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1. WO2020109776 - BIOCATALYTIC TECHNIQUES

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BIOCATALYTIC TECHNIQUES

Field of the invention

The present invention relates to the use of cytochrome P450 enzymes from Streptomyces rimosus NRRL-2234 for catalysing the hydroxylation and dealkylation of organic substrates.

Background of invention

Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) is a superfamily of haem-thiolate proteins named for the spectral absorbance peak of their carbon-monoxide bound species at 450 nm. They are found in all kingdoms of life such as animals, plants, fungi, protists, bacteria, archaea, and furthermore a putative P450 from giant virus Acanthamoeba polyphaga has been recently proposed, Lamb, DC; Lei, L; Warrilow, AG; Lepesheva, Gl; Mullins, JG; Waterman, MR; Kelly, SL (2009). "The first vi rally encoded cytochrome P450". Journal of Virology. 83 (16): pp8266-9. Cytochrome P450 have not been identified in E. coli , Roland Sigel; Sigel, Astrid; Sigel, Helmut (2007). The Ubiquitous Roles of Cytochrome P450 Proteins: Metal Ions in Life Sciences. New York: Wiley. ISBN 0-470-01672-8; Danielson PB (December 2002). "The cytochrome P450 superfamily: biochemistry, evolution and drug metabolism in humans". Curr. Drug Metab. 3 (6): pp561-97.

Cytochrome P450s show extraordinary diversity in their reaction chemistry supporting the oxidative, peroxidative and reductive metabolism of a diversity and range of endogenous and xenobiotic substrates.

In humans, cytochrome P450s are best known for their central role in phase I drug metabolism where they are of critical importance for two of the most significant problems in clinical pharmacology: drug-drug interactions and inter-individual variability in drug metabolism.

The most common reaction catalyzed by cytochromes P450 is a mono-oxygenase reaction. Cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenases use a haem group to oxidase molecules, often making them more water-soluble by either adding or unmasking a polar group. In general, the reactions catalysed by these enzymes can be summarised as:

[CYP + O]

R-H R-OH

[CYP + O]

Carbon oxidation R— CH2~~OH RCH=0 + H20

[CYP + 0]

R~CH=0 RCOOH

[CYP + O]

R2N-H . R2N— OH

[CYP + O]

Heteroatom oxidation R3N - R3N-d

[CYP + O]


R2S R2S=0


Epoxide formation


In the first line example, R-H is the substrate and R-OH is the oxygenated substrate. The oxygen is bound to the haem group in the core of the CYP enzyme, protons (H+) are usually derived from the reduced cofactor NADH or NADPH through specific amino acids in the CYP enzyme. CYP enzymes can receive electrons from a range of redox partner proteins such as cytochrome b5, a ferredoxin reductase and a ferredoxin, and adrenodoxin reductase and adrenodoxin.

Although classification and nomenclature of cytochrome P450 is quite complex, they can be classified by their redox partner transfer protein system, proposed by I. Hanukoglu (1996). "Electron Transfer Proteins of Cytochrome P450 Systems". Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology. Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology. 14: 29-56. In summary, cytochrome P450s can be classified into the following groups:

Microsomal P450 systems which utilise cytochrome P450 reductase or cytochrome b5 to transfer electrons from cofactor to cytochrome P450;

Mitochondrial P450 systems which utilise adrenodoxin reductase and adrenodoxin to transfer electrons from reduced cofactor to cytochrome P450; Bacterial P450 systems which utilise ferredoxin reductase and ferredoxin to transfer electrons from reduced cofactor to cytochrome P450;

CYB5R-cytb5-P450 systems, which utilise cytochrome b5 for the electron transfer from the cofactor to the cytochrome P450;

FMN-Fd-P450 systems in which the electron partner reductase is a fused FMN domain;

P450 only systems that do not require redox partner proteins.

Isolated bacterial cytochrome P450 enzymes are known, including P450cam from Pseudomonas putida , J Biol Chem (1974) 249, 94; P450BM-I and P450BM-3 both from Bacillus megaterium ATCC 14581 , Biochim Hiophys Acta (1985) 838, 302, and J Biol Chem (1986) 261 , 1986, 7160; P450a, P450b, and P450c from Rhizobium japonicum, Biochim Biophys Acta (1967) 147, 399; and P450npd from Nocardia sp. NHI, Microbios (1974) 9, 1 19.

However, cytochrome P450 enzymes purified from Actinomycete microorganisms remain relatively unreported. The induction of a cytochrome P450 in Streptomyces griseus by soybean flour (P450soy) is described in Biochem and Biophys Res Comm (1986) 141 , 405. Other reported examples include the isolation and properties of two forms of a P450 effecting pesticide inactivation (P450Sui & su2) and two forms of 6-deoxyerythronolide B hydroxylase from Saccharopolyspora erythraea (originally classified as Streptomyces erythraeus) as described in Biochemistry (1987) 26, 6204. US6884608 describes enzymatic hydroxylation of epothilone B to epothilone F, effected with a hydroxylation enzyme produced by a strain of A mycolatopsis orientalis (originally classified as Streptomyces orientalis).

In the field of medicinal chemistry, modifications to chemical compounds are used to modify the properties of such chemical compounds. For example, tertiary butyl moieties are often used by medicinal chemists in the synthesis of drug-like molecules for introduction of hydrophobicity. However, further modifications thereof can be used to improve potency, selectivity and solubility profiles of such compounds, for example hydroxylations can be used. Hydroxylations are also the main route of metabolic degradation, another

important aspect of pharmacology and medicinal chemistry. Methods for the production of these hydroxylated metabolites are sought using biotransformation with animal tissues.

Summary of the invention

It has surprisingly been found that specific cytochrome P450 enzymes found in Streptomyces rimosus NRRL-2234 can be used for the hydroxylation and/or dealkylation of organic substrates.

In particular, cytochrome P450 enzymes having the SEQ ID NOs: 2, 29, 34, 47, 51 and 109, and mutants thereof, can be used for the hydroxylation and/or dealkylation of organic compounds in order to activate or modify the compound’s physicochemical and pharmacological properties. In a particularly preferred embodiment, the cytochrome P450 enzyme having the SEQ ID NO: 2, 29, 34, 47, 51 and 109, and mutants thereof, are useful for the hydroxylation of a variety of aliphatic and aromatic moieties, or chemicals containing such moieties, for the purposes of C-H activation or modification of the compound’s physicochemical and pharmacological properties, as well as dealkylation such as the removal of a alkyl moieties from alkoxyl moieties or alkylamines.

A first aspect of the invention provides the use of a cytochrome P450 enzyme selected from SEQ ID NO’s: 1 -1 18, and mutants thereof, or a variant enzyme having at least 70% identity thereto and having CYP450 activity, for the hydroxylation and/or dealkylation of an organic compound.

A second aspect of the invention provides a method for the production of a hydroxylated or dealkylated organic compound, comprising reacting the organic compound with an enzyme preparation containing in part cytochrome P450 enzyme selected from SEQ ID NO’s: 1-118, and mutants thereof, or a variant enzyme having at least 70% identity thereto and having CYP450 activity.

A third aspect of the invention provides a kit comprising i) a cytochrome P450 enzyme selected from SEQ ID NO’s: 1-118, and mutants thereof, or a variant enzyme having at least 70% identity thereto and having CYP450 activity, or ii) a microorganism that expresses a cytochrome P450 enzyme comprising SEQ ID NO’s: 1 -118, and mutants thereof, or a variant enzyme having at least 70% identity thereto and having CYP450 activity, wherein the kit further

comprises instructions and other cofactor reagents for use for the hydroxylation and/or dealkylation of an organic compound.

Brief description of the figures:

Fig. 1 shows schematic examples of the biotransformation effected by the use of a cytochrome P450 enzyme comprising SEQ ID NO: 29 of the present invention. Figure 1 (a) shows O-de-methylation and hydroxylation of bosentan, figure 1 (b) shows the hydroxylation of valsartan in two aliphatic positions; figure 1 (c) shows aromatic hydroxylation of ritonavir; figure 1 (d) shows aromatic hydroxylation of diclofenac; figure 1 (e) shows benzylic and aromatic hydroxylation of tivantinib.

Fig. 2 shows examples of the biotransformation effected by the use of a cytochrome P450 enzyme comprising SEQ ID NO: 47, of the present invention. Figure 2(a) shows the aromatic hydroxylation of vanoxerine; figure 2(b) shows the f-butyl hydroxylation of bosentan; figure 2(c) shows the isopropyl hydroxylation of ritonavir; figure 2(d) shows the hydroxylation of cyclosporin.

Fig. 3 shows examples of the biotransformation effected by the use of a cytochrome P450 enzyme comprising SEQ ID NO: 51 , of the present invention. Figure 3(a) shows the A/-demethylation and isopropyl hydroxylation of ritonavir; figure 3(b) shows the hydroxylation of cyclosporin.

Fig. 4 shows various ID sequences. SEQ ID NO: 1 is the coding sequence of sriC01 ; SEQ ID NO: 2 is the amino acid sequence of cytochrome SriC01 ; SEQ ID NO: 3 is the coding sequence of sriC02; SEQ ID NO: 4 is the amino acid sequence of cytochrome SriC02; SEQ ID NO: 5 is the coding sequence of sriC03-sriF01 ; SEQ ID NO: 6 is the amino acid sequence of cytochrome SriC03; SEQ ID NO: 7 is the amino acid sequence of ferredoxin SriF01 ; SEQ ID NO: 8 is the coding sequence of sriC04; SEQ ID NO: 9 is the amino acid sequence of cytochrome SriC04; SEQ ID NO: 10 is the coding sequence of sriC05-sriF02; SEQ ID NO: 1 1 is the amino acid sequence of cytochrome SriC05; SEQ ID NO: 12 is the amino acid sequence of ferredoxin SriF02; SEQ ID NO: 13 is the coding sequence of sriC06; SEQ ID NO: 14 is the amino acid sequence of cytochrome SriC06; SEQ ID NO: 15 is the coding sequence of sriC07; SEQ ID NO: 16 is the amino acid sequence of cytochrome

SriC07; SEQ ID NO: 17 is the coding sequence of sriC08; SEQ ID NO: 18 is the amino acid sequence of cytochrome SriC08; SEQ ID NO: 19 is the coding sequence of sriC09-sriF03-sriFR01 ; SEQ ID NO: 20 is the amino acid sequence of cytochrome SriC09; SEQ ID NO: 21 is the amino acid sequence of ferredoxin SriF03; SEQ ID NO: 22 is the amino acid sequence of ferredoxin reductase SriFROI ; SEQ ID NO: 23 is the coding sequence of sriCI O; SEQ ID NO: 24 is the amino acid sequence of cytochrome SriCIO; SEQ ID NO: 25 is the coding sequence of sriC11 -sriF04; SEQ ID NO: 26 is the amino acid sequence of cytochrome SriC11 ; SEQ ID NO: 27 is the amino acid sequence of ferredoxin SriF04; SEQ ID NO: 28 is the coding sequence of sriC12-sriF05; SEQ ID NO: 29 is the amino acid sequence of cytochrome SriC12; SEQ ID NO: 30 is the amino acid sequence of ferredoxin SriF05; SEQ ID NO: 31 is the coding sequence of sriC13; SEQ ID NO: 32 is the amino acid sequence of cytochrome sriC13; SEQ ID NO: 33 is the coding sequence of sriC14-sriF06; SEQ ID NO: 34 is the amino acid sequence of cytochrome SriC14; SEQ ID NO: 35 is the amino acid sequence of ferredoxin SriF06; SEQ ID NO: 36 is the coding sequence of sriC15; SEQ ID NO: 37 is the amino acid sequence of cytochrome SriC15; SEQ ID NO: 38 is the coding sequence of sriC16; SEQ ID NO: 39 is the amino acid sequence of cytochrome SriC16; SEQ ID NO: 40 is the coding sequence of sriC17; SEQ ID NO: 41 is the amino acid sequence of cytochrome SriC17; SEQ ID NO: 42 is the coding sequence of sriC18; SEQ ID NO: 43 is the amino acid sequence of SriC18; SEQ ID NO: 44 is the coding sequence of sriC19; SEQ ID NO: 45 is the amino acid sequence of cytochrome SriC19; SEQ ID NO: 46 is the coding sequence of sriC20; SEQ ID NO: 47 is the amino acid sequence of cytochrome SriC20; SEQ ID NO: 48 is the coding sequence of sriC21 ; SEQ ID NO: 49 is the amino acid sequence of cytochrome SriC21 ; SEQ ID NO: 50 is the coding sequence of sri C22; SEQ ID NO: 51 is the amino acid sequence of cytochrome SriC22; SEQ ID NO: 52 is the coding sequence of sriC23; SEQ ID NO: 53 is the amino acid sequence of cytochrome SriC23; SEQ ID NO: 54 is the coding sequence of sriC24; SEQ ID NO: 55 is the amino acid sequence of cytochrome SriC24; SEQ ID NO: 56 is the coding sequence of sriC25; SEQ ID NO: 57 is the amino acid sequence of cytochrome SriC25; SEQ ID NO: 58 is the coding sequence of sriC26; SEQ ID NO: 59 is the amino acid sequence of cytochrome SriC26; SEQ ID NO: 60 is the coding sequence of sriC27; SEQ ID NO: 61 is the amino acid sequence of cytochrome SriC27; SEQ ID NO: 62 is the coding sequence of sriC28; SEQ ID NO: 63 is the amino acid sequence of cytochrome SriC28; SEQ ID NO: 64 is the coding sequence of sriC30; SEQ ID NO: 65 is the amino acid sequence of cytochrome SriC30; SEQ ID NO: 66 is the coding sequence of sriC31 ; SEQ ID NO: 67 is the amino acid sequence of cytochrome SriC31 ; SEQ ID NO: 68 is the coding sequence of sriC32; SEQ ID NO: 69 is the amino acid sequence of SriC32; SEQ ID NO: 70 is the coding sequence of sriC33; SEQ ID NO: 71 is the amino acid sequence of cytochrome SriC33; SEQ ID NO: 72 is the coding sequence of sriC34; SEQ ID NO: 73 is the amino acid sequence of cytochrome SriC34; SEQ ID NO: 74 is the coding sequence of sriC35; SEQ ID NO: 75 is the amino acid sequence of cytochrome SriC35; SEQ ID NO: 76 is the coding sequence of sriC36; SEQ ID NO: 77 is the amino acid sequence of cytochrome SriC36; SEQ ID NO: 78 is the coding sequence of sriC37; SEQ ID NO: 79 is the amino acid sequence of cytochrome SriC37; SEQ ID NO: 80 is the coding sequence of sriC38; SEQ ID NO: 81 is the amino acid sequence of SriC38; SEQ ID NO: 82 is the coding sequence of sriC39; SEQ ID NO: 83 is the amino acid sequence of cytochrome SriC39; SEQ ID NO: 84 is the coding sequence of sriC40-sriF07-sriFR02; SEQ ID NO: 85 is the amino acid sequence of cytochrome SriC40; SEQ ID NO: 86 is the amino acid sequence of ferredoxin SriF07; SEQ ID NO: 87 is the amino acid sequence of ferredoxin reductase SriFR02; SEQ ID NO: 88 is the coding sequence of sriC41 ; SEQ ID NO: 89 is the amino acid sequence of cytochrome SriC41 ; SEQ ID NO: 90 is the coding sequence of sriC42; SEQ ID NO: 91 is the amino acid sequence of SriC42; SEQ ID NO: 92 is the coding sequence of sriC43; SEQ ID NO: 93 is the amino acid sequence of cytochrome SriC43; SEQ ID NO: 94 is the coding sequence of sriC44; SEQ ID NO: 95 is the amino acid sequence of cytochrome SriC44; SEQ ID NO: 96 is the coding sequence of sriC45; SEQ ID NO: 97 is the amino acid sequence of cytochrome SriC45; SEQ ID NO: 98 is the coding sequence of sriC46; SEQ ID NO: 99 is the amino acid sequence of cytochrome SriC46; SEQ ID NO: 100 is the coding sequence of sriC47; SEQ ID NO: 101 is the amino acid sequence of SriC47; SEQ ID NO: 102 is the coding sequence of sriC48; SEQ ID NO: 103 is the amino acid sequence of cytochrome SriC48; SEQ ID NO: 104 is the coding sequence of sriC49; SEQ ID NO: 105 is the amino acid sequence of cytochrome SriC49; SEQ ID NO: 106 is the coding sequence of sriC50; SEQ ID NO: 107 is the amino acid sequence of cytochrome SriC50; SEQ ID NO: 108 is the coding sequence of sriC51-sriF08; SEQ ID NO: 109 is the amino acid sequence of cytochrome sriC51 ; SEQ ID NO: 1 10 is the amino acid sequence of ferredoxin sriF08; SEQ ID NO: 11 1 is the coding sequence of sriC52; SEQ ID NO: 112 is the amino acid sequence of cytochrome SriC52; SEQ ID NO: 113 is the coding sequence of sriC54; SEQ ID NO: 114 is the amino acid sequence of cytochrome SriC54; SEQ ID NO: 115 is the coding sequence of sriC59; SEQ ID NO: 116 is the amino acid sequence of cytochrome SriC59; SEQ ID NO: 117 is the coding sequence of sriC60; SEQ ID NO: 118 is the amino acid sequence of cytochrome SriC60; SEQ ID NO: 229 is the synthetic DNA sequence of full optimization of SriC12, SriF05 and ribosome binding site of SriF05 by DNA2.0); SEQ ID NO: 230 is the coding sequence of R63W mutant of codon optimised sriC12; SEQ ID NO: 231 is the amino acid sequence of R63W mutant of codon optimised cytochrome SriC12; SEQ ID NO: 232 is the coding sequence of R63Y mutant of codon optimised sriC12; SEQ ID NO: 233 is the amino acid sequence of R63Y mutant of codon optimised cytochrome SriC12; SEQ ID NO: 234 is the coding sequence of L171 I mutant of codon optimised sriC12; SEQ ID NO: 235 is the amino acid sequence of L171 I mutant of codon optimised cytochrome SriC12; SEQ ID NO: 236 is the coding sequence of L230I mutant of codon optimised sriC12; SEQ ID NO: 237 is the amino acid sequence of L230I mutant of codon optimised cytochrome SriC12; SEQ ID NO: 250 is the coding sequence of R63W R74Y mutant of codon optimised cytochrome sriC12; SEQ ID NO: 251 is the amino acid sequence of R63W R74Y mutant of codon optimised cytochrome SriC12; SEQ ID NO: 252 is the coding sequence of R63W L171A mutant of codon optimised cytochrome sriC12; SEQ ID NO: 253 is the amino acid sequence of R63W L171A mutant of codon optimised cytochrome SriC12; ; SEQ ID NO: 254 is the coding sequence of R74Y L171A R183W mutant of codon optimised cytochrome sriC12; SEQ ID NO: 255 is the amino acid sequence of R74Y L171A R183W mutant of codon optimised cytochrome SriC12; SEQ ID NO: 256 is the coding sequence of R63W R74Y L171A mutant of codon optimised cytochrome sriC12; SEQ ID NO: 257 is the amino acid sequence of R63W R74Y L171A mutant of codon optimised cytochrome S ri C 12.

Fig. 5 shows expression plasmid pHD02-SriC12-SriF05

Fig. 6 shows expression plasmid pHD05-SriC12-SriF05

Fig. 7 shows expression plasmid pHD05-SriC20

Fig. 8 shows expression plasmid pHD05-SriC22

Fig. 9 shows the carbon monoxide difference spectrum of the crude enzyme extract containing P450srici2-sriF05 protein. The sample was prepared from IPTG-induced culture of E. coli BL21 (DE3) Rosetta2 cells containing the pHD02-SriC12-SriF05 plasmid.

Fig. 10 shows the carbon monoxide difference spectrum of the crude enzyme extract containing P450Snc2o protein. The sample was prepared from IPTG-induced culture of E. coli BL21 (DE3) Rosetta2 cells containing the pHD05-SriC20 plasmid.

Fig. 1 1 shows the carbon monoxide difference spectrum of the crude enzyme extract containing P450Snc22 protein. The sample was prepared from IPTG-induced culture of E. coli BL21 (DE3) Rosetta2 cells containing the pHD05-SriC22 plasmid.

Fig. 12 shows expression plasmid pHD02-SriC12CO-SriF05CO

Fig. 13 shows the carbon monoxide difference spectrum of the crude enzyme extract containing codon optimised P450srici2-sriF05 protein. The sample was prepared from IPTG-induced culture of E. coil BL21 (DE3) ceils containing the pHD02-SriC12CO-SriF05CO plasmid.

Fig. 14 shows the carbon monoxide difference spectrum of the crude enzyme extract containing R63W mutant of codon optimised P45Qsrici2-snF05 protein. The sample was prepared from IPTG-induced culture of E. coli BL21 (DE3) ceils containing the pHD02-SriC12M1_CO-SriF05_CO plasmid.

Figs. 15a-z show UPLC-MS chromatograms of various reactions performed at 100uL screening scale and a proton NMR spectrum of a purified metabolite.

Fig. 16 shows expression plasmid pHD05-SriC01

Fig. 17 shows expression plasmid pHD05-SriC14-SriF06

Fig. 18 shows expression plasmid pHD05-SriC51 -SriF08

Fig. 19 shows the carbon monoxide difference spectrum of the crude enzyme extract containing codon optimised P45GSricoi protein. The sample was prepared from IPTG-induced culture of E. coli BL21 (DE3) Rosetta2 ceils containing the pHD05-SriC01 plasmid.

Fig. 20 shows the carbon monoxide difference spectrum of the crude enzyme extract containing codon optimised P450snci4-sriF06 protein. The sample was prepared from IPTG-induced culture of E. coli BL21 (DE3) Tuner ceils containing the pHD05-SriC14-SriF06 plasmid.

Fig. 21 shows the carbon monoxide difference spectrum of the crude enzyme extract containing codon optimised P450SriC5i-sriF08 protein. The sample was prepared from IPTG-induced culture of E. co!i BL21 (DE3) Tuner ceils containing the pHD05-SriC51 -SriF08 plasmid.

Fig. 22 shows examples of the biotransformation effected by the use of a cytochrome P450 enzyme comprising SEQ ID NO: 2, of the present invention. Figure 22(a) shows the O-de-ethylation and hydroxylation of 7-ethoxycoumarin; Figure 22(b) shows the hydroxylation of vanoxerine; Figure 22(c) shows the hydroxylation of palmitic acid.

Fig. 23 shows examples of the biotransformation effected by the use of a cytochrome P450 enzyme comprising SEQ ID NO: 34, of the present invention. Figure 23(a) shows the hydroxylation of diclofenac; Figure 23(b) shows the hydroxylation of valsartan.

Fig. 24 shows examples of the biotransformation effected by the use of a cytochrome P450 enzyme comprising SEQ ID NO: 109, of the present invention. Figure 24(a) shows the hydroxylation of progesterone; Figure 24(b) shows the hydroxylation of prednisolone; Figure 24(c) shows the hydroxylation of diclofenac.

Fig. 25 shows examples of the biotransformation effected by the use of a cytochrome P450 enzyme comprising SEQ ID NO: 251 , of the present invention. Figure 25(a) shows the dealkylation and hydroxylation of disopyramide; Figure 25(b) shows the dealkylation of propranolol; Figure 25(c) shows the hydroxylation of celecoxib; Figure 25(d) shows the hydroxylation of solifenacin.

Fig. 26 shows expression plasmid pHDS01 -SriC12-SriF05.

Description of the preferred embodiments

A first aspect of the invention provides the use of cytochrome P450 enzymes comprising SEQ ID NO: 2, 29, 34, 47, 51 and 109, and mutants thereof, or a variant enzyme having at least 70% identity thereto and having CYP450 activity, for the hydroxylation of an organic compound.

Specifically, the present invention provides the use of the enzymes cytochrome P450sricoi , P450srici2, P450srici4, P450sriC2o, P450sriC22 and P450sricsi, and mutants thereof. These enzymes have amino acid sequences as shown in SEQ ID NO: 2, 29, 34, 47, 51 and 109, respectively.

These enzymes are present in the strain Streptomyces rimosus , a deposit in the ARS Culture Collection, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, 1815 North University Street, Peoria, Illinois 61604, USA, under the Accession number NRRL-2234. The strain has also been deposited with various other Culture Collection, with the accession numbers ATCC 10970, ATCC 23955, BUCSAV 18,3, Boots 883, CBS 938.68, CCM 3231 , ETH 20240, FD 10326, IAM W6-3, IFO 12907, IFO 3390, IMRU 3558, ISP 5260, NCIB 8229, PSA 47, Pfizer S-3279, RIA 1185.

When these enzymes, and mutants thereof or variants thereof, are combined with suitable reductase components, it is able to hydroxylate and dealkylate organic compounds.

The enzymes cytochrome P450Sncoi , P450Srici2, P450Snci4, P450SriC2o, P450sriC22 & P450sriC5i can be extracted, with or without purification from the known Streptomyces rimosus NRRL-2234, or other bacterial strain, or similarly extracted, with or without purification from a recombinant expression system via cloning of cytochrome P450Sricoi , P450Srici2, P450Srici4, P450SriC2o, P450SriC22 and P450sriC5i genes into an expression system, such as E. coli , as will be understood by the skilled person.

Actinomycetes including Streptomyces rimosus NRRL-2234 readily undergo mutation both through natural causes and as a result of artificial treatments such as UV irradiation, radiation treatment and chemical treatment. The present invention embraces all productive mutants of Streptomyces rimosus NRRL-2234. These mutant strains also include any strains obtained by gene manipulation such as gene recombination, transduction and transformation. It is also well-known that the properties of Actinomycetes change in some degree even for the same strain after successive cultures. Therefore, strains cannot always be differentiated taxonomically because of a slight difference in culture properties. This invention embraces all strains that can produce one or more of the cytochromes P450 enzymes, and especially strains that cannot be clearly differentiated from strain NRRL-2234 or its mutants.

One of skill in the art will appreciate that the present invention can include variants of those particular amino acids sequences which are exemplified herein. Particularly preferred are variants having an amino acid sequence similar to that of the amino acid sequences disclosed herein, in which one or more amino acids residues are substituted, deleted or added in any combination. Especially preferred are silent substitutions, additions and deletions, which do not alter the properties and activities of the protein of the present invention. Various amino acids have similar properties, and one or more such amino acids of a substance can often be substituted by one or more other amino acids without eliminating a desired activity of that substance. Thus, the amino acids glycine, alanine, valine, leucine and isoleucine can often be substituted for one another (amino acids having aliphatic side chains). Of these possible substitutions it is preferred that glycine and alanine are used to substitute for one another (since they have relatively short side chains) and that valine, leucine and isoleucine are used to substitute for one another (since they have larger aliphatic side chains which are hydrophobic). Other amino acids which can often be substituted for one another include: phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan (amino acids having aromatic side chains); lysine, arginine and histidine (amino acids having basic side chains); aspartate and glutamate (amino acids having acidic side chains); asparagine and glutamine (amino acids having amide side chains); and cysteine and methionine (amino acids having sulphur containing side chains). Variants include naturally occurring and artificial variants. Artificial variants may be generated using mutagenesis techniques, including those applied to nucleic acid molecules, cells or organisms. Preferably, the variants have substantial identity to the amino acid sequences exemplified herein. As used herein, the term

“variant” or “mutant thereof refers to amino acid sequences which have "substantial identity", preferably having at least 70%, 80%, 90%, 91 %, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95% 96%, 97%, 98%, 98.1 %, 98.2%, 98.3%, 98.4%, 98.5%, 98.6%, 98.7%, 98.8%, 98.9%, 99%, 99.1 %, 99.2%, 99.3%, 99.4%, 99.5%, 99.6%, 99.1 %, 99.8% or 99.9% identity with any of the claimed sequences, in particular with the sequences identified herein as SEQ ID NO: 2, 29, 34, 47, 51 and 109, and having CYP450 activity. Desirably, the term "substantial identity" indicates that said sequence has a greater degree of identity with any of the sequences described herein than with prior art amino acid sequences. One can use a program such as the online tool using CLUSTAL W algorithm (Thompson, J.D. , Higgins, D.G. and Gibson, T.J. (1994). Nucleic Acids Research, 22: 4673-4680.) to compare amino acid sequences. This program compares amino acid sequences and finds the optimal alignment by inserting spaces in either sequence as appropriate. It is possible to calculate amino acid identity or similarity (identity plus conservation of amino acid type) for an optimal alignment. A program like BLASTx will align the longest stretch of similar sequences and assign a value to the fit. It is thus possible to obtain a comparison where several regions of similarity are found, each having a different score. The above applied mutatis mutandis to all amino acid sequences disclosed in the present application.

A variety of different compounds can be hydroxylated and/or dealkylated using the claimed cytochrome P450 enzymes. In a preferred embodiment, the organic compound to be hydroxylated will have a rate of conversion to the resulting derivative of at least 3%, more preferably at least 5%, more preferably at least 10%, more preferably at least 25%, more preferably at least 50%, even more preferably at least 70% and most preferably a rate of conversion to the resulting derivative of 100%, using the same or similar conditions to those described in Example 5 herein.

The compound to be hydroxylated by the cytochrome P450 enzyme may have an optionally substituted or unsubstituted linear or branched alkyl group, such as, but not limited to, methyl, isopropyl, tert-butyl or pentyl, which is hydroxylated; or an aromatic group, such as an optionally substituted or unsubstituted aryl or heteroaryl, which is hydroxylated.

There is a particularly high conversion rate from these compounds to their hydroxylated derivatives when using the claimed cytochrome P450 enzyme.

Preferably, the compound to be hydroxylated is of formula I:


where R represents the rest of the compound, and where R1 , R2 and R3 are independently selected from H or C1-12 alkyl or Ce-io aryl, or wherein any two of R1, R2 and R3 may be joined to form an optionally substituted cycloalkyl or heterocycloalkyl or R1 , R2 and R3 may be joined together with their bridging carbon to form an olefin, aryl or heteroaryl.

Preferably R is an optionally substituted alkyl; an optionally substituted olefin, an optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted heteroaryl or optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl.

As used herein“alkyl” means a C1 -C10 alkyl group, which can be linear or branched or cyclic. Examples include propyl and butyl, pentyl, hexyl, cyclopentyl and cyclohexyl. Preferably, it is a C3-C10 alkyl moiety. More preferably it is a Cs-Ce alkyl moiety. Preferably the alkyl is an optionally substituted cyclohexyl.

The compound to be dealkylated by the cytochrome P450 enzyme may have an optionally substituted linear or branched alkyl group, such as but not limited to methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl or ferf-butyl bonded to the rest of the compound via an oxygen (ether linkage) or nitrogen.

There is a particularly high conversion rate from these compounds to their dealkylated derivatives when using the claimed cytochrome P450 enzyme.

Preferably, the compound to be dealkylated is of formula II:

R(y)-X-R1 (I I)

where R represents the rest of the compound, y is the number of bonded moieties depending on the valency of X, X is oxygen or nitrogen, and where R1 is the leaving moiety independently selected from C1 -12 alkyl or Ce-io aryl, or wherein R and R1 may be joined to form an optionally substituted cycloalkyl or heterocycloalkyl or R and R1 may be joined together with their bridging carbon to form an olefin, aryl or heteroaryl.

Preferably R is an optionally substituted alkyl; an optionally substituted olefin, an optionally substituted aryl, optionally substituted heteroaryl or optionally substituted heterocycloalkyl. Demethylation of methyl-amides in linear-or cyclic-peptide residues is a particularly useful reaction.

As used herein“alkyl” means a C1 -C10 alkyl group, which can be linear or branched or cyclic. Examples include propyl and butyl, pentyl, hexyl, cyclopentyl and cyclohexyl. Preferably, it is a C3-C10 alkyl moiety. More preferably it is a C5-C6 alkyl moiety. Preferably the alkyl is an optionally substituted cyclohexyl.

For the avoidance of any doubt, the term cycloalkyl is a cyclic alkyl group.

As used herein“aryl” means an optionally substituted monocyclic, bicyclic or tricyclic aromatic radical, such as phenyl, biphenyl, naphthyl, anthracenyl. Preferably the aryl is an optionally substituted C aryl.

As used herein“heteroaryl” means an optionally substituted monocyclic, bicyclic or tricyclic aromatic radical containing at least one and up to four heteroatoms selected from oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur, such as furanyl, pyrrolyl, thiazolyl, isothiazolyl, tetrazolyl, imidazolyl, oxazolyl, isoxazolyl, thienyl, pyrazolyl, pyridinyl, pyrazinyl, pyrimidinyl, indolyl, azaindolyl, isoindolyl, quinolyl, isoquinolyl, triazolyl, thiadiazolyl, oxadiazolyl. Preferably the heteroaryl is an optionally substituted thioazole.

As used herein heterocycloalkyl means an optionally substituted cycloalkyl wherein one to four carbon atoms have been substituted with a heteroatom. Preferably, the heteroatoms are selected from nitrogen, oxygen, sulphur or phosphorous.

As used herein the term“optionally substituted” means an H has been removed from a compound and replaced with an organic fragment such as those those comprising a combination of any of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur.

Preferably the compounds of formula I and formula II have a molecular weight of from 50 to 1500, such as from 100 to 800, more preferably from 200 to 500.

Preferably at least 2 of R1 , R2 and R3 are selected from C1-12 alkyl or Ce-io aryl. Preferably, R1 , R2 and R3 are independently selected from H, C1-6 alkyl or Ce-io aryl, preferably with the proviso that either one or none of R1 , R2 and R3 is H. Most preferably, R1, R2 and R3 are independently selected from H, methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, t-butyl, pentyl and hexyl preferably with the proviso that either one or none of R1, R2 and R3 is H.

In a particularly preferred embodiment, the cytochrome P450 enzymes are reacted with a compound such as bosentan, cyclosporine A, diclofenac, ritonavir, tivantinib, valsartan or vanoxerine. Most preferably, the cytochrome P450 enzyme is reacted with bosentan, cyclosporine A, or ritonavir.

The compounds of formula I and formula II are exemplified as being typically of the following structural formulae:

The cytochrome P450 enzyme may optionally be used in combination with reductase components, which activate the cytochrome P450. In a preferred embodiment, ferredoxin and ferredoxin reductase components are used. Any components which activate the cytochrome P450 may also be used, including those fused directly or by peptide linkage, protein or chemical in nature. In a particularly preferred embodiment, the enzyme cytochrome P450sricoi , P450srici2, P450srici4, P450sric2o, P450sric22 and P450sriC5i having SEQ ID NO; 2, 29, 34, 47, 51 and 109, respectively, mutants thereof or a variant enzyme having at least 70% identity thereto and having CYP450 activity, is combined with suitable ferredoxin and ferredoxin reductase components to give an effective system to convert a substrate compound to a resulting derivative, hydroxylated and/or dealkylated.

In a preferred embodiment, the cytochrome P450 enzymes or variant thereof is present in Streptomyces rimosus NRRL-2234 cells.

In another preferred embodiment, the cytochrome P450 enzymes or variant thereof is expressed by at least one recombinant microorganism comprising heterologous nucleic acid encoding the enzyme, derived from Streptomyces rimosus NRRL-2234. As used herein the term“comprising” is intended to mean containing at least the claimed sequences, but may include other sequences. In one embodiment, the recombinant microorganism comprises a heterologous nucleic acid encoding the enzyme or variant thereof. In an alternative embodiment, the recombinant microorganism also comprises a heterologous nucleic acid encoding a reductase agent.

In another aspect of the invention, there is provided a method for the production of a hydroxylated organic compound, comprising reacting the organic compound with a cytochrome P450 enzyme comprising SEQ ID NO: 2, 29, 34, 47, 51 or 109, mutants thereof or a variant enzyme having at least 70% identity thereto and having CYP450 activity.

The choice of compound to be hydroxylated is discussed above.

In another aspect of the invention, there is provided a method for the production of a dealkylated organic compound, comprising reacting the organic compound with a cytochrome P450 enzymes comprising SEQ ID NO: 2, 29, 34, 47, 51 or 109, mutants thereof or a variant enzyme having at least 70% identity thereto and having CYP450 activity.

The choice of compound to be dealkylated is discussed above.

In a preferred embodiment, the enzymes are used to catalyse the hydroxylation or removal of an alkyl or aryl group, more preferably hydroxylation of an isopropyl or isobutyl group or terf-butyl group or removal of a methyl group. Most preferably, the enzymes are used to catalyse demethylation of O-methyl and AZ-methyl moieties. The cytochrome P450srici2 enzyme is able to catalyse the substrate compound with an O-methyl moiety to an O-demethylated derivative. The cytochrome P450Snc22 enzyme is able to catalyse the substrate compound with an /V-methyl moiety to a A/-demethylated derivative.

In a particularly preferred embodiment, the compound to be hydroxylated is bosentan, cyclosporin, solifenacin, palmitic acid or progesterone. Most preferably, the compound to be dealkylated is bosentan, disopyramide or ritonavir.

Optionally, one or more additional component(s) may be used to activate the cytochrome P450 enzyme. In an embodiment according to the present invention, the cytochrome P450 enzyme is used in combination with reductase components, preferably with ferredoxin and ferredoxin reductase components.

In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the cytochrome P450 enzymes or variants thereof are present in Streptomyces rimosus NRRL-2234 cells. The cells may be dosed with the organic compound to be hydroxylated and/or dealkylated. The method may optionally comprise an additional step wherein the cells are subsequently harvested and purified to obtain the hydroxylated compound.

Culture of the Streptomyces rimosus NRRL-2234 to produce the P450 enzyme extracts is suitably performed by seeding of a conventional culture medium containing nutrients well-known for use with such microorganisms. Thus, the culture medium contains sources of assimilable carbon and of assimilable nitrogen. The culture medium may also contain inorganic salts. Examples of sources of assimilable carbon include glucose, sucrose, starch, glycerin, millet jelly, molasses and soybean oil. Examples of sources of assimilable nitrogen include soybean solids (such as soybean meal or soybean flour), wheat germ, meat extracts, peptone, corn steep liquor, dried yeast and ammonium salts, such as ammonium sulphate. If required, inorganic salts, such as sodium chloride, potassium chloride, calcium carbonate and various phosphates, may also be included. The medium is preferably sterilized and has a pH adjusted to 5 to 8.

The skilled person will understand that the particular cultivation technique employed is not critical to the invention and any technique commonly used for the cultivation of Actinomycete bacteria may equally be employed with the present invention. In general, the techniques employed will be chosen having regard to industrial efficiency. Thus, liquid culture is generally preferred and the submerged culture method is most convenient from the industrial point of view. Cultivation is preferably carried out under aerobic conditions.

The enzymes of this invention are inducible enzymes, and are not produced unless an induction agent is present. For preference, but not limited to, the induction agent is selected to be the same as the intended substrate for the isolated enzyme. When from 4 hours to 3 days have elapsed after inoculation, preferably 0.05 to 5 mM, more preferably 0.2 mM of induction agent is added, and then cultivation is continued for 2 hours to 1 week, preferably for about one day. The temperature of cultivation is typically 20° to 45° C., preferably 25° to 30° C., optimally about 27° C. Shake culture or aeration techniques can be adopted.

The cells obtained by the cultivation may be disrupted by cell disruption techniques such as high-pressure homogenisation in buffer solution. The supernatant obtained by centrifugation gives the crude enzyme solution. For example, the enzyme of the present invention can be obtained in a supernatant produced by centrifugation at 38,000xg for 20 minutes.

In an alternative embodiment, the cytochrome P450 enzymes or variants thereof are expressed by at least one recombinant microorganism comprising heterologous nucleic acid encoding the enzyme, derived from Streptomyces rimosus NRRL-2234.

Here, the at least one recombinant microorganism can be dosed with an organic compound to be hydroxylated. This method may optionally comprise a purification step to obtain the hydroxylated compound.

In a preferred embodiment, this can be achieved by the recombinant expression of the functional cytochrome P450Sricoi , P450Srici2, P450Srici4, P450sriC2o, P450sriC22 and P450SriC5i proteins with intact haem. Each can be expressed with any or all of the cofactor enzymes. In a particularly preferred embodiment, ferredoxin and ferredoxin reductase may be expressed. This can be achieved by polycistronic plasmid use or via fusion, either via linkers or directly into a single protein product.

Alternatively, the functional cytochrome P450sricoi , P450Srici2, P450Srici4, P450sriC2o, P450sriC22 and P450sriC5i proteins may be expressed alone without mixing with cofactor enzymes. In a preferred embodiment, cofactor enzymes may be titrated in to provide the active enzyme reaction after material production. The cofactors may be obtained by extraction from wild-type or recombinant materials derived from plants or microbial fermentation. Hussain & Ward,. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003; 69(1 ):373-382, describe the cloning techniques that may be used.

The native organism, host strain expressing the recombinant enzyme or extracted enzyme is contacted directly with the substrate, preferably in an aqueous medium, either mono or biphasic. Reaction conditions, including choice of pH and temperature will be evident to the skilled person, based on conventional techniques. For example, a selected microbial growth medium or phosphate buffer solution at a pH value in the range of from 5 to 1 1 , more preferably 6.5 to 9.0, most preferably around 8 may be used. The reaction temperature is preferably within the range from 20° to 45° C., more preferably from 25° to 30° C. The concentration of the substrate in the reaction medium is preferably within the range from 0.01 to 5.0% by weight. The time allowed for the reaction is normally from 1 minute to 5 days, more usually from 1 day to 5 days, although this may vary, depending upon the concentration of substrate in the reaction mixture, the reaction temperature, and other factors. The extracted enzyme material can either be used directly after extraction, after storage in frozen solution. In a particularly preferred embodiment, the extracted enzyme material can be dried, preferably by lyophilisation, sealed with or without vacuum, for later use with or without the addition of other components required for reaction, such as other enzyme cofactor components.

After completion of the conversion reaction, the resulting compound (hydroxylated and/or dealkylated) can be isolated using conventional procedures, including, for instance, filtration, solvent extraction, chromatography, crystallization, and other isolation procedures. Such procedures will be selected having due regard to the identity of the product. Before, during or after the isolation, the product may or may not be derivatised, as desired.

The starting materials as substrates for the enzyme may by either derived from synthetic routes, naturally occurring, either via natural biomass such as plant material, or produced by fermentation, or by mixed routes thereof. Enzyme reactions can also be performed using pure or non-purified materials, the resulting reaction may be used to aid later purifications of reacted or unreacted components.

Of the substrate compounds used as starting materials, free bases, alkali metal salts, e.g. the sodium or potassium salts, or acid salts of organic or inorganic nature such as tosylate or hydrochlorides, are suitable for use.

After completion of the conversion reaction, the desired compound can be obtained from the reaction system, collected, isolated and purified by conventional means if required, or onward used directly in unpurified form. For example, the reaction product is centrifuged or filtered and the supernatant or filtrate is extracted with a hydrophobic resin, ion-exchange resin or water-immiscible organic solvent such as ethyl acetate. After evaporation of the solvent of the extract, the remaining crude, for example the remaining crude hydroxylated and/or dealkylated compound, may be purified by subjecting it to column chromatography using silica gel or alumina or reversed-phase stationary phase, and by eluting with a suitable eluent. If the starting material is a mixture, then the product can be isolated as a mixture of hydroxylated and/or dealkylated compounds which if desired can be separated using chromatography or other suitable techniques.

In general, the resulting compound (hydroxylated and/or dealkylated) may have improved pharmaceutical or agrochemical properties, such as bioactivity potency, improved solubility characteristics, reduced off-target interactions, or simply of further utility, such as for onward synthesis, or be useful for an analytical standard. Particularly preferred are the hydroxylated and dealkylated compounds of formulas (I) & (II) discussed above.

When the cytochrome P450 enzyme preparations of this invention is reacted with substrate compound at pH 7.4 for 5 minutes with (a) ferredoxin, (b) ferredoxin-NADP+ -reductase, (c) NADP+, (d) NADPH regeneration system, and (e) dissolved oxygen, the temperature of reaction ranges at least from 4° C to 60° C.

The use of ferredoxin, ferredoxin-NADP+ -reductase, oxygen and NADPH is not essential. Any components which can activate the cytochrome P450 may be adopted.

Measurement of the enzyme activity is normally effected in one of two ways:

(i) Measurement on cytochrome P450

Measurement is performed according to the method of Omura and Sato et al. (J Biol Chem, 239. 1964, 2370). That is to say, cytochrome P450 is analyzed

quantitatively using the following formula, based on the difference in the absorbance of the reduced CO versus the reduced difference spectrum at 450 nm and 490 nm.

Cytochrome P 450 (


(ii) Measurement of rate of formation of hydroxylated or dealkylated substrate compound from substrate compound

The following cocktail of components is employed:

Potassium phosphate buffer pH 8 100 mM

MgCh 5 mM

Enzyme solution containing expressed Fd, FdR, P450 Native

concentration when pellet extracted at a rate of 0.3g cell wet weight per ml extraction buffer

NADP- 1 mM

Glucose-6-phosphate 5 mM

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 UN/ml

Substrate compound 0.1 mg/ml Total volume 0.1 - 0.5 ml

To measure enzyme activity the components of the table are mixed, the solution is shaken at 30° C for 16-20 hours, and then 100 - 500 pi of ACN is added and the reaction stopped. The amount of hydroxylated/dealkylated substrate formed by the enzyme system is determined with HPLC or UPLC.

Using the test methods for determining activity, the loss of activity with change in temperature and pH can be determined.

In a further aspect, the invention provides a kit comprising i) a cytochrome P450 enzyme comprising SEQ ID NO: 2, 29, 34, 47, 51 or 109, or mutant thereof or a variant enzyme having at least 70% identity thereto and having CYP450 activity, or ii) a microorganism that expresses a cytochrome P450 enzyme comprising SEQ ID NO: 2, 29, 34, 47, 51 or 109, or mutant thereof or a variant enzyme having at least 70% identity thereto and having CYP450 activity, and wherein the kit further comprises instructions for use for the hydroxylation and/or dealkylation of an organic compound.

The kit allows the user to screen for the hydroxylation and/or dealkylation of compounds of interest.

In a preferred embodiment, the kit further comprises electron donating agents. The kit may preferably comprise as the electron donating agents ferredoxin reductase and a ferredoxin with cofactors NADH or NADPH or cofactor regeneration systems such as NAD+ or NADP+, glucose or glucose-6-phosphate, and glucose-dehydrogenase or glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. However, any suitable electron donating agents may be used.

Optionally, the kit may further comprise a buffer, either separately or contained with the other components.

Preferably, the kit may further comprise one or more other CYP450 enzymes.

Preferably, the cytochrome P450 enzyme or microorganism is lyophilised or immobilised or tethered to other macromolecules or support materials such alginate beads, Nickel columns and electrochemical electrodes.

The methods of the present invention are demonstrated in the examples below. These examples are provided as an illustration only and should not be construed as limiting on the present invention.

Examples

Example 1 : Cloning of P450s, ferredoxins and ferredoxin reductases from Streptomyces rimosus NRRL-2234

Extraction of genomic DNA from Streptomyces rimosus NRRL-2234

Genomic DNA (gDNA) was isolated from cell pellet of fermentation material of Streptomyces rimosus NRRL-2234. Culture medium containing 4 g/L yeast extract; 10 g/L malt extract; 4 g/L glucose and adjusted to pH 7.0. Two Erlenmeyer flasks of 250 ml volume, each of which contained 50 ml of the medium, were sterilized 1 15°C for 20 minutes. Streptomyces rimosus NRRL-2234 was recovered from cryovial stocks stored in liquid nitrogen and inoculated into the two flasks containing 50 ml of the above growth medium. After 2 days of growth at 27°C and 200rpm, 50 mis of culture were transferred to 50 ml centrifuge tubes and centrifuged to collect the pelleted cells. The pellet was washed once with an isotonic buffer to remove residual medium components before freezing the pellet at -80°C for later extraction of genomic DNA as described below. The cell pellet was defrosted and resuspended in 7.5 ml TE buffer (10 mM Tris-HCI pH 7.5, 1 mM Na2EDTA). Seventy-five pi of 20 mg/ml lysozyme solution was added and the solution was incubated at 37°C for 1 hour, followed by addition of 750 pi of 10% (w/v) SDS and mixing by inverting. After addition of 20 mI of 20 mg/ml pronase and incubation at 37°C for 1 .5 hours, the solution was supplemented with 16 mI of 10 mg/ml RNase solution, followed by another incubation step at 37°C for 1 hour and 50°C for 1 hour. Nine hundred mI of 0.5 M NaCI solution was added before the solution was extracted twice with an equal volume of phenol-chloroform-isoamylalcohol (25:24: 1 ; Sigma-Aldrich). The aqueous layers were collected and gDNA was precipitated with 1 volume of isopropanol and centrifugation (10,000 x g, 30 min, 20°C). The gDNA pellet was washed once with 100% ethanol and twice with 70% ethanol (~ 30 ml each wash step). The gDNA pellet was air-dried and resuspended in 5 ml TE buffer. Concentration and purity of the gDNA was measured using a NanoDrop instrument (Thermo Scientific) and gDNA integrity was assessed by agarose gel electrophoresis.

PCR reactions

Fifty-four cytochrome P450s (SEQ ID NO: 1 - 1 18) were cloned from Streptomyces rimosus NRRL-2234 in a total reaction volume of 50 mI using primers in Table 1. PCR reactions contained 10 mI of 5x GC Green buffer (Thermo Scientific), 2.5 mI of DMSO (Sigma), 10 mI_ of 5M betaine (Sigma) and 1 pL of formamide (Sigma), 1 mI of 10 mM of dNTPs (Thermo Scientific), 1 unit of HotStart II Phusion® High-Fidelity DNA Polymerase (Thermo Scientific), ~ 90 ng of genomic DNA, 0.5 mM of each forward and reverse primer and the reaction was filled up to a total volume of 50 mI with MilliQ®-H20. PCR reactions were performed on an Eppendorf Mastercycler ep Gradient system with the following cycling conditions: 98°C for 2 minutes, 35 cycles (98°C for 45 seconds, 72°C for 30 seconds, 72°C for 2 minute), 72°C for 15 minutes. The PCR reaction was analysed by agarose gel electrophoresis and products were extracted from the agarose gel using the Thermofisher GeneJet Gel Extraction Kit and Qiagen QIAquick 96 PCR Purification Kit. The DNA concentration of the purified DNA product were measured using the Biochrome Genequant 1300 instrument and on the Molecular Devices Spectramax 384 plus plate reader.

Table 1 - primers used to amplify the 54 cytochrome P450s and their neighbouring redox partners from S. rimosus NRRL-2234






Construction of pHD05 vector

The pHD05 vector is a derivative of pHD02 (See WO2018091885A1 ) containing the cer sequence. The cer sequence was amplified from pKS450 plasmid (Summers and Sherratt., EMBO J. 1988; 7(3):851 -858.) by PCR using the primers ser_f (5'-primer sequence-3':

GGGT CCT CAACGACAGGAGCACGAT CATGCCGGAAATACAGGAACGCACG CTG) (SEQ ID NO: 227) and ser_r (5'-primer sequence-3': TTATCGCCGGCATGGCGGCCCCACGGGTGCCGGGGCACAACTCAATTTGC GGGTAC) (SEQ ID NO: 228). The expected 439 bp amplicon was extracted from the agarose gel using the Thermofisher GeneJet Gel Extraction Kit and cloned into the FspA\ site of pHD02 by Gibson assembly. The plasmids containing the cer sequence were analysed by PCR screening and DNA sequence was confirmed by Sanger sequencing at LGC Genomics (Germany). The plasmid containing the cer sequence was designated as pHD05.

Cloning of cytochrome P450 (with redox partners) into pHD05 plasmid

The purified amplicons were assembled into pHD05 vector digested with Nde\ and either Ecoi 1, Hind\\\ and Not\ so that that the cytochrome P450 (with its redox partner) is introduced into a polycistronic operon containing at least one ferredoxin and ferredoxin reductase. The vector was digested with restriction endonuclease (New England Biolabs). Restriction digestion was carried out for 16 h at 37°C in a total volume of 100 mI containing 10 mI of 10x CutSmart buffer®, 2 mI of each restriction endonuclease (40 units; New England Biolabs), ~ 5 mg of plasmid DNA. The reaction was stopped by inactivation of the restriction endonuclease at 65°C for 20 min. The expected digested products were purified using the Thermo Scientific GeneJET Gel Extraction Kit and Qiagen QIAquick 96 PCR Purification Kit. The purified digested vector and purified P450 amplicon were assembled together using Gibson assembly in a total volume of 20 pi-containing -100 ng of digested vector and 1 :3 (vector: insert) molar concentration of insert, 6.65% PEG 8000, 133 mM Tris-HCI (Fisher), pH7.5, 13.3 mM MgCI2 (Sigma), 13.3 mM DTT (Sigma), 0.266 mM dNTP (New England Biolabs), 1.33 mM NAD (New England Biolabs), 0.495 Unit of Phusion DNA polymerase (New England Biolabs), 79.5 Units of Taq DNA ligase (New England Biolabs) and 0.075 Units of T5 exonuclease (New England Biolabs). The reaction mixture was incubated at 50 °C for 1 hour and 1 pL was introduced into 25 pL of chemically competent cells E. coli DH5a (Invitrogen) by chemical transformation. Clones were selected on Miller’s Luria broth (LB) plates containing 50 pg/mL kanamycin after 16 hours of incubation at 37°C. Clones were picked and cultivated in 5 mL LB containing the same antibiotic and recombinant plasmids were isolated from the cultures using the Thermo Scientific GeneJET Plasmid Extraction Kit. DNA sequences of the P450, ferredoxin and ferredoxin reductase were analysed by PCR screening and DNA sequence was confirmed by Sanger sequencing at LGC genomics (Germany).

Construction of the recombinant expression strain

The strains E. coli BL21 (DE3) Rosetta2 & Tuner (Merck) were used as a host for recombinant expression of P450, ferredoxin and ferredoxin reductase. To construct this expression strain, E. coli BL21 (DE3) Rosetta2 & Tuner cells were transformed with the expression plasmid using chemical transformation. Twenty-five pi of chemically competent cells were mixed with 1 pi (-100 ng) of plasmid followed by incubation on ice for 30 min. Heat shock was performed at 30 sec in a water bath at 42 °C and cells were subsequently chilled on ice for 2 min. One millilitre of LB was added to the cells and incubated for 1 hour at 37 °C and shaking at 250 rpm. The transformation mixture was plated onto LB plates containing 50 pg/ml kanamycin. Plates were incubated at 37 °C for 16 hours. To prepare glycerol stocks of this expression strain, several colonies was picked with a sterile loop and inoculated into 5 ml LB media containing the same antibiotics and cultivated at 37 °C and 250 rpm for 16 h. Five hundred millilitres of this culture were mixed with 500 pi of 50% (w/v) glycerol in cryovials and stored at -80 °C.

Example 2: Expression of recombinant P450

Preculture: Five milliliters of LB Miller media (Sigma) supplemented with 50 pg/ml of kanamycin was inoculated with a loop scraped from a cryovial containing E. coli BL21 (DE3) Rosetta2 & Tuner cells harbouring the expression plasmid. Cells were grown overnight at 37°C and 250 rpm in a New Brunswick Scientific Innova 4230.

Seed: Into a 250 ml baffled flask, 50 ml of PCM8.1 media supplemented with 50 pg/ml of kanamycin was inoculated with the overnight preculture to an OD600 of 0.1 and incubated at 37°C and 200 rpm until the end of the day.

The components of PCM8.1 were MgS04 (0.49 gL 1), Na2HP04*7H20 (6.7 gL 1), KH2P0 (3.4 gL 1), NH4CI (2.68 gL 1), Na2S04 (0.71 gL 1), arginine (0.2 gL 1), histidine (0.15 gL 1), lysine (0.2 gL 1), phenylalanine (0.2 gL 1), serine (0.2 gL 1), threonine (0.2 gL 1), tryptophan (0.2 gL 1), methionine (0.2 gL 1), monosodium glutamate (8 gL 1), glucose (0.5 gL 1), glycerol (10 gL 1) and a 1000-fold diluted trace element solution with FeCI3 (81 .1 gL 1), CaCI2*6H20 (4.38 gL 1), MnCI2*4H20 (1 .98 gL 1), ZnS04*7H20 (2.88 gL 1), CoCI2*6H20 (0.48 gL 1), CUCI2*2H20 (0.34 gL 1), NiCI2*6H20 (0.48 gL 1), Na2Mo04*2H20 (0.48 gL 1). , Na2Se03 (0.35 gL 1), and H3B03 (0.12 gL 1).

Production: At the end of the day, a 1 L baffled flask containing 200 mL of PCM8.1 media supplemented with 50 pg/ml of kanamycin, 23.8 pg/ml of IPTG, 320 pg/ml of 5‘-aminolevulinic acid and 55 pg/ml of FeS04*7H20 were inoculated with the seed cultures to an OD of 0.6. The induced production cultures were incubated at 27°C and 200 rpm until the cultures had reached stationary phase (approximately 16-20 hours). The cultures were harvested by centrifugation at 3,000 rpm for 15 minutes. The pellets were washed with 30 mL

of wash buffer (isotonic 0.85% NaCI with 5% glycerol) and transferred into a fresh 50 mL falcon tube. The cells were further centrifuged at 4,000 rpm for 25- 35 minutes and the pellet was stored at -20°C for processing.

Example 3: Extraction & processing of enzyme materials

Suspended cell pellets were provided as described in Example 2, containing recombinant P450, ferredoxin and ferredoxin reductase in 0.1 M potassium phosphate buffer pH 8, 5 mM MgCh, 0.5 mM TCEP, and 1 mM PMSF in a ratio of 15 ml of buffer per 1 g of cells. Lysed cells were produced by high pressure disruption using three cycles of 30 kpsi. Lysed material was centrifuged at 38,000xg for 30 minutes (4°C) and the supernatant was sterilized by passing through 0.2 micron filter to provide the enzyme preparation containing recombinant P450, ferredoxin and ferredoxin reductase. The crude extract was then dispensed into glass vials (0.5ml per 2ml vial), frozen and lyophilised using an Edwards Supermodulyo Freeze-dryer before being sealed under vacuum stored in a standard laboratory freezer at -20°C until required for use.

Measurement of the concentration of cytochrome P450 were performed according to the method of Omura and Sato et al. (J Biol Chem, 239. 1964, 2370). Cytochrome P450 concentrations of cell-free extracts of induced E. coli BL21 (DE3) Rosetta2 & Tuner cells harbouring either pHD05-SriC01 , pHD02- SriC12-SriF05, pHD05-SriC14-SriF06, pHD05-SriC20, pHD05-SriC22 or pHD05- SriC51 -SriF08 are shown in Table 2. Carbon monoxide difference spectra for P450sricoi , P450srici2, P450srici4, P450sriC2o, P450sric22 and P450sriC5i are shown in Fig 9, 10, 1 1 , 19, 20 & 21 respectively.

Table 2 - Concentration of cytochrome P450 from S. rimosus NRRL-2234 expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) Rosetta2 & Tuner cells



Example 4: Codon optimisation of P450 SriC12 and ferredoxin SriF05

The DNA sequence P450Srici2 and ferredoxinSnF05 operon (SEQ ID NO: 28) was optimised for E. coli to determine whether the expression or the folding of the cytochrome P450 could be further improved. The DNA sequence was modified but the amino acid sequence is exactly the same as in SEQ ID NO: 29 & 30 A synthetic DNA (SEQ ID NO: 119) containing codon optimisation of P450srici2 and ferredoxinSriF05 and altered ferredoxinSnF05 ribosome binding site was produced by DNA2.0. The synthetic DNA was digested with Nde\ and Hind\\\ as described above and sub-cloned into pHD02 in a total volume of 20 pi- containing 1.5 pL T4 DNA ligase, 4 pL T4 ligase buffer and digested insert (48 ng) and vector (64.4 ng). The reaction was incubated at room temperature for 15 minutes and then moved to 4°C overnight. The ligation mixture was introduced into DH5a cells by chemical transformation as described in Example 1. The recombinant vector was screened by restriction enzyme digestion and DNA sequencing. The constructed plasmid was designated as pHD02-SriC12CO- SriF05CO.

The native and codon optimised P450srici2 and ferredoxinsrF05 in pHD02-SriC12- SriF05 and pFID02-SriC12CO-SriF05CO respectively were introduced into E. coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant strains were cultured and proteins were induced as in Example 2. The cell-free extract material was obtained as in Example 3 and carbon monoxide difference spectrums were measure to calculate the concentration of cytochrome P450. Codon optimisation of the operon resulted in a significantly increase in P450srici2 expression; the codon optimised sequenced produced almost double the concentration made by the native sequence. Results are shown in Table 3. Notable differences were also observed in the carbon-monoxide difference spectrum; a 420nm signal, which is indicative of poor folding of the P450Snci2 can be observed in the native sequence (pHD02-SriC12-SriF05), and is significantly reduced in the codon optimised sequence (pHD02-SriC12CO-SriF05CO). Carbon monoxide difference spectra results of native and codon optimised sequence P450 SriC12 are shown in Figures 9 & 13 respectively.

Table 3 - Effect of codon optimisation on the expression of P450 S ri C 12


Example 5: hydroxylase/dealkylase activity/spectrum testing

Cell-free assay

Lyophilised material of recombinant P450, ferredoxin and ferredoxin reductase proteins was made as described in Example 3 and reconstituted in high purity water to 90% the original volume. Biocatalysis was performed at 27°C in the following conditions: 50 mM potassium phosphate pH 7.4, 5 mM MgCh, 0.1 mg/ml substrate compound such as bosentan, cyclosporine A, diclofenac, ritonavir, tivantinib, valsartan or vanoxerine, native concentration of P450, ferredoxin and ferredoxin reductase as extracted (Example 3). Reactions were initiated by addition of 10x stock of cofactor mixture (50 mM G6P, 10 mM NADP, 10 UN/ml G6PDH) to provide a final volume of e.g., 100 pL. After 16-20 hours, reactions were extracted with an equal volume of acetonitrile, centrifuged to remove precipitated proteins and conversion assessed by UPLC-MS analysis.

UPLC data was obtained as follows:

Acidic Analysis Conditions

Column: Acquity UPLC BEH Shield RP18 1 .7 pm 2.1 mm i.d. 50 mm length

Column temperature: 45 °C

Solvents: H20, B: Acetonitrile, both with 0.1 % Formic acid

Flow rate: 1.0 ml/min

Gradient (A%/B%): t=0mins: 98/2 to 2/98 at t=2.4 mins and held for a further 0.4 mins (2.8 mins total), return to 98/2 over 0.05 mins and re-equilibrated for 0.15 mins (t=3 mins) at a flow-rate of 1.0 mL/min.

Basic Analysis Conditions

Column: Waters Acquity UPLC BEH C18 1.7pm 2.1mm i.d. 50mm length Column temperature: 45 °C

Solvents: A: 10mM ammonium bicarbonate in H20, B: Acetonitrile

Gradient (A%/B%): t=0mins: 98/2 to 2/98 at t=2.4 mins and held for a further 0.4 mins (2.8 mins total), return to 98/2 over 0.05 mins and re-equilibrated for 0.15 mins (t=3 mins) at a flow-rate of 1.0 mL/min.

Detector: Waters Acquity UPLC PDA (UV-Vis detection) and Waters Acquity UPLC QDA (MS)

To confirm the identities of reaction products their chromatographic retention time, mass and ultraviolet spectra were compared with those of authentic metabolite standards.

Biotransformation using resuspended cells containing cytochrome P450 and redox partner protein.

Induced cell pellets containing cytochrome P450, ferredoxin and ferredoxin reductase were produced as described in Example 2. The cell pellets were resuspended in 50 mM potassium phosphate pH 7.4, 100 mM glucose, 5 mM MgCI2, to a volume equal to one quarter of the original culture volume, dosed with 0.1 mg/ml substrate compound such as bosentan, cyclosporine A, diclofenac, ritonavir, tivantinib, valsartan or vanoxerine. Reaction volumes are typically 1 mL. After 16-20 hours, reactions were extracted with an equal volume of acetonitrile, centrifuged to remove precipitated proteins and conversion assessed by UPLC-MS analysis as described above.

Example 6: Construction, expression and testing of P450srici2 Mutants PCR-based Site Directed Mutagenesis

Site directed mutagenesis by PCR of positions R63, R74, L171 and L230 in the P450srici2 enzyme was performed in which the above codons were altered to new amino acids: R63W, R63Y, R74Y, L171 I, L171A, R183W & L230I, (SEQ I D NO: 230 - 237 and SEQ ID NO: 250 - 257). The sequences of primers used for amplification and mutagenesis are shown in Table 4.

DNA of a plasmid containing the codon optimised P450srici2 gene (Example 4) was used as the template DNA and the mutagenic primers are shown in Table 4 below. PCR reactions contained 12.5 pi of Phusion® High-Fidelity PCR Master Mix (1 U/mI; New England Biolabs), ~ 2 ng of template DNA, 1.25 mI DMSO, 0.5 mM of each forward and reverse primer and the reaction mixture was made up to a total volume of 25 mI with MilliQ®-H20. Since the whole of the plasmid was amplified leading to long PCR products, reactions were supplemented with 5% DMSO. Amplification reactions were identical for all mutagenic reactions. Reactions were performed on a Techne™ TC-512 Thermal Cycler with the following cycling conditions: 98 °C for 30 seconds, 16 cycles (98 °C for 30 seconds, annealing temperature for 1 minute, 72 °C for 8 minutes), 72 °C for 10 minutes. Amplifications were then subjected to Dpn\ digestion to remove the template DNA.

Dpn\ digestion

1 mI Dpn\ (20 U/mI; New England Biolabs), 1 mI Outsmart buffer (New England Biolabs) was added to 8 mI of the PCR reaction. Unmutated template DNA was digested for 60 min at 37 °C.

Cloning of mutants

Dpn\ reactions were used to transform 50 mI chemically competent E. coli DH5a cells. Clones were selected on lysogeny broth (LB) plates containing 50 pg/ml kanamycin after 16 hours of incubation at 37 °C. Clones were picked and cultivated in 5 ml LB containing 50 pg/ml kanamycin for 16 hours at 37 °C and 250 rpm. Recombinant plasmids were isolated from these cultures using the QIAprep® Spin Miniprep Kit (Qiagen) and analysed via DNA sequencing.

DNA sequencing and analysis

DNA sequences of the cloned mutants and the reductase part of the vector backbone were confirmed by Sanger sequencing at Eurofins Genomics (Germany).

Table 4 - primers used for the site-directed mutagenesis of codon optimised P450sriC12


Expression and testing of mutants

The resulting plasmids containing the new mutants genes were transformed into recombinant E. coli strains for expression as described in Example 1 , cultured and induced as described in Example 2, extracted and processed as described in Example 3 and tested for biocatalytic activity as described in Example 5 above. The carbon monoxide difference spectrum result of R63W mutant of codon optimised P450Srici2 is shown in Fig 14 and the cytochrome P450 concentration of mutant P450Srici2 are shown in Table 5.

Table 5 - Concentration of mutant P450snci2 expressed in E. coli BL21

(DE3)


The chromatographic analysis of the post-reaction extract following incubation with bosentan of the lyophilised extract of the R63W mutant of codon optimised P450Srici2 is shown in Fig. 151. Compared to the corresponding extract containing the native codon optimised P450Srici2 (Fig. 15a) the yield of the O- demethyl-bosentan product had increased from 3.3 to 63.2%, while no hydroxy- bosentan product was detected. This demonstrates the capacity of site-directed mutation to significantly alter the reactivity of these enzymes.

Example 7: Scale-up of the biotransformation of cyclosporin A by

recombinant P450SriC2o, ferredoxinFdi and ferredoxin reductaseScFi5A

The biotransformation of cyclosporin A by recombinant P450Snc2o, ferredoxinFdi and ferredoxin reductaseScFi5A as illustrated in Figure 15i was conducted on a larger scale as follows to further characterise the main metabolite produced. Induced cell pellets containing P450Snc2o, ferredoxinFdi and ferredoxin reductaseScFi5A were produced in a similar manner as in Example 2 by fed-batch bioreactor as would be understood by a person skilled in the art and stored at -20 °C. A bulk cell pellet was defrosted, resuspended and processed as in Example 3. The lysed material (total volume 490 ml) was dosed with cyclosporin A (55.0 mg as a 25 mg/ml stock solution in DMSO) in 250 ml Erlenmeyer flasks containing 50 ml reaction per flask, and the reactions initiated by addition of the cofactor mixture as in Example 5 (total reaction volume 550 ml). The flasks were shaken at 150 rpm and 27°C for 18 hours before the flask contents were combined and frozen at -20°C. The frozen reaction mixture was then thawed and extracted with ethyl acetate (3 x 500 ml). The combined ethyl acetate layers were concentrated to dryness to yield 381 mg crude extract containing the hydroxylated cyclosporin metabolite of interest, unreacted cyclosporin A and other minor products. This extract was resuspended in heptane-ethyl acetate (1 : 1) and applied to a column of silica gel (35-70 mhh particle size, 2 cm diam. x 16.2 cm) packed in heptane. The column was eluted with heptane-ethyl acetate-methanol mixtures increasing in ethyl acetate and then methanol content, with the final eluents consisting of ethyl acetate-methanol (90:10) followed by pure acetone, and the fractions collected from these last elutions were found to contain the hydroxylated cyclosporin metabolite of interest as well as cyclosporine A. These fractions (combined weight 39 mg) were redissolved in acetonitrile-water (3:1) and further purified by semi-preparative reversed phase HPLC on a Waters SymmetryShield RP8 column (5 mΐti, 10 mm i.d. x 100 mm) eluted with a linear gradient increasing from 45% to 60% acetone in water in the presence of 0.1 % formic acid at a flow rate of 4.0 ml/minute and a temperature of 65°C. Iterative injections were made, and fractions were collected every 15 seconds and analysed by HPLC-MS. Fractions containing the hydroxylated metabolite of interest (MH+ at m/z 1218.7) were combined and concentrated to dryness to yield 1.9 mg material (overall purified yield 3.4%). The 500 MHz 1 H NMR spectrum of a 0.5 mg aliquot of this material dissolved in CDC is shown in Figure 15z. The signals present in the spectrum are consistent with its identity as cyclosporin A metabolite AM 1 based on comparison with literature information (K. Ohta et al. (2005): Production of human metabolites of cyclosporin A, AM1 , AM4N and AM9, by microbial conversion. J. Biosci. Bioeng. 99: 390-395).

Example 8: Whole-cell biotransformation of ritonavir by recombinant

P450srici2, ferredoxinsriF05 and ferredoxin reductasescFisAexpressed in

Streptomyces lividans TK24

Construction of Streptomyces lividans HD002

The polycistronic operon containing P450srici2, ferredoxinsriFos and ferredoxin reductasescFi5A was sub-cloned from pHD02-SriC12-SriF05 into plJ 12551 vector (Sherwood, E.J. et al. (2013). J Bacteriol. 195(10): 2309-2321) via Ndei and Notl as in Example 4. The DNA sequence was confirmed by Sanger sequencing at LGC genomics (Germany). The plasmid was designated as pHDS01-SriC12-SriF05.

Triparental conjugation was performed to introduce pHDS01-SriC12-SriF05 into Streptomyces lividans TK24 (John Innes Centre, UK). Single colonies of E. coli DH5a harbouring pHDS01-SriC12-SriF05 and E. coli DH5a harbouring pUB307 were inoculated into LB media containing 50 pg/mL apramycin and 50 pg/mL kanamycin respectively and incubated shaking overnight at 37 °C and 200 rpm. Next morning, precultures were sub-cultured into fresh LB media with appropriate antibiotics and incubated at 37 °C and 200 rpm until OD600 reached between 0.35 and 0.4. The E. coli cultures were centrifuged at 2,000 rpm for 10 minutes at 4 °C and washed twice with 10 mL of fresh LB media to remove antibiotics. While washing, 10 pL of Streptomyces lividans TK24 concentrated spore stock was heat-shocked in 500 pL of 2xYT media at 50 °C for 10 minutes. After washing the E. coli cells, the pellet was resuspended in 500 pL of LB media. A mixture containing 500 pL of E. coli DH5a harbour pHDS01-SriC12-SriF05, 500 pL of E. coli DH5a harbour pUB307 and 500 pL of heat-shocked S. lividans TK24 spores were briefly centrifuged at 5,000 rpm for 30 seconds. The supernatant was poured off and the pellet was resuspended in 500 pL of sterile water. The conjugation mixture was serially diluted from 10 1 to 104 and 100 pL of the dilutions were plated onto SFM agar with 10mM MgCh (Kieser, T. et al. (2000). Practical Streptomyces Genetics. The John Innes Foundation.) and incubated overnight at 30 °C. The next morning, the conjugation plates were overlaid with 1 ml_ of water containing 0.5 mg nalidixic acid and 1.25 mg apramycin and allowed to dry. The plates were further incubated at 30 °C until spore colonies were observed. Exconjugants were further streaked across an entire plate of SFM agar containing 25 pg/mL nalidixic acid and 50 pg/mL apramycin and incubated at 30 °C until sporulation. Concentrated spore stocks were made as in Kieser, T. et al. (2000). Practical Streptomyces Genetics. The John Innes Foundation. S. lividans TK24 harbouring pHDS01-SriC12-SriF05 was designated as S. lividans HD002.

As a negative control, an empty plJ12551 expression vector was introduced into S. lividans TK24 by triparental conjugation as described above and designated as S. lividans HD000.

Whole-cell biotransformations using S. lividans HD002 against ritonavir in 24-well block format

Approximately 108 cells of S. lividans HD000 and S. lividans HDOOO were inoculated separately into 50 mL of culture medium (containing 5 g/L glycerol; 20 g/L glucose; 5 g/L yeast extract peptone; 2 g/L meat extract; 5 g/L mycological peptone; 1 g/L ammonium phosphate dibasic; 3 g/l sodium chloride; 0.3 g/L magnesium sulphate heptahydrate and 3.5 g/L calcium carbonate, adjusted to pH 7.0 and sterilised at 115 °C for 15 minutes) in 250 mL baffled flasks and incubated shaking at 27 °C, 200 rpm for 48 hours. In a 24-well micro-bioreactor block (EnzyScreen, Netherlands), 2.5 mL of S. lividans HD000 and S. lividans HD002 were dosed with ritonavir at a concentration of 100 mg/L. Ritonavir was formulated with 20% hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin (prepared via 1 in 25 dilution of a stock solution of 25 mg ritonavir in 1 mL DMSO). Cultures were time-coursed daily after dosing to assess the production of the target metabolite hydroxy-ritonavir as in Example 5.

S. lividans HD000 negative control strain was unable to hydroxylate ritonavir and only parent metabolite was detected as shown in Table 6. S. lividans HD002 expressing P450srici2, ferredoxinSrF05, ferredoxin reductaseScFi5A was able to hydroxylate ritonavir in whole-cell biotransformations to produce several hydroxylated products (differentiated by their LC-MS retention times) and the percentage conversions of the parent to its metabolites are shown in Table 7. Conversions of ritonavir improved with longer incubations with the drug.

Table 6 - Hydroxylase activity of S. lividans HD000 negative control against ritonavir (parent) to yield hydroxylated (+ 16 Da) products with different LC-MS retention times.


Table 7 - Hydroxylase activity of P450snci2-ferredoxinsnF05-ferredoxin reductaseScFi5A expressed in S. lividans HD002 against ritonavir (parent) to yield hydroxylated (+ 16 Da) products with different LC-MS retention times.