referring to the picture parameter set; decoding an address syntax, if the value of the first flag syntax is equal to one, wherein the address syntax indicates an index of the slice; and deriving a variable specifying a number of regions in the slice by using the address syntax.
[0005]
In one example, a method of coding data, the method comprising: coding a first flag syntax in a picture parameter set, wherein the first flag syntax specifies whether tiles within each slice are in raster scan order or the tiles within each slice cover a rectangular region of a picture; coding a second flag syntax in the picture parameter set, wherein the second flag syntax specifies each slice includes only one rectangular region or each slice includes one or more rectangular regions; coding a number syntax, if a value of the first flag syntax is equal to one and a value of the second flag syntax is equal to zero, wherein a value of the number syntax plus one specifies a number of slices in each picture referring to the picture parameter set; coding an address syntax, if the value of the first flag syntax is equal to one, wherein the address syntax indicates an index of the slice; and deriving a variable specifying a number of regions in the slice by using the address syntax.

Brief Description of Drawings

[0006]
[fig. 1] FIG. 1 is a block diagram illustrating an example of a system that may be configured to encode and decode video data according to one or more techniques of this this disclosure.
[fig. 2A] FIG. 2A is a conceptual diagram illustrating coded video data and corresponding data structures according to one or more techniques of this this disclosure.
[fig. 2B] FIG. 2B is a conceptual diagram illustrating coded video data and corresponding data structures according to one or more techniques of this this disclosure.
[fig. 2C] FIG. 2C is a conceptual diagram illustrating coded video data and corresponding data structures according to one or more techniques of this this disclosure.
[fig. 3] FIG. 3 is a conceptual diagram illustrating a data structure encapsulating coded video data and corresponding metadata according to one or more techniques of this this disclosure.
[fig. 4] FIG. 4 is a conceptual drawing illustrating an example of components that may be included in an implementation of a system that may be configured to encode and decode video data according to one or more techniques of this this disclosure.
[fig. 5] FIG. 5 is a block diagram illustrating an example of a video encoder that may be configured to encode video data according to one or more techniques of this disclosure.
[fig. 6] FIG. 6 is a conceptual diagram illustrating an example of ordering tiles included in tile sets according to one or more techniques of this disclosure.
[fig. 7] FIG. 7 is a conceptual diagram illustrating an example of ordering video blocks included in tile sets according to one or more techniques of this disclosure.
[fig. 8] FIG. 8 is a conceptual diagram illustrating an example of signaling byte range information according to one or more techniques of this disclosure.
[fig. 9] FIG. 9 is a block diagram illustrating an example of a video decoder that may be configured to decode video data according to one or more techniques of this disclosure.

Description of Embodiments

[0007]
In general, this disclosure describes various techniques for coding video data. In particular, this disclosure describes techniques for signaling of tile structures for pictures of coded video. As used herein the term tile structure may refer to a particular partitioning of a picture into tiles. As described in further detail below, according to the techniques described herein a picture may be partitioned into variable sized tiles and tile structures. Signaling of tile structures according to the techniques described herein may be particularly useful for improving video distribution system performance by lowering transmission bandwidth and/or facilitating parallelization of a video encoder and/or decoder. It should be noted that although techniques of this disclosure are described with respect to ITU-T H.264 and ITU-T H.265, the techniques of this disclosure are generally applicable to video coding. For example, the coding techniques described herein may be incorporated into video coding systems, (including video coding systems based on future video coding standards) including block structures, intra prediction techniques, inter prediction techniques, transform techniques, filtering techniques, and/or entropy coding techniques other than those included in ITU-T H.265. Thus, reference to ITU-T H.264 and ITU-T H.265 is for descriptive purposes and should not be construed to limit the scope of the techniques described herein. Further, it should be noted that incorporation by reference of documents herein should not be construed to limit or create ambiguity with respect to terms used herein. For example, in the case where an incorporated reference provides a different definition of a term than another incorporated reference and/or as the term is used herein, the term should be interpreted in a manner that broadly includes each respective definition and/or in a manner that includes each of the particular definitions in the alternative.
[0008]
In one example, a method of signaling tile set structures comprises signaling a flag indicating tile sets are enabled in a bitstream, signaling a syntax element indicating a number tile set columns partitioning a picture, and signaling a syntax element indicating a number tile set rows partitioning a picture.
[0009]
In one example, a device comprises one or more processors configured to signal a flag indicating tile sets are enabled in a bitstream, signal a syntax element indicating a number tile set columns partitioning a picture, and signal a syntax element indicating a number tile set rows partitioning a picture.
[0010]
In one example, a non-transitory computer-readable storage medium comprises instructions stored thereon that, when executed, cause one or more processors of a device to signal a flag indicating tile sets are enabled in a bitstream, signal a syntax element indicating a number tile set columns partitioning a picture, and signal a syntax element indicating a number tile set rows partitioning a picture.
[0011]
In one example, an apparatus comprises means for signaling a flag indicating tile sets are enabled in a bitstream, means for signaling a syntax element indicating a number tile set columns partitioning a picture, and means for signaling a syntax element indicating a number tile set rows partitioning a picture.
[0012]
In one example, a method of decoding video data comprises parsing a flag indicating tile sets are enabled in a bitstream, parsing a syntax element indicating a number tile set columns partitioning a picture, parsing a syntax element indicating a number tile set rows partitioning a picture, and generating video data based on values of the parsed syntax elements.
[0013]
In one example, a device comprises one or more processors configured to parse a flag indicating tile sets are enabled in a bitstream, parse a syntax element indicating a number tile set columns partitioning a picture, parse a syntax element indicating a number tile set rows partitioning a picture, and generate video data based on values of the parsed syntax elements.
[0014]
In one example, a non-transitory computer-readable storage medium comprises instructions stored thereon that, when executed, cause one or more processors of a device to parse a flag indicating tile sets are enabled in a bitstream, parse a syntax element indicating a number tile set columns partitioning a picture, parse a syntax element indicating a number tile set rows partitioning a picture, and generate video data based on values of the parsed syntax elements.
[0015]
In one example, an apparatus comprises means for parsing a flag indicating tile sets are enabled in a bitstream, means for parsing a syntax element indicating a number tile set columns partitioning a picture, means for parsing a syntax element indicating a number tile set rows partitioning a picture, and means for generating video data based on values of the parsed syntax elements.
[0016]
The details of one or more examples are set forth in the accompanying drawings and the description below. Other features, objects, and advantages will be apparent from the description and drawings, and from the claims.
[0017]
Video content typically includes video sequences comprised of a series of frames. A series of frames may also be referred to as a group of pictures (GOP). Each video frame or picture may include a one or more slices, where a slice includes a plurality of video blocks. A video block includes an array of pixel values (also referred to as samples) that may be predictively coded. Video blocks may be ordered according to a scan pattern (e.g., a raster scan). A video encoder performs predictive encoding on video blocks and sub-divisions thereof. ITU-T H.264 specifies a macroblock including 16 x 16 luma samples. ITU-T H.265 specifies an analogous Coding Tree Unit (CTU) structure (which may be referred to as a Largest Coding Unit (LCU)) where a picture may be split into CTUs of equal size and each CTU may include Coding Tree Blocks (CTB) having 16 x 16, 32 x 32, or 64 x 64 luma samples. As used herein, the term video block may generally refer to an area of a picture or may more specifically refer to the largest array of pixel values that may be predictively coded, sub-divisions thereof, and/or corresponding structures. Further, according to ITU-T H.265, each video frame or picture may be partitioned to include one or more tiles, where a tile is a sequence of coding tree units corresponding to a rectangular area of a picture.
[0018]
In ITU-T H.265, a CTU is composed of respective CTBs for each component of video data (e.g., luma (Y) and chroma (Cb and Cr)). Further, in ITU-T H.265, a CTU may be partitioned according to a quadtree (QT) partitioning structure, which results in the CTBs of the CTU being partitioned into Coding Blocks (CB). That is, in ITU-T H.265, a CTU may be partitioned into quadtree leaf nodes. According to ITU-T H.265, one luma CB together with two corresponding chroma CBs and associated syntax elements are referred to as a coding unit (CU). In ITU-T H.265, a minimum allowed size of a CB may be signaled. In ITU-T H.265, the smallest minimum allowed size of a luma CB is 8x8 luma samples. In ITU-T H.265, the decision to code a picture area using intra prediction or inter prediction is made at the CU level.
[0019]
In ITU-T H.265, a CU is associated with a prediction unit (PU) structure having its root at the CU. In ITU-T H.265, PU structures allow luma and chroma CBs to be split for purposes of generating corresponding reference samples. That is, in ITU-T H.265, luma and chroma CBs may be split into respect luma and chroma prediction blocks (PBs), where a PB includes a block of sample values for which the same prediction is applied. In ITU-T H.265, a CB may be partitioned into 1, 2, or 4 PBs. ITU-T H.265 supports PB sizes from 64x64 samples down to 4x4 samples. In ITU-T H.265, square PBs are supported for intra prediction, where a CB may form the PB or the CB may be split into four square PBs (i.e., intra prediction PB sizes type include MxM or M/2xM/2, where M is the height and width of the square CB). In ITU-T H.265, in addition to the square PBs, rectangular PBs are supported for inter prediction, where a CB may by halved vertically or horizontally to form PBs (i.e., inter prediction PB types include MxM, M/2xM/2, M/2xM, or MxM/2). Further, it should be noted that in ITU-T H.265, for inter prediction, four asymmetric PB partitions are supported, where the CB is partitioned into two PBs at one quarter of the height (at the top or the bottom) or width (at the left or the right) of the CB (i.e., asymmetric partitions include M/4xM left, M/4xM right, MxM/4 top, and MxM/4 bottom). Intra prediction data (e.g., intra prediction mode syntax elements) or inter prediction data (e.g., motion data syntax elements) corresponding to a PB is used to produce reference and/or predicted sample values for the PB.
[0020]
JEM specifies a CTU having a maximum size of 256x256 luma samples. JEM specifies a quadtree plus binary tree (QTBT) block structure. In JEM, the QTBT structure enables quadtree leaf nodes to be further partitioned by a binary tree (BT) structure. That is, in JEM, the binary tree structure enables quadtree leaf nodes to be recursively divided vertically or horizontally. Thus, the binary tree structure in JEM enables square and rectangular leaf nodes, where each leaf node includes a CB. As illustrated in FIG. 2A, a picture included in a GOP may include slices, where each slice includes a sequence of CTUs and each CTU may be partitioned according to a QTBT structure. In JEM, CBs are used for prediction without any further partitioning. That is, in JEM, a CB may be a block of sample values on which the same prediction is applied. Thus, a JEM QTBT leaf node may be analogous a PB in ITU-T H.265.
[0021]
Intra prediction data (e.g., intra prediction mode syntax elements) or inter prediction data (e.g., motion data syntax elements) may associate PUs with corresponding reference samples. Residual data may include respective arrays of difference values corresponding to each component of video data (e.g., luma (Y) and chroma (Cb and Cr)). Residual data may be in the pixel domain. A transform, such as, a discrete cosine transform (DCT), a discrete sine transform (DST), an integer transform, a wavelet transform, or a conceptually similar transform, may be applied to pixel difference values to generate transform coefficients. It should be noted that in ITU-T H.265, CUs may be further sub-divided into Transform Units (TUs). That is, an array of pixel difference values may be sub-divided for purposes of generating transform coefficients (e.g., four 8 x 8 transforms may be applied to a 16 x 16 array of residual values corresponding to a 16 x16 luma CB), such sub-divisions may be referred to as Transform Blocks (TBs). Transform coefficients may be quantized according to a quantization parameter (QP). Quantized transform coefficients (which may be referred to as level values) may be entropy coded according to an entropy encoding technique (e.g., content adaptive variable length coding (CAVLC), context adaptive binary arithmetic coding (CABAC), probability interval partitioning entropy coding (PIPE), etc.). Further, syntax elements, such as, a syntax element indicating a prediction mode, may also be entropy coded. Entropy encoded quantized transform coefficients and corresponding entropy encoded syntax elements may form a compliant bitstream that can be used to reproduce video data. A binarization process may be performed on syntax elements as part of an entropy coding process. Binarization refers to the process of converting a syntax value into a series of one or more bits. These bits may be referred to as “bins.”
As described above, intra prediction data or inter prediction data is used to produce reference sample values for a block of sample values. The difference between sample values included in a current PB, or another type of picture area structure, and associated reference samples (e.g., those generated using a prediction) may be referred to as residual data. As described above, intra prediction data or inter prediction data may associate an area of a picture (e.g., a PB or a CB) with corresponding reference samples. For intra prediction coding, an intra prediction mode may specify the location of reference samples within a picture. In ITU-T H.265, defined possible intra prediction modes include a planar (i.e., surface fitting) prediction mode (predMode: 0), a DC (i.e., flat overall averaging) prediction mode (predMode: 1), and 33 angular prediction modes (predMode: 2-34). In JEM, defined possible intra-prediction modes include a planar prediction mode (predMode: 0), a DC prediction mode (predMode: 1), and 65 angular prediction modes (predMode: 2-66). It should be noted that planar and DC prediction modes may be referred to as non-directional prediction modes and that angular prediction modes may be referred to as directional prediction modes. It should be noted that the techniques described herein may be generally applicable regardless of the number of defined possible prediction modes.
[0022]
For inter prediction coding, a motion vector (MV) identifies reference samples in a picture other than the picture of a video block to be coded and thereby exploits temporal redundancy in video. For example, a current video block may be predicted from reference block(s) located in previously coded frame(s) and a motion vector may be used to indicate the location of the reference block. A motion vector and associated data may describe, for example, a horizontal component of the motion vector, a vertical component of the motion vector, a resolution for the motion vector (e.g., one-quarter pixel precision, one-half pixel precision, one-pixel precision, two-pixel precision, four-pixel precision), a prediction direction and/or a reference picture index value. Further, a coding standard, such as, for example ITU-T H.265, may support motion vector prediction. Motion vector prediction enables a motion vector to be specified using motion vectors of neighboring blocks. Examples of motion vector prediction include advanced motion vector prediction (AMVP), temporal motion vector prediction (TMVP), so-called “merge” mode, and “skip” and “direct” motion inference. Further, JEM supports advanced temporal motion vector prediction (ATMVP), Spatial-temporal motion vector prediction (STMVP), Pattern matched motion vector derivation (PMMVD) mode, which is a special merge mode based on Frame-Rate Up Conversion (FRUC) techniques, and affine transform motion compensation prediction.
[0023]
Residual data may include respective arrays of difference values corresponding to each component of video data. Residual data may be in the pixel domain. A transform, such as, a discrete cosine transform (DCT), a discrete sine transform (DST), an integer transform, a wavelet transform, or a conceptually similar transform, may be applied to an array of difference values to generate transform coefficients. In ITU-T H.265, a CU is associated with a transform unit (TU) structure having its root at the CU level. That is, in ITU-T H.265, as described above, an array of difference values may be sub-divided for purposes of generating transform coefficients (e.g., four 8x8 transforms may be applied to a 16x16 array of residual values). It should be noted that in ITU-T H.265, TBs are not necessarily aligned with PBs.
[0024]
It should be noted that in JEM, residual values corresponding to a CB are used to generate transform coefficients without further partitioning. That is, in JEM a QTBT leaf node may be analogous to both a PB and a TB in ITU-T H.265. It should be noted that in JEM, a core transform and a subsequent secondary transforms may be applied (in the video encoder) to generate transform coefficients. For a video decoder, the order of transforms is reversed. Further, in JEM, whether a secondary transform is applied to generate transform coefficients may be dependent on a prediction mode.
[0025]
A quantization process may be performed on transform coefficients. Quantization approximates transform coefficients by amplitudes restricted to a set of specified values. Quantization may be used in order to vary the amount of data required to represent a group of transform coefficients. Quantization may be realized through division of transform coefficients by a scaling factor and any associated rounding functions (e.g., rounding to the nearest integer). Quantized transform coefficients may be referred to as coefficient level values. Inverse quantization (or “dequantization”) may include multiplication of coefficient level values by the scaling factor. It should be noted that as used herein the term quantization process in some instances may refer to division by a scaling factor to generate level values or multiplication by a scaling factor to recover transform coefficients in some instances. That is, a quantization process may refer to quantization in some cases and inverse quantization in some cases.
[0026]


[0027]


[0028]


[0029]


[0030]


[0031]
Virtual Reality (VR) applications may include video content that may be rendered with a head-mounted display, where only the area of the spherical video that corresponds to the orientation of the user’s head is rendered. VR applications may be enabled by omnidirectional video, which is also referred to as 360° spherical video. Omnidirectional video is typically captured by multiple cameras that cover up to 360° of a scene. A distinct feature of omnidirectional video compared to normal video is that, typically only a subset of the entire captured video region is displayed, i.e., the area corresponding to the current user’s field of view (FOV) is displayed. A FOV is sometimes also referred to as viewport. In other cases, a viewport may be part of the spherical video that is currently displayed and viewed by the user. It should be noted that the size of the viewport can be smaller than or equal to the field of view.
[0032]
A most-interested region in an omnidirectional video picture may refer to a subset of the entire video region that is statistically the most likely to be rendered to the user at the presentation time of that picture (i.e., most likely to be in a FOV). It should be noted that most-interested regions of an omnidirectional video may be determined by the intent of a director or producer, or derived from user statistics by a service or content provider, e.g., through the statistics of which regions have been requested/seen the most by users when the omnidirectional video content was provided through a streaming service. Most-interested regions may be used for data pre-fetching in omnidirectional video adaptive streaming by edge servers or clients, and/or transcoding optimization when an omnidirectional video is transcoded, e.g., to a different codec or projection mapping. Thus, signaling most-interested regions in an omnidirectional video picture may improve system performance by lowering transmission bandwidth and lowering decoding complexity. It should be noted that a base region generally refers to an overall region of coded video data, e.g., the entire video region.
[0033]
As described above, according to ITU-T H.265, each video frame or picture may be partitioned to include one or more slices and further partitioned to include one or more tiles. FIGS. 2A-2C are conceptual diagrams illustrating an example of a group of pictures including slices and further partitioning pictures into tiles. In the example illustrated in FIG. 2A, Pic 4 is illustrated as including two slices (i.e., Slice 1 and Slice 2) where each slice includes a sequence of CTUs (e.g., in raster scan order). It should be noted that a slice is a sequence of one or more slice segments starting with an independent slice segment and containing all subsequent dependent slice segments (if any) that precede the next independent slice segment (if any) within the same access unit. A slice segment, like a slice, is a sequence of coding tree units. In the examples described herein, in some cases the terms slice and slice segment may be used interchangeably to indicate a sequent of coding tree units. In the example illustrated in FIG. 2B, Pic 4 is illustrated as including six tiles (i.e., Tile 1 to Tile 6), where each tile is rectangular and includes a sequence of CTUs. It should be noted that in ITU-T H.265, a tile may consist of coding tree units contained in more than one slice and a slice may consist of coding tree units contained in more than one tile. However, ITU-T H.265 provides that one or both of the following conditions shall be fulfilled: (1) All coding tree units in a slice belong to the same tile; and (2) All coding tree units in a tile belong to the same slice. Thus, for example, with respect to FIG. 2B, all of the tiles may belong to a single slice or the tiles may belong to multiple slices (e.g., Tile 1 to Tile 3 may belong to Slice 1 and Tile 4 to Tile 6 may belong to Slice 2). With respect to JVET-L1001, it has been proposed that slices shall be required to consist of an integer number of complete tiles instead of only being required to consist of an integer number of complete CTUs. As such, a slice including a set of CTUs which do not form a rectangular region of a picture may or may not be supported in some video coding techniques. Further, a slice that is required to consist of an integer number of complete tiles is referred to as a tile group. The techniques described herein may applicable to slices, tiles, and/or tile groups.
[0034]
Further, as illustrated in FIG. 2B, tiles may form tile sets (i.e., Tile 2 and Tile 3 form a tile set). Tile sets may be used to define boundaries for coding dependencies (e.g., intra-prediction dependencies, entropy encoding dependencies, etc.,) and as such, may enable parallelism in coding and region-of-interest coding. For example, if the video sequence in the example illustrated in FIG. 2B corresponds to a nightly news program, the tile set formed by Tile 2 and Tile 3 may correspond to a visual region-of-interest including a news anchor reading the news. ITU-T H.265 defines signaling that enables motion-constrained tile sets (MCTS). A motion-constrained tile set may include a tile set for which inter-picture prediction dependencies are limited to the collocated tile sets in reference pictures. Thus, it is possible to perform motion compensation for a given MCTS independent of the decoding of other tile sets outside the MCTS. For example, referring to FIG. 2B, if the tile set formed by Tile 2 and Tile 3 is a MCTS and each of Pic 1 to Pic 3 include collocated tile sets, motion compensation may be performed on Tile 2 and Tile 3 independent of coding Tile 1, Tile 4, Tile 5, and Tile 6 in Pic 4 and tiles collocated with tiles Tile 1, Tile 4, Tile 5, and Tile 6 in each of Pic 1 to Pic 3. Coding video data according to MCTS may be useful for video applications including omnidirectional video presentations.
[0035]
As illustrated in FIG. 2C, Tile 1 to Tile 6 may form a most-interested region of an omnidirectional video. Further, the tile set formed by Tile 2 and Tile 3 may be a MCTS included within the most-interested region. Viewport dependent video coding, which may also be referred to as viewport dependent partial video coding, may be used to enable decoding of only part of an entire video region. That is, for example, viewport dependent video coding may be used to provide sufficient information for rendering of a current FOV. For example, omnidirectional video may be encoded using MCTS, such that each potential region covering a viewport can be independently decoded from other regions across time. In this case, for example, for a particular current viewport, a minimum set of tiles that cover a viewport may be sent to the client, decoded, and/or rendered. This process may be referred to as simple tile based partial decoding (STPD).
[0036]
In ITU-T H.265, a coded video sequence (CVS) may be encapsulated (or structured) as a sequence of access units, where each access unit includes video data structured as network abstraction layer (NAL) units. In ITU-T H.265, a bitstream is described as including a sequence of NAL units forming one or more CVSs. It should be noted that ITU-T H.265 supports multi-layer extensions, including format range extensions (RExt), scalability (SHVC), multi-view (MV-HEVC), and 3-D (3D-HEVC). Multi-layer extensions enable a video presentation to include a base layer and one or more additional enhancement layers. For example, a base layer may enable a video presentation having a basic level of quality (e.g., High Definition rendering) to be presented and an enhancement layer may enable a video presentation having an enhanced level of quality (e.g., an Ultra High Definition rendering) to be presented. In ITU-T H.265, an enhancement layer may be coded by referencing a base layer. That is, for example, a picture in an enhancement layer may be coded (e.g., using inter prediction techniques) by referencing one or more pictures (including scaled versions thereof) in a base layer. In ITU-T H.265, each NAL unit may include an identifier indicating a layer of video data the NAL unit is associated with. Referring to the example illustrated in FIG. 2A, each slice of video data included in Pic 4 (i.e., Slice 1 and Slice 2) is illustrated as being encapsulated in a NAL unit. Further, in ITU-T H.265 each of a video sequence, a GOP, a picture, a slice, and CTU may be associated with metadata that describes video coding properties. ITU-T H.265 defines parameters sets that may be used to describe video data and/or video coding properties. In ITU-T H.265, parameter sets may be encapsulated as a special type of NAL unit or may be signaled as a message. NAL units including coded video data (e.g., a slice) may be referred to as VCL (Video Coding Layer) NAL units and NAL units including metadata (e.g., parameter sets) may be referred to as non-VCL NAL units. Further, ITU-T H.265 enables supplemental enhancement information (SEI) messages to be signaled. In ITU-T H.265, SEI messages assist in processes related to decoding, display or other purposes, however, SEI messages may not be required for constructing the luma or chroma samples by the decoding process. In ITU-T H.265, SEI messages may be signaled in a bitstream using non-VCL NAL units. Further, SEI messages may be conveyed by some means other than by being present in the bitstream (i.e., signaled out-of-band).
[0037]
FIG. 3 illustrates an example of a bitstream including multiple CVSs, where a CVS is represented by NAL units included in a respective access unit. In the example, illustrated in FIG. 3, non-VCL NAL units include respective parameter set units (i.e., Video Parameter Sets (VPS), Sequence Parameter Sets (SPS), and Picture Parameter Set (PPS) units) and an access unit delimiter NAL unit. It should be noted that ITU-T H.265 defines NAL unit header semantics that specify the type of Raw Byte Sequence Payload (RBSP) data structure included in the NAL unit. As described above, omnidirectional video may be coded using MCTS. Sub-bitstream extraction may refer to a process where a device receiving a ITU-T H.265 compliant bitstream forms a new ITU-T H.265 compliant bitstream by discarding and/or modifying data in the received bitstream. For example, as described above, for a particular current viewport, a minimum set of tiles that cover a viewport may be sent to the client. Sub-bitstream extraction may be used to form a new ITU-T H.265 compliant bitstream including the minimum set of tiles. For example, referring to FIG. 2C, if a viewport includes only Tile 2 and Tile 3 and an access unit in a bitstream includes VCL NAL units for Tile 1 to Tile 6, where Tile 1, Tile 2 and Tile 3 are included in a first slice and Tile 4, Tile 5 and Tile 6 are included in a second slice, a sub-bitstream extraction process may include generating a new bitstream that only includes VCL NAL units for the slice including Tile 2 and Tile 3 (i.e., VCL NAL unit including the slice including for Tile 4, Tile 5 and Tile 6 is removed from the received bitstream).
[0038]
As described above, the term tile structure may refer to a particular partitioning of a picture into tiles. Referring to FIG. 2B, the tile structure for Pic 4 includes the illustrated tiles, Tile 1-Tile 6. In some cases, it may be useful to use different tile structures for different pictures. In ITU-T H.265, a tile structure for a picture is signaled using a Picture Parameter Set. Table 1 is a portion of the syntax of the PPS specified in ITU-T H.265 including the relevant syntax elements for signaling a tile structure.
[0039]


[0040]




[0041]
Further, in ITU-T H.265, information regarding entry points in a bitstream are signaled using a slice segment header. Table 2 is a portion of the syntax of the slice segment header specified in ITU-T H.265 including the relevant syntax elements for signaling entry points.
[0042]


[0043]




[0044]
As illustrated in the syntax and semantics above, in ITU-T H.265, tile structures are specified by a number of columns and a number rows and thus are limited in that each row and column includes the same number of tiles. Limiting tiles structures in this manner may be less than ideal. According to the techniques described herein, a video encoder may signal tile structure and tile sets in a manner that provides increased flexibility.
[0045]
FIG. 1 is a block diagram illustrating an example of a system that may be configured to code (i.e., encode and/or decode) video data according to one or more techniques of this disclosure. System 100 represents an example of a system that may encapsulate video data according to one or more techniques of this disclosure. As illustrated in FIG. 1, system 100 includes source device 102, communications medium 110, and destination device 120. In the example illustrated in FIG. 1, source device 102 may include any device configured to encode video data and transmit encoded video data to communications medium 110. Destination device 120 may include any device configured to receive encoded video data via communications medium 110 and to decode encoded video data. Source device 102 and/or destination device 120 may include computing devices equipped for wired and/or wireless communications and may include, for example, set top boxes, digital video recorders, televisions, desktop, laptop or tablet computers, gaming consoles, medical imagining devices, and mobile devices, including, for example, smartphones, cellular telephones, personal gaming devices.
[0046]
Communications medium 110 may include any combination of wireless and wired communication media, and/or storage devices. Communications medium 110 may include coaxial cables, fiber optic cables, twisted pair cables, wireless transmitters and receivers, routers, switches, repeaters, base stations, or any other equipment that may be useful to facilitate communications between various devices and sites. Communications medium 110 may include one or more networks. For example, communications medium 110 may include a network configured to enable access to the World Wide Web, for example, the Internet. A network may operate according to a combination of one or more telecommunication protocols. Telecommunications protocols may include proprietary aspects and/or may include standardized telecommunication protocols. Examples of standardized telecommunications protocols include Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) standards, Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) standards, Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting (ISDB) standards, Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification (DOCSIS) standards, Global System Mobile Communications (GSM) standards, code division multiple access (CDMA) standards, 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) standards, European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) standards, Internet Protocol (IP) standards, Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) standards, and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standards.
[0047]
Storage devices may include any type of device or storage medium capable of storing data. A storage medium may include a tangible or non-transitory computer-readable media. A computer readable medium may include optical discs, flash memory, magnetic memory, or any other suitable digital storage media. In some examples, a memory device or portions thereof may be described as non-volatile memory and in other examples portions of memory devices may be described as volatile memory. Examples of volatile memories may include random access memories (RAM), dynamic random access memories (DRAM), and static random access memories (SRAM). Examples of non-volatile memories may include magnetic hard discs, optical discs, floppy discs, flash memories, or forms of electrically programmable memories (EPROM) or electrically erasable and programmable (EEPROM) memories. Storage device(s) may include memory cards (e.g., a Secure Digital (SD) memory card), internal/external hard disk drives, and/or internal/external solid state drives. Data may be stored on a storage device according to a defined file format.
[0048]
FIG. 4 is a conceptual drawing illustrating an example of components that may be included in an implementation of system 100. In the example implementation illustrated in FIG. 4, system 100 includes one or more computing devices 402A-402N, television service network 404, television service provider site 406, wide area network 408, local area network 410, and one or more content provider sites 412A-412N. The implementation illustrated in FIG. 4 represents an example of a system that may be configured to allow digital media content, such as, for example, a movie, a live sporting event, etc., and data and applications and media presentations associated therewith to be distributed to and accessed by a plurality of computing devices, such as computing devices 402A-402N. In the example illustrated in FIG. 4, computing devices 402A-402N may include any device configured to receive data from one or more of television service network 404, wide area network 408, and/or local area network 410. For example, computing devices 402A-402N may be equipped for wired and/or wireless communications and may be configured to receive services through one or more data channels and may include televisions, including so-called smart televisions, set top boxes, and digital video recorders. Further, computing devices 402A-402N may include desktop, laptop, or tablet computers, gaming consoles, mobile devices, including, for example, “smart” phones, cellular telephones, and personal gaming devices.
[0049]
Television service network 404 is an example of a network configured to enable digital media content, which may include television services, to be distributed. For example, television service network 404 may include public over-the-air television networks, public or subscription-based satellite television service provider networks, and public or subscription-based cable television provider networks and/or over the top or Internet service providers. It should be noted that although in some examples television service network 404 may primarily be used to enable television services to be provided, television service network 404 may also enable other types of data and services to be provided according to any combination of the telecommunication protocols described herein. Further, it should be noted that in some examples, television service network 404 may enable two-way communications between television service provider site 406 and one or more of computing devices 402A-402N. Television service network 404 may comprise any combination of wireless and/or wired communication media. Television service network 404 may include coaxial cables, fiber optic cables, twisted pair cables, wireless transmitters and receivers, routers, switches, repeaters, base stations, or any other equipment that may be useful to facilitate communications between various devices and sites. Television service network 404 may operate according to a combination of one or more telecommunication protocols. Telecommunications protocols may include proprietary aspects and/or may include standardized telecommunication protocols. Examples of standardized telecommunications protocols include DVB standards, ATSC standards, ISDB standards, DTMB standards, DMB standards, Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification (DOCSIS) standards, HbbTV standards, W3C standards, and UPnP standards.
[0050]
Referring again to FIG. 4, television service provider site 406 may be configured to distribute television service via television service network 404. For example, television service provider site 406 may include one or more broadcast stations, a cable television provider, or a satellite television provider, or an Internet-based television provider. For example, television service provider site 406 may be configured to receive a transmission including television programming through a satellite uplink/downlink. Further, as illustrated in FIG. 4, television service provider site 406 may be in communication with wide area network 408 and may be configured to receive data from content provider sites 412A-412N. It should be noted that in some examples, television service provider site 406 may include a television studio and content may originate therefrom.
[0051]
Wide area network 408 may include a packet based network and operate according to a combination of one or more telecommunication protocols. Telecommunications protocols may include proprietary aspects and/or may include standardized telecommunication protocols. Examples of standardized telecommunications protocols include Global System Mobile Communications (GSM) standards, code division multiple access (CDMA) standards, 3 rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) standards, European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) standards, European standards (EN), IP standards, Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) standards, and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standards, such as, for example, one or more of the IEEE 802 standards (e.g., Wi-Fi). Wide area network 408 may comprise any combination of wireless and/or wired communication media. Wide area network 408 may include coaxial cables, fiber optic cables, twisted pair cables, Ethernet cables, wireless transmitters and receivers, routers, switches, repeaters, base stations, or any other equipment that may be useful to facilitate communications between various devices and sites. In one example, wide area network 408 may include the Internet. Local area network 410 may include a packet based network and operate according to a combination of one or more telecommunication protocols. Local area network 410 may be distinguished from wide area network 408 based on levels of access and/or physical infrastructure. For example, local area network 410 may include a secure home network.
[0052]
Referring again to FIG. 4, content provider sites 412A-412N represent examples of sites that may provide multimedia content to television service provider site 406 and/or computing devices 402A-402N. For example, a content provider site may include a studio having one or more studio content servers configured to provide multimedia files and/or streams to television service provider site 406. In one example, content provider sites 412A-412N may be configured to provide multimedia content using the IP suite. For example, a content provider site may be configured to provide multimedia content to a receiver device according to Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP), HTTP, or the like. Further, content provider sites 412A-412N may be configured to provide data, including hypertext based content, and the like, to one or more of receiver devices computing devices 402A-402N and/or television service provider site 406 through wide area network 408. Content provider sites 412A-412N may include one or more web servers. Data provided by data provider site 412A-412N may be defined according to data formats.
[0053]
Referring again to FIG. 1, source device 102 includes video source 104, video encoder 106, data encapsulator 107, and interface 108. Video source 104 may include any device configured to capture and/or store video data. For example, video source 104 may include a video camera and a storage device operably coupled thereto. Video encoder 106 may include any device configured to receive video data and generate a compliant bitstream representing the video data. A compliant bitstream may refer to a bitstream that a video decoder can receive and reproduce video data therefrom. Aspects of a compliant bitstream may be defined according to a video coding standard. When generating a compliant bitstream video encoder 106 may compress video data. Compression may be lossy (discernible or indiscernible to a viewer) or lossless. FIG. 5 is a block diagram illustrating an example of video encoder 500 that may implement the techniques for encoding video data described herein. It should be noted that although example video encoder 500 is illustrated as having distinct functional blocks, such an illustration is for descriptive purposes and does not limit video encoder 500 and/or sub-components thereof to a particular hardware or software architecture. Functions of video encoder 500 may be realized using any combination of hardware, firmware, and/or software implementations.
[0054]
Video encoder 500 may perform intra prediction coding and inter prediction coding of picture areas, and, as such, may be referred to as a hybrid video encoder. In the example illustrated in FIG. 5, video encoder 500 receives source video blocks. In some examples, source video blocks may include areas of picture that has been divided according to a coding structure. For example, source video data may include macroblocks, CTUs, CBs, sub-divisions thereof, and/or another equivalent coding unit. In some examples, video encoder 500 may be configured to perform additional sub-divisions of source video blocks. It should be noted that the techniques described herein are generally applicable to video coding, regardless of how source video data is partitioned prior to and/or during encoding. In the example illustrated in FIG. 5, video encoder 500 includes summer 502, transform coefficient generator 504, coefficient quantization unit 506, inverse quantization and transform coefficient processing unit 508, summer 510, intra prediction processing unit 512, inter prediction processing unit 514, and entropy encoding unit 516. As illustrated in FIG. 5, video encoder 500 receives source video blocks and outputs a bitstream.
[0055]
In the example illustrated in FIG. 5, video encoder 500 may generate residual data by subtracting a predictive video block from a source video block. The selection of a predictive video block is described in detail below. Summer 502 represents a component configured to perform this subtraction operation. In one example, the subtraction of video blocks occurs in the pixel domain. Transform coefficient generator 504 applies a transform, such as a discrete cosine transform (DCT), a discrete sine transform (DST), or a conceptually similar transform, to the residual block or sub-divisions thereof (e.g., four 8 x 8 transforms may be applied to a 16 x 16 array of residual values) to produce a set of residual transform coefficients. Transform coefficient generator 504 may be configured to perform any and all combinations of the transforms included in the family of discrete trigonometric transforms, including approximations thereof. Transform coefficient generator 504 may output transform coefficients to coefficient quantization unit 506. Coefficient quantization unit 506 may be configured to perform quantization of the transform coefficients. The quantization process may reduce the bit depth associated with some or all of the coefficients. The degree of quantization may alter the rate-distortion (i.e., bit-rate vs. quality of video) of encoded video data. The degree of quantization may be modified by adjusting a quantization parameter (QP). A quantization parameter may be determined based on slice level values and/or CU level values (e.g., CU delta QP values). QP data may include any data used to determine a QP for quantizing a particular set of transform coefficients. As illustrated in FIG. 5, quantized transform coefficients (which may be referred to as level values) are output to inverse quantization and transform coefficient processing unit 508. Inverse quantization and transform coefficient processing unit 508 may be configured to apply an inverse quantization and an inverse transformation to generate reconstructed residual data. As illustrated in FIG. 5, at summer 510, reconstructed residual data may be added to a predictive video block. In this manner, an encoded video block may be reconstructed and the resulting reconstructed video block may be used to evaluate the encoding quality for a given prediction, transformation, and/or quantization. Video encoder 500 may be configured to perform multiple coding passes (e.g., perform encoding while varying one or more of a prediction, transformation parameters, and quantization parameters). The rate-distortion of a bitstream or other system parameters may be optimized based on evaluation of reconstructed video blocks. Further, reconstructed video blocks may be stored and used as reference for predicting subsequent blocks.
[0056]
Referring again to FIG. 5, intra prediction processing unit 512 may be configured to select an intra prediction mode for a video block to be coded. Intra prediction processing unit 512 may be configured to evaluate a frame and determine an intra prediction mode to use to encode a current block. As described above, possible intra prediction modes may include planar prediction modes, DC prediction modes, and angular prediction modes. Further, it should be noted that in some examples, a prediction mode for a chroma component may be inferred from a prediction mode for a luma prediction mode. Intra prediction processing unit 512 may select an intra prediction mode after performing one or more coding passes. Further, in one example, intra prediction processing unit 512 may select a prediction mode based on a rate-distortion analysis. As illustrated in FIG. 5, intra prediction processing unit 512 outputs intra prediction data (e.g., syntax elements) to entropy encoding unit 516 and transform coefficient generator 504. As described above, a transform performed on residual data may be mode dependent (e.g., a secondary transform matrix may be determined based on a predication mode).
[0057]
Referring again to FIG. 5, inter prediction processing unit 514 may be configured to perform inter prediction coding for a current video block. Inter prediction processing unit 514 may be configured to receive source video blocks and calculate a motion vector for PUs of a video block. A motion vector may indicate the displacement of a PU of a video block within a current video frame relative to a predictive block within a reference frame. Inter prediction coding may use one or more reference pictures. Further, motion prediction may be uni-predictive (use one motion vector) or bi-predictive (use two motion vectors). Inter prediction processing unit 514 may be configured to select a predictive block by calculating a pixel difference determined by, for example, sum of absolute difference (SAD), sum of square difference (SSD), or other difference metrics. As described above, a motion vector may be determined and specified according to motion vector prediction. Inter prediction processing unit 514 may be configured to perform motion vector prediction, as described above. Inter prediction processing unit 514 may be configured to generate a predictive block using the motion prediction data. For example, inter prediction processing unit 514 may locate a predictive video block within a frame buffer (not shown in FIG. 5). It should be noted that inter prediction processing unit 514 may further be configured to apply one or more interpolation filters to a reconstructed residual block to calculate sub-integer pixel values for use in motion estimation. Inter prediction processing unit 514 may output motion prediction data for a calculated motion vector to entropy encoding unit 516.
[0058]
Referring again to FIG. 5, entropy encoding unit 518 receives quantized transform coefficients and predictive syntax data (i.e., intra prediction data and motion prediction data). It should be noted that in some examples, coefficient quantization unit 506 may perform a scan of a matrix including quantized transform coefficients before the coefficients are output to entropy encoding unit 518. In other examples, entropy encoding unit 518 may perform a scan. Entropy encoding unit 518 may be configured to perform entropy encoding according to one or more of the techniques described herein. In this manner, video encoder 500 represents an example of a device configured to generate encoded video data according to one or more techniques of this disclose. In one example, video encoder 500 may generate encoded video data including motion-constrained tile sets.
[0059]
Referring again to FIG. 1, data encapsulator 107 may receive encoded video data and generate a compliant bitstream, e.g., a sequence of NAL units according to a defined data structure. A device receiving a compliant bitstream can reproduce video data therefrom. Further, as described above, sub-bitstream extraction may refer to a process where a device receiving a ITU-T H.265 compliant bitstream forms a new ITU-T H.265 compliant bitstream by discarding and/or modifying data in the received bitstream. It should be noted that the term conforming bitstream may be used in place of the term compliant bitstream.
[0060]
As described above, in ITU-T H.265, tile structures are limited in that each row and column includes the same number of tiles. In some cases, it may be useful to have a varying number of tiles in rows and/or columns. For example, for coding of 360° spherical video, it may be useful to have fewer tiles at the polar regions than at the equator of a sphere and as such in this case it may be useful to varying the number of tile columns from row-to-row. In one example, data encapsulator 107 may be configured to signal tile structures according to one or more techniques described herein. It should be noted that data encapsulator 107 need not necessary be located in the same physical device as video encoder 106. For example, functions described as being performed by video encoder 106 and data encapsulator 107 may be distributed among devices illustrated in FIG. 4.
[0061]


[0062]
Table 3 illustrates an example of syntax for a parameter set that may be used to signal tile structures according to the techniques herein. In one example, the example syntax included in Table 3 may be included in a PPS. In other examples, the example syntax included in Table 3 may be included in a VPS or SPS.
[0063]




[0064]






[0065]
In another example, the number tile set columns per tile set row may be allowed to be different for each tile set row. Table 4 illustrates an example of syntax for a parameter set that may be used to signal tile structures according to the techniques herein. In one example, the example syntax included in Table 4 may be included in a PPS. In other examples, the example syntax included in Table 4 may be included in a VPS or SPS.
[0066]


[0067]


[0068]
In another example, the number tile set rows per tile set column may be allowed to be different for each tile set row. Table 5 illustrates an example of syntax for a parameter set that may be used to signal tile structures according to the techniques herein. In one example, the example syntax included in Table 5 may be included in a PPS. In other examples, the example syntax included in Table 5 may be included in a VPS or SPS.
[0069]


[0070]




[0071]


[0072]
In one example, according to the techniques herein, the raster order of tiles may be row-by-row within a tile set and the tile sets are raster ordered within the picture. It should be noted that this makes the coded data within a tile set contiguous, which can help splicing of the tile set bitstreams and parallel decoding of those bitstream portions. The term splicing here may refer to extraction of only portion of the overall bitstream where the extracted portion may correspond to one or more tile sets. In contrast, in ITU-T H.265, the raster ordering of tiles is row-by-row in a picture. FIG. 6 illustrates a tile raster scan where the raster order of tiles is row-by-row within a tile set and the tile sets are raster ordered within the picture. In FIG. 6, the subscript number indicated for each tile provides the order in which a tile is scanner.
[0073]
In one example, according to the techniques herein, the raster ordering of coded tree blocks (CTBs/CTUs) may be row-by-row in tile raster scan within a tile set and the tile sets are raster ordered within the picture. It should be noted that this makes the coded data within a tile set contiguous which can help splicing of the tile set bitstreams and parallel decoding. The term splicing here may refer to extraction of only portion of the overall bitstream where the extracted portion may correspond to one or more tile sets. In contrast, in ITU-T H.265, the raster ordering of coded tree blocks (CTBs/CTUs) is row-by-row in tile raster scan in the picture. FIG. 7 illustrates a raster ordering of coded tree blocks (CTBs/CTUs) may row-by-row in tile raster scan within a tile set and the tile sets are raster ordered within the picture. In FIG. 7, the number indicated for each CTU provides the order in which a CTU is scanned. It should be noted that the example in FIG. 7 includes the same tile structure as illustrated in FIG. 6.
[0074]


[0075]




[0076]


[0077]




[0078]
In one example according to the techniques herein, data encapsulator 107 may be configured to signal information such that each tile set and tiles within the tile set may be independently processed. In one example, the byte range information of each tile set is signaled. In one example, this may be signaled as a list of tile set entry point offsets. FIG. 8 illustrates and example where each of T[j] and T[j+1] respectively indicates the sizes of the bytes belonging to the j-th and (j+1)-th tile set respectively. Additionally, within each tile set byte range information is signaled for each tile in the tile set. In one example, this may be signaled as a list of tile entry point offsets. In the FIG. 8, b[j][k] and b[j+1][k] respectively indicates the sizes of the bytes belonging to the k-th tile subset of the j-th tile set and k-th tile subset of (j+1)-th tile set respectively. Table 6 illustrates an example slice segment header that may be used to signal information such that each tile set and tiles within the tile set may be independently processed according to the techniques herein.
[0079]


[0080]


[0081]


[0082]


[0083]
In one example the offset length information used for fixed length coding of tile byte-range signaling (tile offset signaling) in each tile set may be signaled only once and will apply to all the tile sets. An example syntax for this is shown in Table 7.
[0084]


[0085]


[0086]
In one example, the tile byte range information may be signaled in a single for loop for all the tiles in the picture. In this case a single syntax element may be signaled for number of tile byte ranges signaled. Then the other signaled syntax elements can be used to determine how many of these tile byte range elements belong to each tile set.
[0087]


[0088]


[0089]
In one example, the syntax elements for column width in CTBs and/ or row height in CTBs may not be signaled for the last tile set for the last tile set column (num_tile_columns_minus1[num_tile_set_rows_minus1][ num_tile_set_columns_minus1]) and/or last tile set row (num_tile_rows_minus1[num_tile_set_rows_minus1][ num_tile_set_columns_minus1]) in the picture. In this case, their value may be inferred from the picture height in CTBs and/or picture width in CTBs.
[0090]
Table 8 illustrates an example of syntax for a parameter set that may be used to signal tile structures according to the techniques herein. In one example, the example syntax included in Table 8 may be included in a PPS. In other examples, the example syntax included in Table 8 may be included in a VPS or SPS.
[0091]


[0092]


[0093]




[0094]


[0095]
In one example, the tile structure syntax (i.e., syntax elements from ITU-T H.265) may be signaled in a PPS and the newly proposed tile sets related syntax may be signaled in an SPS.
[0096]


[0097]


[0098]


[0099]


[0100]


[0101]


[0102]


[0103]


[0104]


[0105]


[0106]


[0107]


[0108]




[0109]


[0110]


[0111]


[0112]
Table 9 illustrates an example slice segment header that may be used to signal information such that each tile set and tiles within the tile set may be independently processed according to the techniques herein. In this case, a slice always includes a single complete tile set. In this case the following signaling is done in the slice header (which may instead be called a tile set header or segment header or such other similar name):


[0113]


[0114]
In another example, the Table 10 illustrates an example slice segment header that may be used to signal information such that each tile set and tiles within the tile set may be independently processed according to the techniques herein. In this case, a slice may include an integer number of complete tile sets. In this case the following signaling is done in the slice header (which may instead be called a tile set header or segment header or such other similar name):


[0115]


[0116]
It should be noted that “slice segment” may instead be called a “slice” or a “tile set” or a “tileset” or a “segment” or a “multi-ctu group” or a “tile group” or a “tile list” or a “tile collection” etc. As such, these words, in some cases, may be used interchangeably. Also, similar named data structure names are interchangeable. It should be noted that “slice segment header” may instead be called a “slice header”or a “tile set header” or a “tileset header” or a “segment header” or a “multi-ctu group header” or a “tile group header” or a “tile list header” or a “tile collection header” etc.. As such these words are used interchangeably. Also, similar named data structure names may, in some cases, be used interchangeable.
[0117]
Table 11 illustrates an example of syntax for a parameter set that may be used to signal tile structures according to the techniques herein. In one example, the example syntax included in Table 11 may be included in a PPS. In other examples, the example syntax included in Table 11 may be included in a VPS or SPS or other parameter set. In other examples, the example syntax included in Table 11 may be included in a tile group header or a slice header.
[0118]


[0119]


[0120]


[0121]
Table 12 illustrates an example of syntax for a parameter set that may be used to signal tile structures according to the techniques herein. In one example, the example syntax included in Table 12 may be included in a PPS. In other examples, the example syntax included in Table 12 may be included in a VPS or SPS or other parameter set. In other examples, the example syntax included in Table 12 may be included in a tile group header or a slice header.
[0122]


[0123]


[0124]
Table 12A illustrates an example of syntax for a parameter set that may be used to signal tile structures according to the techniques herein. In one example, the example syntax included in Table 12A may be included in a PPS. In other examples, the example syntax included in Table 12A may be included in a VPS or SPS or other parameter set. In other examples, the example syntax included in Table 12A may be included in a tile group header or a slice header.
[0125]


[0126]
With respect to Table 12A, the respective syntax elements may be based on the definitions provided above.
[0127]
Table 13 illustrates an example of syntax for a parameter set that may be used to signal tile structures according to the techniques herein. In one example, the example syntax included in Table 13 may be included in a PPS. In other examples, the example syntax included in Table 13 may be included in a VPS or SPS or other parameter set. In other examples, the example syntax included in Table 13 may be included in a tile group header or a slice header.
[0128]


[0129]


[0130]
Table 14 illustrates an example of syntax for a parameter set that may be used to signal tile structures according to the techniques herein. In one example, the example syntax included in Table 14 may be included in a PPS. In other examples, the example syntax included in Table 14 may be included in a VPS or SPS or other parameter set. In other examples, the example syntax included in Table 14 may be included in a tile group header or a slice header.
[0131]


[0132]
With respect to Table 14, the respective syntax elements may be based on the definitions provided above.
[0133]
With respect to the Tables 11-14, Table 14A illustrates an example syntax of tile group header.
[0134]


[0135]


[0136]
With respect to Table 11, Table 15 illustrates an example syntax of tile group data.
[0137]


[0138]


[0139]
With respect to Tables 12-14, Table 16 illustrates an example syntax of tile group data.
[0140]


[0141]
With respect to Tables 12-14, Table 16A illustrates another example syntax of tile group data. The main difference between Table 16 and Table 16A is that some of the syntax elements are replaced by derived variables.
[0142]


[0143]




[0144]




[0145]




[0146]




[0147]
In one example, a flag which indicates that each tile group consists of only one tile may be signaled. The signaling of syntax element for number of tiles in tile group in the tile group header may be conditioned on this flag. This provides bit savings. Table 17 illustrates an example of syntax for a picture parameter set that may be used to signal tile structures that includes a flag which indicates that each tile group consists of only one tile.
[0148]


[0149]


[0150]
With respect to Table 17, Table 18 illustrates an example syntax of a tile group header.
[0151]


[0152]


[0153]


[0154]
In one example, the signaling of number of tiles in tile group may be conditioned based on the single_tile_in_pic_flag syntax element instead of on the NumTileInPic derived variable. Using a syntax element for signaling makes parsing of tile group header easier by not requiring derivation and use of additional variables for deciding if a syntax element is included or not. Table 19 illustrates an example syntax of a tile group header for this example.
[0155]


[0156]
With respect to Table 19, the respective syntax elements may be based on the definitions provided above.
[0157]
Table 20 illustrates another example syntax of a tile group header.
[0158]


[0159]


[0160]
As described above, ITU-T H.265 defines signaling that enables motion-constrained tile sets, where a motion-constrained tile set may include a tile set for which inter-picture prediction dependencies are limited to the collocated tile sets in reference pictures. In one example, a flag which indicates whether a tile set is a MCTS may be signaled. Table 21 illustrates an example of syntax for a picture parameter set that may be used to signal tile structures that includes a flag which indicates whether a tile set is a MCTS may be signaled.
[0161]




[0162]










[0163]
In one example, the corresponding portion of Table 21 may be modified as shown in Table 21A below:


[0164]
Where respective syntax elements may have definitions as provided above. Further, with respect to Table 21, the syntax of the tile group header may be as shown in Table 21B below.
[0165]


[0166]


[0167]






[0168]
Further with respect to Table 21, the syntax of tile_group_data() may be as shown in Table 21D.
[0169]


[0170]


[0171]


[0172]
Table 22A and Table 22B illustrate an examples of syntax for a picture parameter set that may be used to signal tile structures according to techniques herein.
[0173]




[0174]




[0175]




[0176]




[0177]
With respect to Table 22A, Table 22B, Table 22C, Table 23A and Table 23B illustrate example syntax of a tile group headers and Table 24 illustrates example syntax of tile group data.
[0178]




[0179]


[0180]


[0181]


[0182]


[0183]


[0184]


[0185]


[0186]


[0187]
Table 25 illustrates an examples of syntax for a picture parameter set that may be used to signal tile structures according to techniques herein.
[0188]




[0189]




[0190]
With respect to Table 25, Table 26 illustrate example syntax of a tile group headers and Table 27 illustrates example syntax of tile group data.
[0191]






[0192]


[0193]




[0194]


[0195]


[0196]


[0197]
In this manner, source device 102 represents an example of a device configured to signal a flag indicating tile sets are enabled in a bitstream, signal a syntax element indicating a number tile set columns partitioning a picture, and signal a syntax element indicating a number tile set rows partitioning a picture.
[0198]
Referring again to FIG. 1, interface 108 may include any device configured to receive data generated by data encapsulator 107 and transmit and/or store the data to a communications medium. Interface 108 may include a network interface card, such as an Ethernet card, and may include an optical transceiver, a radio frequency transceiver, or any other type of device that can send and/or receive information. Further, interface 108 may include a computer system interface that may enable a file to be stored on a storage device. For example, interface 108 may include a chipset supporting Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) and Peripheral Component Interconnect Express (PCIe) bus protocols, proprietary bus protocols, Universal Serial Bus (USB) protocols, I 2C, or any other logical and physical structure that may be used to interconnect peer devices.
[0199]
Referring again to FIG. 1, destination device 120 includes interface 122, data decapsulator 123, video decoder 124, and display 126. Interface 122 may include any device configured to receive data from a communications medium. Interface 122 may include a network interface card, such as an Ethernet card, and may include an optical transceiver, a radio frequency transceiver, or any other type of device that can receive and/or send information. Further, interface 122 may include a computer system interface enabling a compliant video bitstream to be retrieved from a storage device. For example, interface 122 may include a chipset supporting PCI and PCIe bus protocols, proprietary bus protocols, USB protocols, I 2C, or any other logical and physical structure that may be used to interconnect peer devices. Data decapsulator 123 may be configured to receive and parse any of the example parameter sets described herein.
[0200]
Video decoder 124 may include any device configured to receive a bitstream (e.g., a MCTS sub-bitstream extraction) and/or acceptable variations thereof and reproduce video data therefrom. Display 126 may include any device configured to display video data. Display 126 may comprise one of a variety of display devices such as a liquid crystal display (LCD), a plasma display, an organic light emitting diode (OLED) display, or another type of display. Display 126 may include a High Definition display or an Ultra High Definition display. It should be noted that although in the example illustrated in FIG. 1, video decoder 124 is described as outputting data to display 126, video decoder 124 may be configured to output video data to various types of devices and/or sub-components thereof. For example, video decoder 124 may be configured to output video data to any communication medium, as described herein.
[0201]
FIG. 9 is a block diagram illustrating an example of a video decoder that may be configured to decode video data according to one or more techniques of this disclosure. In one example, video decoder 600 may be configured to decode transform data and reconstruct residual data from transform coefficients based on decoded transform data. Video decoder 600 may be configured to perform intra prediction decoding and inter prediction decoding and, as such, may be referred to as a hybrid decoder. In the example illustrated in FIG. 9, video decoder 600 includes an entropy decoding unit 602, inverse quantization unit and transform coefficient processing unit 604, intra prediction processing unit 606, inter prediction processing unit 608, summer 610, post filter unit 612, and reference buffer 614. Video decoder 600 may be configured to decode video data in a manner consistent with a video coding system. It should be noted that although example video decoder 600 is illustrated as having distinct functional blocks, such an illustration is for descriptive purposes and does not limit video decoder 600 and/or sub-components thereof to a particular hardware or software architecture. Functions of video decoder 600 may be realized using any combination of hardware, firmware, and/or software implementations.
[0202]
As illustrated in FIG. 9, entropy decoding unit 602 receives an entropy encoded bitstream. Entropy decoding unit 602 may be configured to decode syntax elements and quantized coefficients from the bitstream according to a process reciprocal to an entropy encoding process. Entropy decoding unit 602 may be configured to perform entropy decoding according any of the entropy coding techniques described above. Entropy decoding unit 602 may determine values for syntax elements in an encoded bitstream in a manner consistent with a video coding standard. As illustrated in FIG. 9, entropy decoding unit 602 may determine a quantization parameter, quantized coefficient values, transform data, and predication data from a bitstream. In the example, illustrated in FIG. 9, inverse quantization unit and transform coefficient processing unit 604 receives a quantization parameter, quantized coefficient values, transform data, and predication data from entropy decoding unit 602 and outputs reconstructed residual data.
[0203]
Referring again to FIG. 9, reconstructed residual data may be provided to summer 610 Summer 610 may add reconstructed residual data to a predictive video block and generate reconstructed video data. A predictive video block may be determined according to a predictive video technique (i.e., intra prediction and inter frame prediction). Intra prediction processing unit 606 may be configured to receive intra prediction syntax elements and retrieve a predictive video block from reference buffer 614. Reference buffer 614 may include a memory device configured to store one or more frames of video data. Intra prediction syntax elements may identify an intra prediction mode, such as the intra prediction modes described above. Inter prediction processing unit 608 may receive inter prediction syntax elements and generate motion vectors to identify a prediction block in one or more reference frames stored in reference buffer 814. Inter prediction processing unit 608 may produce motion compensated blocks, possibly performing interpolation based on interpolation filters. Identifiers for interpolation filters to be used for motion estimation with sub-pixel precision may be included in the syntax elements. Inter prediction processing unit 808 may use interpolation filters to calculate interpolated values for sub-integer pixels of a reference block. Post filter unit 612 may be configured to perform filtering on reconstructed video data. For example, post filter unit 612 may be configured to perform deblocking and/or Sample Adaptive Offset (SAO) filtering, e.g., based on parameters specified in a bitstream. Further, it should be noted that in some examples, post filter unit 612 may be configured to perform proprietary discretionary filtering (e.g., visual enhancements, such as, mosquito noise reduction). As illustrated in FIG. 9, a reconstructed video block may be output by video decoder 600. In this manner, video decoder 600 may be configured to parse a flag indicating tile sets are enabled in a bitstream, parse a syntax element indicating a number tile set columns partitioning a picture, parsing a syntax element indicating a number tile set rows partitioning a picture, and generate video data based on values of the parsed syntax elements.
[0204]
In one or more examples, the functions described may be implemented in hardware, software, firmware, or any combination thereof. If implemented in software, the functions may be stored on or transmitted over as one or more instructions or code on a computer-readable medium and executed by a hardware-based processing unit. Computer-readable media may include computer-readable storage media, which corresponds to a tangible medium such as data storage media, or communication media including any medium that facilitates transfer of a computer program from one place to another, e.g., according to a communication protocol. In this manner, computer-readable media generally may correspond to (1) tangible computer-readable storage media which is non-transitory or (2)a communication medium such as a signal or carrier wave. Data storage media may be any available media that can be accessed by one or more computers or one or more processors to retrieve instructions, code and/or data structures for implementation of the techniques described in this disclosure. A computer program product may include a computer-readable medium.
[0205]
By way of example, and not limitation, such computer-readable storage media can comprise RAM, ROM, EEPROM, CD-ROM or other optical disk storage, magnetic disk storage, or other magnetic storage devices, flash memory, or any other medium that can be used to store desired program code in the form of instructions or data structures and that can be accessed by a computer. Also, any connection is properly termed a computer-readable medium. For example, if instructions are transmitted from a website, server, or other remote source using a coaxial cable, fiber optic cable, twisted pair, digital subscriber line (DSL), or wireless technologies such as infrared, radio, and microwave, then the coaxial cable, fiber optic cable, twisted pair, DSL, or wireless technologies such as infrared, radio, and microwave are included in the definition of medium. It should be understood, however, that computer-readable storage media and data storage media do not include connections, carrier waves, signals, or other transitory media, but are instead directed to non-transitory, tangible storage media. Disk and disc, as used herein, includes compact disc (CD), laser disc, optical disc, digital versatile disc (DVD), floppy disk and Blu-ray disc where disks usually reproduce data magnetically, while discs reproduce data optically with lasers. Combinations of the above should also be included within the scope of computer-readable media.
[0206]
Instructions may be executed by one or more processors, such as one or more digital signal processors (DSPs), general purpose microprocessors, application specific integrated circuits (ASICs), field programmable logic arrays (FPGAs), or other equivalent integrated or discrete logic circuitry. Accordingly, the term “processor,” as used herein may refer to any of the foregoing structure or any other structure suitable for implementation of the techniques described herein. In addition, in some aspects, the functionality described herein may be provided within dedicated hardware and/or software modules configured for encoding and decoding, or incorporated in a combined codec. Also, the techniques could be fully implemented in one or more circuits or logic elements.
[0207]
The techniques of this disclosure may be implemented in a wide variety of devices or apparatuses, including a wireless handset, an integrated circuit (IC) or a set of ICs (e.g., a chip set). Various components, modules, or units are described in this disclosure to emphasize functional aspects of devices configured to perform the disclosed techniques, but do not necessarily require realization by different hardware units. Rather, as described above, various units may be combined in a codec hardware unit or provided by a collection of interoperative hardware units, including one or more processors as described above, in conjunction with suitable software and/or firmware.
[0208]
Moreover, each functional block or various features of the base station device and the terminal device used in each of the aforementioned embodiments may be implemented or executed by a circuitry, which is typically an integrated circuit or a plurality of integrated circuits. The circuitry designed to execute the functions described in the present specification may comprise a general-purpose processor, a digital signal processor (DSP), an application specific or general application integrated circuit (ASIC), a field programmable gate array (FPGA), or other programmable logic devices, discrete gates or transistor logic, or a discrete hardware component, or a combination thereof. The general-purpose processor may be a microprocessor, or alternatively, the processor may be a conventional processor, a controller, a microcontroller or a state machine. The general-purpose processor or each circuit described above may be configured by a digital circuit or may be configured by an analogue circuit. Further, when a technology of making into an integrated circuit superseding integrated circuits at the present time appears due to advancement of a semiconductor technology, the integrated circuit by this technology is also able to be used.
[0209]
Various examples have been described. These and other examples are within the scope of the following claims.
[0210]
<Cross Reference>
This Nonprovisional application claims priority under 35 U.S.C. § 119 on provisional Application No. 62/774,050 on November 30, 2018, No. 62/784,296 on December 21, 2018, No. 62/791,227 on January 11, 2019, No. 62/806,502 on February 15, 2019, the entire contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference.

Claims

[Claim 1]
A method of decoding video data, the method comprising:
decoding a first flag syntax in a picture parameter set, wherein the first flag syntax specifies whether tiles within each slice are in raster scan order or the tiles within each slice cover a rectangular region of a picture;
decoding a second flag syntax in the picture parameter set, wherein the second flag syntax specifies each slice includes only one rectangular region or each slice includes one or more rectangular regions;
decoding a number syntax, if a value of the first flag syntax is equal to one and a value of the second flag syntax is equal to zero, wherein a value of the number syntax plus one specifies a number of slices in each picture referring to the picture parameter set;
decoding an address syntax, if the value of the first flag syntax is equal to one, wherein the address syntax indicates an index of the slice; and
deriving a variable specifying a number of regions in the slice by using the address syntax.
[Claim 2]
The method of claim 1, further comprising decoding coding tree unit by using the variable.
[Claim 3]
A device comprising one or more processors configured to perform any and all combinations of the steps of claim 1.
[Claim 4]
The method of claim 1, wherein the address syntax is decoded, if the value of the first flag syntax is equal to one or a number of tiles in the picture is greater than one.
[Claim 5]
A method of coding data, the method comprising:
coding a first flag syntax in a picture parameter set, wherein the first flag syntax specifies whether tiles within each slice are in raster scan order or the tiles within each slice cover a rectangular region of a picture;
coding a second flag syntax in the picture parameter set, wherein the second flag syntax specifies each slice includes only one rectangular region or each slice includes one or more rectangular regions;
coding a number syntax, if a value of the first flag syntax is equal to one and a value of the second flag syntax is equal to zero, wherein a value of the number syntax plus one specifies a number of slices in each picture referring to the picture parameter set;
coding an address syntax, if the value of the first flag syntax is equal to one, wherein the address syntax indicates an index of the slice; and
deriving a variable specifying a number of regions in the slice by using the address syntax.

Drawings

[ Fig. 1]

[ Fig. 2A]

[ Fig. 2B]

[ Fig. 2C]

[ Fig. 3]

[ Fig. 4]

[ Fig. 5]

[ Fig. 6]

[ Fig. 7]

[ Fig. 8]

[ Fig. 9]