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1. WO2020107126 - ELECTROCHROMATIC OPTICAL DEVICES, SYSTEMS, AND METHODS

Note: Text based on automatic Optical Character Recognition processes. Please use the PDF version for legal matters

[ EN ]

TITLE: Electrochromatic optical devices, systems, and methods

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application claims the benefit of United States Provisional Application No. 62/773,827, filed November 30, 2018, entitled OPTIC DEVICES AND RELATED METHODS; United States Provisional Application No. 62/849,308, filed May 17, 2019, entitled OPTIC DEVICES AND RELATED METHODS; and United States Provisional Application No. 62/773,666, filed November 30, 2018, entitled DEVICE AND METHOD FOR A DYNAMIC REVERSIBLE BIONIC IRIS PROSTHESIS, each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. The international Patent Cooperation Treaty application entitled OCULAR SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND METHODS, filed on November 29, 2019, listing Inventor JOSEPH J. K. MA, and having Attorney Docket No. 24390-P50963PC00, is hereby incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

FIELD

[0002] This disclosure relates generally to adjustable optic devices.

BACKGROUND

[0003] In many applications, it is desirable to modulate electromagnetic radiation to, for example, optimize image data relating to an object of interest, inhibit transmission of undesirable electromagnetic radiation, and/or adjust optical properties such as, for example, reflection, absorption, transmission, polarization, wavelength filtration, refraction, diffraction, etc. of electromagnetic radiation.

SUMMARY

[0004] The following summary is intended to introduce the reader to various aspects of the applicant’s teaching, but not to define any invention.

[0005] According to some aspects, an adjustable optic device comprises: (a) at least one counter electrode; (b) one or more working electrodes, each working electrode having an arrangement of nanostructured electrodeposition sites; (c) an insulating framework separating the counter electrode from each working electrode; and (d) an electrolyte medium between the counter electrode and the one or more working electrodes for conducting ions therebetween. Each working electrode is reversibly

transitionable from a stripped state toward a plated state when a plating charge voltage is applied across the working electrode and the counter electrode to induce nanoplating at the nanostructured electrodeposition sites with ions from the electrolyte medium, and when in the stripped state, the one or more working electrodes are generally transparent and present a passage through the optic device for transmission of electromagnetic radiation, and when the one or more working electrodes are in the plated state, the electrodeposition sites are nanoplated with ions from the electrolyte medium to adjust one or more optical properties for at least a portion of the passage relative to the stripped state.

[0006] In some examples, nanoplating the electrodeposition sites reduces transmissivity through the portion of the passage relative to the stripped state.

[0007] In some examples, the electrodeposition sites are formed of a noble metal.

[0008] In some examples, the electrodeposition sites comprise nanowires of the noble metal.

[0009] In some examples, each working electrode comprises a conductive substrate, and the electrodeposition sites comprise at least one of a noble metal nano-coating on the substrate and a noble metal nano-seeding on the substrate.

[0010] In some examples, the conductive substrate has an inert coating for inhibiting undesirable chemical reaction between the electrolyte medium and the substrate.

[001 1] In some examples, the substrate comprises conductive nanowires.

[0012] In some examples, the nanowires comprise silver nanowires.

[0013] In some examples, the substrate comprises at least one of graphene and carbon nanotubes.

[0014] In some examples, the substrate comprises a metal film having a thickness of less than 100nm.

[0015] In some examples, the substrate comprises a conductive oxide film.

[0016] In some examples, the noble metal comprises at least one of rhodium, palladium, osmium, iridium, platinum, and gold.

[0017] In some examples, the noble metal comprises platinum.

[0018] In some examples, the ions and the counter electrode comprises a non ferromagnetic metal other than the noble metal.

[0019] In some examples, the ions and the counter electrode comprise one of: gold, copper, and silver.

[0020] In some examples, the electrolyte medium includes at least one of spacing agents and leveling agents to facilitate uniform nanoplating of the electrodeposition sites with the ions.

[0021] In some examples, when the one or more working electrodes are in the plated state, transmissivity is reduced primarily through an increase in reflectance.

[0022] In some examples, each working electrode is transitionable from the plated state toward the stripped state in response to application of a stripping charge voltage across the working electrode and the counter electrode to induce stripping of nanoplated ions from the electrodeposition sites, the stripping charge voltage having a different charge voltage from that of the plating charge voltage.

[0023] In some examples, the one or more working electrodes are unstable in the stripped state and transition toward the plated state absent application of the stripping charge voltage.

[0024] In some examples, the one or more working electrodes are unstable in the plated state and transition toward the stripped state absent application of the plating charge voltage.

[0025] In some examples, the one or more working electrodes are stable in the stripped state, the plated state, and any intermediate state between the stripped and plated states, and require voltage application to transition between states.

[0026] In some examples, the portion of the passage has an opacity level when the one or more working electrodes are in the stripped state, and the electrodeposition sites are arranged to provide an opacifying nanoplating pattern for increasing the opacity level when the one or more working electrodes are in the plated state.

[0027] In some examples, the opacity level is adjustable as a function of at least one of a value and application time of the plating charge voltage.

[0028] In some examples, the opacity level is adjustable as a function of a pattern of the plating charge voltage.

[0029] In some examples, the passage has an aperture size for transmission of electromagnetic radiation therethrough when the one or more working electrodes are in the stripped state, and the electrodeposition sites are arranged to provide an aperture reduction nanoplating pattern for reducing the aperture size when the one or more working electrodes are in the plated state.

[0030] In some examples, the aperture size is adjustable as a function of a value and application time of the plating charge voltage.

[0031] In some examples, the aperture size is adjustable as a function of a pattern of the plating charge voltage.

[0032] In some examples, at least one of the working electrodes has a conductor pattern providing progressively increasing resistivity from a radially outer region to a radially inner region such that radially outer electrodeposition sites are plated prior to radially inner electrodeposition sites to progressively reduce the aperture size during application of the plating charge voltage.

[0033] In some examples, the conductor pattern comprises one of a spiral pattern, a pattern of concentric rings, and a sectored arrangement of radially inwardly tapering zig-zag patterns.

[0034] In some examples, the electrodeposition sites are arranged to provide a coded aperture nanoplating pattern for providing a coded aperture in the passage when the one or more working electrodes are in the plated state, the coded aperture comprising a pattern of subapertures for providing light field information.

[0035] In some examples, each subaperture has a respective subaperture size, the subaperture size adjustable as a function of a value and application time of the plating charge voltage.

[0036] In some examples, each subaperture has a respective subaperture size, the subaperture size adjustable as a function of a pattern of the plating charge voltage.

[0037] In some examples, at least one of the working electrodes has a conductor pattern providing progressively increasing resistivity toward each subaperture such that electrodeposition sites further from the subaperture are nanoplated prior to

electrodeposition sites adjacent the subaperture to progressively reduce the subaperture size during application of the plating charge voltage.

[0038] In some examples, the electrodeposition sites are arranged to provide a filtering nanoplating pattern for filtering a target wavelength of the electromagnetic radiation when the one or more working electrodes are in the plated state.

[0039] In some examples, the filtering nanoplating pattern comprises a plurality of gates having a gate spacing suitable for filtering the target wavelength.

[0040] In some examples, the gate spacing and the target wavelength are adjustable as a function of a value and application time of the plating charge voltage.

[0041] In some examples, the gate spacing and the target wavelength are adjustable as a function of a pattern of the plating charge voltage.

[0042] In some examples, the electrodeposition sites are arranged to provide a polarizing nanoplating pattern for polarizing the electromagnetic radiation when the one or more working electrodes are in the plated state.

[0043] In some examples, the electrolyte medium includes ionic nanoparticles structured for predefined directional assembly during nanoplating at the electrodeposition sites to facilitate polarization of the electromagnetic radiation.

[0044] In some examples, the nanoparticles have a magnetic polarity property allowing for modification of the directional assembly via a magnetic field having a predetermined directionality and magnitude.

[0045] In some examples, the optic device includes a single working electrode in communication with the counter electrode via the electrolyte medium.

[0046] In some examples, the device includes a plurality of the working electrodes including at least one first working electrode and at least one second working electrode, each of the working electrodes independently connected to the counter electrode for application of a respective plating charge voltage thereacross and selectively transitionable between the stripped state and the plated state independently of one another.

[0047] In some examples, the electrodeposition sites of each working electrode are arranged in a respective nanoplating pattern, the nanoplating patterns of at least the first and second working electrodes being different from and complementary to one another.

[0048] In some examples, the electrodeposition sites are arranged to increase an opacity of the passage to a first opacity level when the at least one first working electrode is in the plated state and the at least one second working electrode is in the stripped state, and to increase the opacity of the passage to a second opacity level when the at least one second working electrode is in the plated state and the at least one first working electrode is in one of the stripped state and the plated state, the second opacity level greater than the first opacity level.

[0049] In some examples, the electrodeposition sites are arranged to increase the opacity of the passage to the second level when the at least one second working electrode is in the plated state and the at least one first working electrode is in the stripped state, and to increase the opacity of the passage to a third level when both the at least one first working electrode and the at least one second working electrode are in the plated state, the third opacity level greater than the second opacity level.

[0050] In some examples, the electrodeposition sites are arranged to provide the passage with a first aperture size when the at least one first working electrode is in the plated state and the at least one second working electrode is in the stripped state, and a second aperture size when the at least one second working electrode is in the plated state and the at least one first working electrode is in one of the stripped state and the plated state, the second aperture size smaller than the first aperture size.

[0051] In some examples, the electrodeposition sites are arranged to provide the passage with the second aperture size when the at least one second working electrode is in the plated state and the at least one first working electrode is in the stripped state.

[0052] In some examples, the electrodeposition sites are arranged to provide a first coded aperture in the passage when the at least one first working electrode is in the plated state and the at least one second working electrode is in the stripped state, and to provide a second coded aperture in the passage when the at least one second working electrode is in the plated state and the at least one first working electrode is in one of the stripped state and the plated state, the first coded aperture having a first subaperture pattern and the second coded aperture having a second subaperture

pattern different from the first subaperture pattern.

[0053] In some examples, the electrodeposition sites are arranged to provide the second coded aperture when the at least one second working electrode is in the plated state and the at least one first working electrode is in the stripped state, and to provide a third coded aperture in the passage when both the at least one first working electrode and the at least one second working electrode are in the plated state, the third coded aperture having a third subaperture pattern different from the first and second subaperture patterns.

[0054] In some examples, the first coded aperture includes a pattern of first blocking portions and the second coded aperture includes a pattern of second blocking portions, and wherein the third coded aperture comprises a pattern of third blocking portions defined by a combination of the first and second blocking portions.

[0055] In some examples, each first blocking portion has a respective first opacity level, each second blocking portion has a respective second opacity level, and at least one of the third blocking portions is formed by overlapping first and second blocking portions to provide the at least one of the third blocking portions with a third opacity level greater than the first and second opacity levels of the overlapping first and second blocking portions.

[0056] In some examples, the electrodeposition sites are arranged to filter a first wavelength of electromagnetic radiation when the at least one first working electrode is in the plated state and the at least one second working electrode is in the stripped state, and to filter a second wavelength of electromagnetic radiation when the at least one second working electrode is in the plated state and the at least one first working electrode is in one of the stripped state and the plated state, the second wavelength different from the first wavelength.

[0057] In some examples, wherein the electrodeposition sites are arranged to provide a first type of polarization to the electromagnetic radiation when the at least one first working electrode is in the plated state and the at least one second working electrode is in the stripped state, and to provide a second type of polarization to the electromagnetic radiation when the at least one second working electrode is in the plated state and the at least one first working electrode is in one of the stripped state and the plated state, the second type of polarization different from the first type of polarization.

[0058] In some examples, the passage extends along an axis and the at least one first working electrode and the at least one second working electrode are spaced axially apart from one another along the axis.

[0059] In some examples, the counter electrode is axially intermediate the first and second working electrodes.

[0060] In some examples, the plurality of working electrodes includes at least one third working electrode, each third working electrode axially intermediate the counter electrode and a respective one of the first and second working electrodes.

[0061] In some examples, each third working electrode is formed on a porous substrate for permitting passage of ions therethrough to facilitate electrodeposition on the respective one of the first and second working electrodes.

[0062] In some examples, the counter electrode at least partially circumscribes the electrolyte medium.

[0063] In some examples, the optic device has an enclosure defined at least in part by the framework, the enclosure having a first end wall, a second end wall axially opposite the first end wall, a sidewall extending axially between the first and second endwalls, and an internal reservoir bounded axially by the first and second end walls and radially by the sidewall, and wherein the electrolyte medium is disposed in the reservoir.

[0064] In some examples, the first end wall comprises at least one of the working electrodes.

[0065] In some examples, the second end wall comprises at least one of the working electrodes.

[0066] In some examples, the sidewall has an inner surface directed radially inwardly toward the reservoir, the inner surface having a groove, and wherein the counter electrode is received in the groove and extends at least partially about the reservoir.

[0067] In some examples, the at least one first working electrode and the at least one second working electrode are formed on a common substrate.

[0068] In some examples, the at least one first working electrode and the at least one second working electrode are in a sectored arrangement in which each extends circumferentially over a respective sector of the substrate.

[0069] In some examples, the at least one first working electrode and the at least one second working electrode are interlaced with one another.

[0070] In some examples, the optic device further includes at least one meta-lens having an array of meta-lens wave guide structures projecting from a substrate, the array overlying at least a portion of the passage for guiding electromagnetic radiation passing therethrough.

[0071] In some examples, the electrodeposition sites overlie at least a portion of the array for occlusion thereof when plated.

[0072] In some examples, the meta-lens comprises at least one of the one or more working electrodes.

[0073] In some examples, a plurality of the meta-lens wave guide structures comprise the electrodeposition sites.

[0074] In some examples, the electrodeposition sites are arranged to increase at least one dimension of the meta-lens wave guide structures when plated.

[0075] In some examples, each meta-lens wave guide structure projects form the substrate along an axis, and the at least one dimension comprises at least one of a height measured along the axis between the substrate and a tip of the meta-lens wave guide structure, and a cross-sectional area normal to the axis.

[0076] In some examples, adjacent meta-lens wave guide structures are spaced apart by a wave guide gap through which electromagnetic radiation is guided, and the electrodeposition sites are arranged on the substrate over at least some of the wave guide gaps for blocking transmission of electromagnetic radiation therethrough when plated.

[0077] In some examples, the electrodeposition sites are in the at least some of the wave-guide gaps on a side of the substrate from which the wave-guide structures project.

[0078] According to some aspects, an optic system includes: (a) one or more of the optic devices described above; and (b) a controller operatively coupled to at least one of the optic devices, the controller operable to: determine a state change to be applied to the working electrodes; and initiate a transition at the working electrodes between respective stripped and plated states based on the determined state change.

[0079] In some examples, the controller operates to determine the state change to be applied to the working electrodes based on a user input.

[0080] In some examples, the system includes an input device for receiving the user input, and transmitting the user input to the controller.

[0081] In some examples, the controller is operable to determine the state change based on a sensor signal representing one or more properties relating to a scene viewable through the one or more optic devices.

[0082] In some examples, the system includes a sensor for detecting the one or more properties relating to the scene and transmitting the sensor signal representing the one or more properties relating to the scene to the controller.

[0083] In some examples, wherein the controller is configured to: (i) determine, from the sensor signal, whether the one or more properties satisfy an adjustment condition; and (ii) in response to determining that the one or more properties satisfy the adjustment condition, initiate transition of at least one of the working electrodes to resolve the adjustment condition.

[0084] In some examples, the controller operates to determine the state change in response to receiving a state change indicator.

[0085] In some examples, the system includes an eyewear frame, and wherein at least one of the optic devices is coupled to the eyewear frame to form at least part of a lens.

[0086] In some examples, the one or more optic devices includes a plurality of the optic devices arranged side-by-side to form a screen.

[0087] In some examples, the one or more optic devices includes a plurality of the optic devices stacked one in front of another to form an optic stack.

[0088] According to some aspects, a method of adjusting transmissivity in an adjustable optic device includes operating a controller operatively coupled to the optic device to: determine a state change to be applied to one or more working electrodes of the optic device, each working electrode having an arrangement of nanostructured electrodeposition sites and each working electrode reversibly transitionable from a stripped state toward a plated state when a plating charge voltage is applied across the working electrode and a counter electrode to induce nanoplating at the nanostructured electrodeposition sites with ions from an electrolyte medium, and when in the stripped state, the one or more working electrodes are generally transparent and present a passage through the optic device for transmission of electromagnetic radiation, and when the one or more working electrodes are in the plated state, the electrodeposition sites are nanoplated with ions from the electrolyte medium to reduce transmissivity through the passage relative to the stripped state; and initiate a transition at the one or more working electrodes between respective stripped and plated states based on the determined state change.

[0089] In some examples, operating the controller to initiate the transition comprises controlling application of the plating charge voltage across at least one working electrode and the counter electrode.

[0090] In some examples, the method includes operating the controller to adjust the plating charge voltage.

[0091] In some examples, the method includes operating the controller to adjust an application time of the plating charge voltage.

[0092] In some examples, the method includes operating the controller to adjust a pattern of the plating charge voltage.

[0093] In some examples, the method includes operating the controller to determine the state change based on a user input.

[0094] In some examples, the method includes receiving the user input from an input device; and transmitting an input signal corresponding to the user input to the controller.

[0095] In some examples, the user input comprises a gesture performed by a user.

[0096] In some examples, the method includes operating the controller to determine the state change based on a sensor signal representing one or more properties relating to a scene viewable through the optic device.

[0097] In some examples, the method includes operating a sensor to detect the one or more properties, and to transmit the sensor signal representing the one or more properties to the controller.

[0098] In some examples, the method includes operating the controllerto: determine, from the sensor signal, whether the one or more properties satisfy an adjustment condition; and in response to determining that the one or more properties satisfy the adjustment condition, initiate the transition at the one or more working electrodes to resolve the adjustment condition.

[0099] In some examples, the one or more properties comprise an intensity level of electromagnetic radiation and the method comprises operating the controller to: determine whether the intensity level exceeds a first intensity threshold; and in response to determining that the intensity level exceeds the first intensity threshold, initiate the transition of the at least one working electrode towards the plated state.

[00100] In some examples, the method includes operating the controller to: determine whether the intensity level is below a second intensity threshold; and in response to determining that the intensity level is below the second intensity threshold, initiate the transition of the at least one working electrode towards the stripped state.

[00101 ] In some examples, the one or more properties comprise light information for determining depth of field information relating to one or more objects in the scene.

[00102] According to some aspects, an adjustable optic device for providing light field information includes: (a) at least one counter electrode; (b) one or more working electrodes, each working electrode having an arrangement of electrodeposition sites; (c) an insulating framework separating the counter electrode from each working electrode; and (d) an electrolyte medium between the counter electrode and the one or more working electrodes for conducting ions therebetween. Each working electrode is reversibly transitionable from a stripped state toward a plated state when a plating charge voltage is applied across the working electrode and the counter electrode to induce plating at the electrodeposition sites with ions from the electrolyte medium, and when in the stripped state, the one or more working electrodes are generally transparent and present a passage through the optic device for transmission of electromagnetic radiation, and when the one or more working electrodes are in the

plated state, the electrodeposition sites are plated with ions from the electrolyte medium to provide a coded aperture in the passage, the coded aperture comprising a pattern of subapertures for providing light field information.

[00103] In some examples, each subaperture has a respective subaperture size, the subaperture size adjustable as a function of a value and application time of the plating charge voltage.

[00104] In some examples, each subaperture has a respective subaperture size, the subaperture size adjustable as a function of a pattern of the plating charge voltage.

[00105] In some examples, at least one of the working electrodes has a conductor pattern providing progressively increasing resistivity toward each subaperture such that electrodeposition sites further from the subaperture are plated prior to electrodeposition sites adjacent the subaperture to progressively reduce the subaperture size during application of the plating charge voltage.

[00106] In some examples, the device includes a plurality of the working electrodes including at least one first working electrode and at least one second working electrode, each of the working electrodes independently connected to the counter electrode for application of a respective plating charge voltage thereacross and selectively transitionable between the stripped state and the plated state independently of one another.

[00107] In some examples, the electrodeposition sites are arranged to provide a first coded aperture in the passage when the at least one first working electrode is in the plated state and the at least one second working electrode is in the stripped state, and to provide a second coded aperture in the passage when the at least one second working electrode is in the plated state and the at least one first working electrode is in one of the stripped state and the plated state, the first coded aperture having a first subaperture pattern and the second coded aperture having a second subaperture pattern different from the first subaperture pattern.

[00108] In some examples, the electrodeposition sites are arranged to provide the second coded aperture when the at least one second working electrode is in the plated state and the at least one first working electrode is in the stripped state, and to provide a third coded aperture in the passage when both the at least one first working electrode and the at least one second working electrode are in the plated state, the third coded aperture having a third subaperture pattern different from the first and second subaperture patterns.

[00109] In some examples, the first coded aperture includes a pattern of first blocking portions and the second coded aperture includes a pattern of second blocking portions, and wherein the third coded aperture comprises a pattern of third blocking portions defined by a combination of the first and second blocking portions.

[001 10] In some examples, each first blocking portion has a respective first opacity level, each second blocking portion has a respective second opacity level, and at least one of the third blocking portions is formed by overlapping first and second blocking portions to provide the at least one of the third blocking portions with a third opacity level greater than the first and second opacity levels of the overlapping first and second blocking portions.

[001 1 1 ] According to some aspects, an adjustable optic device includes a coded aperture mask reversibly transitionable from a first state toward a second state in response to application of a charge voltage, and when in the first state, the coded aperture mask has a transmissivity of at least 70 percent, and when in the second state, the coded aperture mask has a transmissivity of less than 30 percent and defines a pattern of subapertures for providing light field information.

[001 12] In some examples, when in the first state, the coded aperture mask has a transmissivity of at least 90 percent, and when in the second state, the coded aperture mask has a transmissivity of less than 10 percent.

[001 13] In some examples, when in the second state, the coded aperture mask has a transmissivity of less than 1 percent.

[001 14] In some examples, the coded aperture mask comprises electrodeposition sites arranged on one or more working electrodes.

[001 15] According to some aspects, an adjustable optic device includes: (a) a multifocal lens having a plurality of discrete optical zones; and (b) a coded aperture mask in alignment with at least one of the optical zones. The coded aperture mask is transitionable from a first state toward a second state in response to application of a charge voltage, and when in the first state, the coded aperture mask is generally

transparent, and when in the second state, the coded aperture mask is generally opaque and defines a pattern of subapertures extending over the at least one of the optical zones.

[001 16] In some examples, the optical zones comprise at least one of a refractive zone, a diffractive zone, and a combination thereof.

[001 17] According to some aspects, a method of generating light field information includes: (a) receiving first image data representing a scene from electromagnetic radiation passing through an open aperture in a passage of the optic device; (b) after step (a), applying a first plating charge voltage across at least one first working electrode and a counter electrode of the optic device to induce a first nanoplating of the first working electrode with ions from an electrolyte medium, the first nanoplating arranged to provide a first coded aperture in the passage; (c) receiving second image data representing the scene from electromagnetic radiation passing through the first coded aperture; and (d) generating light field information relating to the scene based on at least the first image data and the second image data.

[001 18] In some examples, the light field information comprises depth information relating to the scene.

[001 19] In some examples, the method further includes: applying a second plating charge voltage across the first working electrode and the counter electrode to induce a second nanoplating of the first working electrode with ions from the electrolyte medium, the second nanoplating arranged to provide a second coded aperture in the passage, the second coded aperture having a subaperture size different from that of the first coded aperture; receiving third image data representing the scene from electromagnetic radiation passing through the second coded aperture; and wherein step (d) includes generating light field information relating to the scene based on at least the first, second, and third image data.

[00120] In some examples, the method further includes: applying a second plating charge voltage across at least one second working electrode and the counter electrode of the optic device to induce a second nanoplating of the second working electrode with ions from the electrolyte medium, the second nanoplating arranged to provide a second coded aperture in the passage, the second coded aperture having

a subaperture pattern different from that of the first coded aperture; receiving third image data representing the scene from electromagnetic radiation passing through the second coded aperture; and wherein step (d) includes generating light field information relating to the scene based on at least the first, second, and third image data.

[00121 ] In some examples, the subaperture pattern of the second coded aperture is an inverse of that of the first coded aperture.

[00122] In some examples, the first coded aperture forms at least a portion of a first coded aperture set defining a first subaperture pattern and the second coded aperture forms at least a portion of a second coded aperture set defining a second subaperture pattern, and wherein the first subaperture pattern is an inverse of the second subaperture pattern.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[00123] The drawings included herewith are for illustrating various examples of articles, methods, and apparatuses of the present specification and are not intended to limit the scope of what is taught in any way. In the drawings:

[00124] Figure 1 is an exploded perspective view of an example optic device;

[00125] Figure 2 is a schematic cross-sectional view of the optic device of Figure 1 ;

[00126] Figures 3A to 3C are schematic front views of the optic device of Figure 1 showing example aperture states of the optic device;

[00127] Figures 4A to 4C are schematic representations of example conductor patterns for an optic device like that of Figure 1 ;

[00128] Figures 5A to 5C are schematic front views of another example optic device showing example coded aperture states of the optic device;

[00129] Figure 6 is an exploded perspective view of another example optic device;

[00130] Figure 7 is a schematic cross-sectional view of the optic device of Figure 6;

[00131 ] Figures 8A to 8D are schematic front views of the optic device of Figure 6 showing example aperture states of the optic device;

[00132] Figure 9 is a cross-sectional schematic view of another example optic device; [00133] Figures 9A to 9C are schematic front views of the optic device of Figure 9 showing example coded aperture states of the optic device;

[00134] Figures 10A and 10B are schematic representations of other example coded aperture states for an optic device like that of Figure 9;

[00135] Figures 1 1A to 1 1 C are schematic representations showing example configurations of multiple working electrodes on a common substrate;

[00136] Figure 12 is a schematic of an example optic system having one or more example optic devices;

[00137] Figure 12A is another schematic of the optic system of Figure 12.

[00138] Figure 13 is a schematic cross-sectional view of an example configuration of the optic devices of Figure 12;

[00139] Figure 14 is a schematic front view of another example configuration of the optic devices of Figure 12;

[00140] Figure 15 is a schematic cross-sectional view of another example configuration of the optic devices of Figure 12;

[00141 ] Figure 16 is a flow chart showing an example method of adjusting an aperture of an example optic device;

[00142] Figure 17 is a flow chart showing another example method of adjusting an aperture of an example optic device;

[00143] Figure 18 is a flow chart showing an example method of generating light field information using an example optic device;

[00144] Figure 19 is a flow chart showing an example method of controlling nanoplating in an example optic device;

[00145] Figure 20 is a flow chart showing an example method of adjusting transmissivity in an example optic device;

[00146] Figure 21A and 21 B are front schematic views of an example meta-lens assembly for an optic device, with the meta-lens shown in different states;

[00147] Figure 22 is a side schematic view of portions of the meta-lens of Figures 21 A and 21 B;

[00148] Figures 22A is an enlarged view of a portion of Figure 22; and

[00149] Figures 22B-22D are similar to Figure 22A, but show wave-guide structures of example meta-lenses in different states.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[00150] Various apparatuses, systems, or processes will be described below to provide an example of an embodiment of each claimed invention. No embodiment described below limits any claimed invention and any claimed invention may cover apparatuses, systems, or processes that differ from those described below. The claimed inventions are not limited to apparatuses, systems, or processes having all of the features of any one apparatus, system, or process described below or to features common to multiple or all of the apparatuses, systems, or processes described below. It is possible that an apparatus, system, or process described below is not an embodiment of any claimed invention. Any invention disclosed in an apparatus, system, or process described below that is not claimed in this document may be the subject matter of another protective instrument, for example, a continuing patent application, and the applicants, inventors, or owners do not intend to abandon, disclaim, or dedicate to the public any such invention by its disclosure in this document.

[00151 ] Disclosed herein are examples of various optic devices, optic systems including optic devices, and related methods. The optic devices according to the present teachings can operate via an electrodeposition process to modulate electromagnetic radiation. Such modulation can include, for example, one or more of attenuation of electromagnetic radiation to a desired transmission level; formation of apertures of various shapes, sizes, and patterns; filtration and transmission of specific wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation; selective filtration and transmission of specific phases of electromagnetic waves for polarization; reflection and absorption of specific wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation; and other such modulation. Some of the optic devices disclosed herein can be used for, for example, eyewear, contact lenses, and/or intraocular implantation. Some of the optic devices disclosed herein can be used for, for example, optical instruments, light based systems, and/or computation.

[00152] Referring to Figures 1 and 2, a schematic example of an optic device 100 for modulating electromagnetic radiation is shown. The device 100 includes at least one counter electrode 102, one or more working electrodes 104, an insulating framework 106 separating the counter electrode 102 from each working electrode 104, and an electrolyte medium 108 between the counter electrode 102 and the one or more working electrodes 104 for conducting ions therebetween.

[00153] In the example illustrated, each working electrode 104 has an arrangement of nanostructured electrodeposition sites 1 10 (shown schematically in Figures 2, 3A, and 3B). To clarify, the electrodeposition sites of the present disclosure are structured on the nanometer scale, and are shown schematically and not to scale in the drawings of the present disclosure. Each working electrode 104 is reversibly transitionable from a stripped state to a plated state when a plating charge voltage is applied across the working electrode 104 and the counter electrode 102 to induce nanoplating at the electrodeposition sites 1 10 with ions from the electrolyte medium 108. When in the stripped state, the one or more working electrodes 104 are generally transparent and present a passage 1 16 (Figure 2) extending through the optic device 100 along an axis 1 18 (Figure 2) for transmission of electromagnetic radiation. An example of the stripped state of the one or more working electrodes 104 is shown at 1 12 in Figure 1 and in Figure 3A.

[00154] When the one or more working electrodes 104 are in the plated state, the electrodeposition sites 1 10 are nanoplated with ions from the electrolyte medium to change an optical property for at least a portion of the passage 1 16, such as, for example, reducing transmissivity over at least the portion of the passage relative to the stripped state, and/or adjusting reflection, absorption, polarization, wavelength filtration, refraction, diffraction, etc. for the portion of the passage 1 16.

[00155] An example of the plated state of the one or more working electrodes 104 is shown at 1 14 in Figure 1 and in Figure 3C.

[00156] Although the working electrode 104 is shown having a relatively small aperture opening at 114 in Figure 1 (i.e. when plated), in some examples and/or applications, the working electrode in the plated state may have generally no aperture opening (i.e. the nanoplating may extend across/over an entirety of the portion of the working electrode in the passage 1 16). In some examples where there is no aperture opening provided in the plated state, the working electrode in the plated state has, for example, significant reflectivity relative to absorption, and each working electrode may function, in some examples, as an adjustable, solid state beam splitter (e.g. by permitting passage of some light and reflecting some light). In some examples, when the working electrode is in the plated state, transmissivity can be reduced primarily through reflection of the electromagnetic radiation (e.g. at least 50% of incoming light can be reflected). In some such examples, when the working electrode 104 is in the plated state, at least some of the electromagnetic radiation can be transmittable through the nanoplated portions of the working electrode 104 (and through the passage 1 16) to facilitate beam splitting. In some examples, at least 95% of incoming electromagnetic radiation (e.g. light) can be reflected when the working electrode 104 is in the plated state.

[00157] In the example illustrated, the device 100 includes a single working electrode 104 in communication with the counter electrode 102 via the electrolyte medium 108. In the example illustrated, the working electrode 104 is electrically connected to the counter electrode 102 via a circuit 109 (Figure 2) for application of a plating voltage charge therebetween for inducing electrodeposition. In the example illustrated, the counter electrode 102 and the working electrode 104 are spaced axially apart from one another by the framework 106.

[00158] In the example illustrated, the working electrode 104 is transitionable from the plated state toward the stripped state in response to application of a stripping charge voltage across the working electrode 104 and the counter electrode 102 to induce stripping of nanoplated ions from the electrodeposition sites 1 10. The stripping charge voltage has a different charge voltage from that of the plating charge voltage. In some examples, at least one of a value, application time, and pattern of the plating charge voltage or the stripping charge voltage may be selected and/or adjusted to control transition of the working electrode 104 between the plated and stripped state, and in some examples, to any one of a plurality of intermediate states between the plated and stripped states.

[00159] In some examples, the working electrode 104 can be stable in the stripped state, the plated state, and any intermediate state (an example of which is shown in Figure 3B) between the stripped and plated states, and requires voltage application to transition between states. This may facilitate energy efficiency by not requiring voltage application to maintain the working electrode 104 in one or more of the states.

[00160] In some examples, the working electrode 104 can be unstable in one of the plated state and the stripped state, and transition toward the other state absent application of voltage. For example, in some examples, the working electrode 104 and the electrolyte medium 108 can have an equilibrium such that the working electrode 104 is unstable in the stripped state (and any intermediate state) and transitions toward the plated state absent application of the stripping charge voltage. In some examples, the working electrode 104 and the electrolyte medium 108 can have an equilibrium such that the working electrode 104 is unstable in the plated state (and any intermediate state) and transitions toward the stripped state absent application of the plating charge voltage. This may be helpful in applications where it would be more beneficial (or less harmful) to have the optic device revert to a specific state in case of component failure.

[00161 ] In the example illustrated, the optic device 100 has an enclosure 120 defined at least in part by the framework 106. In the example illustrated, the enclosure has a first end wall 122, a second end wall 124 axially opposite the first end wall, a sidewall 126 extending axially between the first and second endwalls 122, 124, and an internal reservoir 128 (Figure 2) bounded axially by the first and second end walls 122, 124 and radially by the sidewall 126. In the example illustrated, the electrolyte medium 108 is disposed in the reservoir 128. In the example illustrated, the first end wall 122 comprises the working electrode 104, the second end wall 124 comprises a generally transparent plate, and the framework 106 forms the sidewall 126.

[00162] In the example illustrated, the counter electrode 102 at least partially circumscribes the electrolyte medium. This can help to, for example, inhibit obstruction of the passage 1 16. In the example illustrated, the sidewall 126 has an inner surface 130 directed radially inwardly toward the reservoir 128, and the inner surface 130 has a circumferentially extending groove 132. In the example illustrated, the counter electrode 102 has a generally circumferentially extending body received in the circumferential groove 132 and extending circumferentially about the reservoir 128. In the example illustrated, both the counter electrode 102 and the groove 132 are generally annular and complementary in shape. The counter electrode 102 and the

groove 132 may be shaped differently in other examples. For example, in some embodiments, a plurality of counter electrode portions can be provided, each extending over a respective circumferential segment, rather than having one generally continuously encircling element for the counter electrode.

[00163] Providing nanostructured electrodeposition sites may help to, for example, improve certain performance characteristics of the optic device, such as, for example, a uniformity and/or rate of nanoplating of the working electrode. For example, in some cases, such nanoplating may be more rapid than some electrochromic technologies. Utilizing nanostructured electrodeposition sites and nanoplating may in some cases provide a generally opaque working electrode with about a 30-50nm deposition of generally even thickness, compared to, for example, a 100-200nm thickness of some electrochromic technologies. The nanoplating characteristics may be improved further by, for example, increasing ions available in the electrolyte medium for nanoplating; adding accelerants to the electrolyte medium that are appropriate for the electrochemistry used (an example for a Cu-based system includes 3-mercapto-2-propanesulphonic acid (MPSA) and chloride ions in combination); adding leveling agents to the electrolyte medium that are appropriate for the electrochemistry used (an example for a Cu based system includes bis(3-sulfopropyl) disulfide (SPS), Janus Green B (JGB), polyethylene glycol (PEG) and chlorine ions), adding generally inert spacing agents to the electrolyte medium that are appropriate for the electrochemistry used, increasing the reservoir of electrolyte medium, increasing the speed of ion diffusion in the electrolyte medium, and/or increasing the effective availability of the counter electrode.

[00164] In some examples, the nanostructured electrodeposition sites can be formed of a noble metal. This can help to, for example, increase the useful lifespan of the working electrode by helping to provide for an increased number of nanoplating cycles prior to notable performance degradation. In some examples, the noble metal can comprise at least one of rhodium, palladium, osmium, iridium, platinum, and gold. In some examples, the noble metal comprises platinum.

[00165] In some examples, the nanostructured electrodeposition sites comprise nanowires of the noble metal. In settings using nanowires for the working electrode, the non-uniformity factor (NUF), based on the standard deviation and mean of sector resistivity of the nanowire working electrode, can be a metric of the relative uniformity of the nanowire electrode. In these cases, while nanoplating can occur with a NUF of 30-100%, providing a NUF of less than 15% in the nanowire working electrode may be desirable and can facilitate an increase in a rate and/or uniformity of the nanoplating.

[00166] In some examples, the working electrode 104 comprises a conductive substrate, and the nanostructured electrodeposition sites comprise at least one of a noble metal nano-coating on the substrate and a noble metal nano-seeding on the substrate. In some examples, the conductive substrate has an inert coating for inhibiting undesirable chemical reactions between the electrolyte medium and the substrate. An example of an inert coating would be atomic layer deposition of an inert substance, such as aluminum oxide for example, to envelop and protect the conductive substrate from unwanted chemical reactions.

[00167] In some examples, the substrate comprises conductive nanowires such as, for example, silver nanowires. In some examples, the substrate can comprise at least one of graphene and carbon nanotubes.

[00168] In some examples, the substrate can comprise a metal film having a thickness of less than 100nm. In some examples, the thickness of the metal film can be for example, between 5-1 Onm or between 8-9nm. In some thin transparent metal films, the nanostructure features or the surface characteristics of the prepared thin films function as preferential nanoscale electrodeposition sites. In some examples, the electrodeposition sites may comprise individual atoms of a thin film, which may be homogenous or composed of different atoms.

[00169] In some examples, the substrate can comprise a conductive oxide film. The conductive oxide film can comprise, for example, a metal oxide, a Zinc Oxide, or a Halide Tin Oxide, such as, for example, at least one of Indium Tin Oxide and Florine Tin Oxide. In some examples, the ions and the counter electrode comprise a non ferromagnetic metal other than the noble metal (e.g. a metal alloy or metamaterial). In some examples, the ions and the counter electrode comprise one of: gold, copper, and silver. In some examples, the ions and the counter electrode can be ferromagnetic.

[00170] In some examples, the electrolyte medium includes at least one of spacing agents and leveling agents appropriate for the electrochemistry to facilitate uniform nanoplating of the electrodeposition sites with the ions.

[00171 ] In some examples, the passage 1 16 can have an opacity level when the working electrode 104 is in the stripped state, and the electrodeposition sites 1 10 can be arranged in an opacifying nanoplating pattern for increasing the opacity level when the working electrode 104 is in the plated state. For example, the electrodeposition sites 1 10 can be arranged to extend transversely over all of the passage 1 16 or over a portion of the passage 1 16, and when the working electrode 104 is in the stripped state, the electrodepositon sites 1 10 can be generally free of nanoplating to provide a generally transparent passage 1 16 with a first opacity level. When the working electrode 104 is in the plated state, substantially all or a portion of the electrodeposition sites 110 can be nanoplated to decrease transmissivity of the passage 116 for providing the passage 1 16 with a second opacity level that is greater than the first opacity level. In some examples, the first opacity level may provide for transmission of, for example, more than 75% (and in some examples, more than 85%, or more than 95%) of visible electromagnetic radiation, and the second opacity level may provide for transmission of less than 40% (and in some examples, less than 10%, or less than 1 %) of visible electromagnetic radiation. The opacity level can be defined with respect to, for example, absorption and/or reflection of light. In some examples, when the working electrode 104 is in the plated state, most (or substantially all) of the light can be reflected. In some examples, when the working electrode 104 is in the plated stated, most (or substantially all) of the light can be absorbed. In some examples, when the working electrode is in the plated state, some of the light can be reflected and some of the light can be absorbed. In some examples, when the working electrode 104 is in the plated state, no aperture is provided in the passage. In some such examples, when the working electrode 104 is in the plated state (or in an intermediate state), some of the light can be reflected by the working electrode 104 and some of the light can be transmitted through the plated portions of the working electrode 104 to operate the optic device as a beam splitter.

[00172] In some examples, the working electrode 104 can be transitioned to an intermediate state in which the amount of nanoplating on the electrodeposition sites

1 10 is between that of the stripped and plated states for providing the passage 1 16 with a third opacity level that is intermediate the first and second opacity levels. In some examples, the amount of nanoplating on the electrodeposition sites 1 10 and the opacity level can be adjustable as a function of at least one of a value, an application time, and a pattern of the plating charge voltage.

[00173] Referring to Figure 3A, in the example illustrated, the passage 1 16 has an aperture size 134 for transmission of electromagnetic radiation therethrough when the one or more working electrodes 104 are in the stripped state. In the example illustrated, the electrodeposition sites 1 10 are arranged in an aperture reduction nanoplating pattern 136 for reducing the aperture size 134 when the one or more working electrodes 104 are in the plated state. Referring to Figures 3A-3C, the aperture reduction nanoplating pattern 136 can comprise a generally annular pattern of the electrodeposition sites extending about a central portion 133 of the passage 1 16 that is generally free of the electrodeposition sites 1 10. Although illustrated and described in this example as annular, the working electrode 104 and/or the entire device may have any suitable shape including, for example, rectangular, square, polyhedral, or any freeform shape. When the working electrode 104 is in the stripped state, the electrodeposition sites 1 10 and the central portion 133 are generally free of nanoplating, and the aperture size 134 comprises a first diameter 138a. Referring to Figure 3C, when the working electrode 104 is in the plated state, substantially all of the electrodeposition sites are nanoplated to form a first annular structure 139 that reduces the aperture size 134 to a second diameter 138b that is less than the first diameter 138a. In the example illustrated in Figure 3C, the second diameter 138b corresponds to the diameter of the central portion 133. Although Figure 3C shows a relatively small aperture opening 133, in some examples and/or applications, the plated state may involve providing no aperture opening. Furthermore, although the apertures illustrated depict a generally transparent and circular central opening, apertures in other examples and/or applications may have any freeform shape, may be eccentric, and/or may have one or more relatively dark (or opaque) central zones with a clear transparent zone circumscribing the central zone (e.g. the aperture may be generally annular in shape).

[00174] Referring to Figure 3B, in the example illustrated, the working electrode 104 is shown in an intermediate state, in which a radially outer portion of the electrodeposition sites are nanoplated to form a second annular structure 141 and a radially inner portion of the electrodeposition sites are free of nanoplating to adjust the aperture size 134 to a third diameter 138c intermediate the first and second diameters 138a, 138b. Example electrode patterns that can facilitate such intermediate states include, but are not limited to, those shown in Figures 4A, 4B, and 4C (and described in more detail below).

[00175] In some examples, the working electrode 104 can have a conductor pattern and the charge voltage can be applied in a manner that provides increasing resistivity from a radially outer region to a radially inner region when the charge voltage is applied such that radially outer electrodeposition sites are plated prior to radially inner electrodeposition sites. This can facilitate transition of the working electrode 104 to one or more intermediate states to progressively reduce the aperture size 134 during application of the plating charge voltage. This can also facilitate adjustment of the aperture size as a function of at least one of a value, an application time, and a pattern of the plating or stripping charge voltage.

[00176] In some examples, the conductor pattern can have a generally uniform mesh throughout, and the charge voltage can be applied from an outer periphery of the generally uniform conductor pattern, so that as the charge travels toward a center of the conductor pattern, resistance increases due to distance of the center from the outer periphery where the charge voltage is applied, and nanoplating occurs from the outer periphery inwards toward the center. In this way, the aperture size can be adjusted by varying the amplitude and time of the charge given the correct polarity.

[00177] Referring to Figures 4A to 4C, in some examples, the conductor pattern can comprise, for example, a spiral pattern 140 winding about the passage axis (Figure 4A), a pattern 142 of concentric rings 144 (Figure 4B), a sectored arrangement 146 of radially inwardly tapering zig-zag patterns 148 (Figure 4C), or any other suitable pattern for providing progressively increasing resistivity toward a portion of interest.

[00178] Referring to Figures 5A-5C, a schematic example of another optic device 200 is shown. The optic device 200 has similarities to the optic device 100, and like features are identified with like reference characters, incremented by 100.

[00179] In the example illustrated, electrodeposition sites 210 (shown schematically and not to scale in Figures 5A and 5B) of the optic device 200 are arranged in a coded aperture nanoplating pattern 250 (Figure 5A) for providing a coded aperture 252 (Figure 5C) in a passage 216 of the optic device 200 when a working electrode 204 of the optic device 200 is in the plated state (shown in Figure 5C).

[00180] Referring to Figure 5C, the coded aperture 252 can comprise a pattern of subapertures 254 for providing light field information. In the example illustrated, each subaperture 254 has a respective subaperture size. When the working electrode 204 is in the plated state, the subapertures 254 have a first subaperture size defining a first coded aperture 252a. Referring to Figure 5B, in the example illustrated, the working electrode 204 is shown in an intermediate state, in which the subapertures 254 have a second subaperture size greater than the first subaperture size and define a second coded aperture 252b.

[00181 ] The working electrode 204 can have a conductor pattern providing progressively increasing resistivity toward each subaperture 254 such that electrodeposition sites 210 further from the subaperture 254 are nanoplated prior to electrodeposition sites adjacent the subaperture 254 to progressively reduce the subaperture size during application of the plating charge voltage. This can facilitate transition of the working electrode 204 to one or more intermediate states to progressively reduce the aperture size during application of the plating charge voltage. This can also facilitate adjustment of the subaperture size as a function of at least one of a value, application time, and pattern of the plating or stripping charge voltage.

[00182] Referring to Figures 6 and 7, a schematic example of another optic device 1 100 for modulating electromagnetic radiation is shown. The optic device 1 100 has similarities to the optic device 100 and like features are identified with like reference characters, incremented by 1000. In the example illustrated, the optic device 1 100 includes at least one counter electrode 1 102, one or more working electrodes 1 104, an insulating framework 1 106 separating the counter electrode 1 102 from each working electrode 1 104, and an electrolyte medium 1 108 between the counter electrode 1102 and the one or more working electrodes 1 104 for conducting ions therebetween. In the example illustrated, the device 1 100 includes a plurality of the working electrodes 1 104 including at least one first working electrode 1 104a and at least one second working electrode 1 104b.

[00183] In the example illustrated, each working electrode 1 104 has an arrangement of nanostructured electrodeposition sites 1 1 10 (shown schematically and not to scale in Figures 7 and 8A to 8C). Each working electrode 1 104 is reversibly transitionable from a stripped state (examples of which are shown at 1 1 12a, 1 1 12b, 1 1 12c in Figure

6) toward a plated state (examples of which are shown at 1 1 14a, 1 1 14b, 11 14c in Figure 6) when a plating charge voltage is applied across the working electrode 1 104 and the counter electrode 1 102 to induce nanoplating at the electrodeposition sites 1 1 10 with ions from the electrolyte medium 1 108. When in the stripped state, the one or more working electrodes 1 104 are generally transparent and present a passage 1 1 16 (Figure 7) extending through the optic device 1 100 along an axis 1 1 18 (Figure

7) for transmission of electromagnetic radiation. When the one or more working electrodes 1 104 are in the plated state, the electrodeposition sites 11 10 are nanoplated with ions from the electrolyte medium to change an optical property of the passage 1 1 16, such as, for example, reducing transmissivity through the passage 1 1 16 relative to the stripped state.

[00184] In the example illustrated, the at least one first working electrode 1 104a and the at least one second working electrode 1104b are spaced axially apart from one another along the axis 1 1 18. In the example illustrated, the counter electrode 1 102 is axially intermediate the first and second working electrodes 1 104a, 1104b. In the example illustrated, the counter electrode 1 102 at least partially circumscribes the electrolyte medium 1 108. This can help to, for example, inhibit obstruction of the passage 1 1 16. In the example illustrated, the counter electrode 1 102 is generally annular and extends circumferentially about the passage 1 1 16.

[00185] In the example illustrated, the plurality of the working electrodes 1 104 includes at least one optional third working electrode 1 104c. The third working electrode 1 104c can be positioned axially intermediate the counter electrode 1 102 and a respective one of the first and second working electrodes 1 104a, 1 104b. In the example illustrated, the third working electrode 1 104c is axially intermediate the counter electrode 1 102 and the second working electrode 1 104b. The third working electrode 1 104c can be formed on, for example, a porous substrate for permitting

passage of ions therethrough to facilitate electrodeposition on the respective one of the first and second working electrodes 1 104a, 1 104b. In some examples, the third working electrode 1 104c may have one or more openings to permit passage of ions therethrough.

[00186] In the example illustrated, the optic device 1 100 has an enclosure 1 120 defined at least in part by the framework 1 106. In the example illustrated, the enclosure has a first end wall 1 122, a second end wall 1 124 axially opposite the first end wall 1 122, a sidewall 1 126 extending axially between the first and second endwalls 1 122, 1 124, and an internal reservoir 1 128 (Figure 7) bounded axially by the first and second end walls 1 122, 1 124 and radially by the sidewall 1 126. In the example illustrated, the electrolyte medium 1 108 is disposed in the reservoir 1 128. In the example illustrated, the first end wall 1 122 comprises the first working electrode 1 104a, the second end wall 1 124 comprises the second working electrode 1 104b, and the framework 1 106 forms the sidewall 1 126.

[00187] In some examples, each working electrode 1 104 can be transitionable from the plated state toward the stripped state in response to application of a stripping charge voltage across the working electrode 1 104 and the counter electrode 1 102 to induce stripping of nanoplated ions from the electrodeposition sites 1 1 10.

[00188] In the example illustrated, each working electrode 1 104 is independently connected to the counter electrode 1 102 for application of a respective plating charge voltage thereacross and selectively transitionable between the stripped state and the plated state independently of one another. In the example illustrated, each working electrode 1 104 is electrically connected to the counter electrode 1 102 via a respective circuit for application of voltage therebetween. In the example illustrated, the first, second, and third working electrodes 1 104a, 1 104b, 1 104c are electrically connected to the counter electrode via first, second, and third circuits 1 109a, 1 109b, 1 109c (Figure 7), respectively.

[00189] In the example illustrated, the electrodeposition sites 1 1 10 of each working electrode 1 104 are arranged in a respective nanoplating pattern. The nanoplating patterns of at least two of the working electrodes 1 104 can be different from and complementary to one another. This can facilitate adjustment of the transmissivity

and/or other optical effects through selective transition of the working electrodes 1 104 between respective stripped and plated states.

[00190] In some examples, the electrodeposition sites 11 10 may be arranged to increase an opacity of the passage 1 1 16 to a first opacity level when the at least one first working electrode 1 104a is in the plated state and the at least one second working electrode 1 104b is in the stripped state, and to increase the opacity of the passage 1 1 16 to a second opacity level when the at least one second working electrode 1 104b is in the plated state and the at least one first working electrode 1 104c is in one of the stripped state and the plated state. The second opacity level can be greater than the first opacity level. In some examples, the electrodeposition sites are arranged to increase the opacity of the passage to the second level when the at least one second working electrode 1 104b is in the plated state and the at least one first working electrode 1 104a is in the stripped state, and to increase the opacity of the passage to a third level when both the at least one first working electrode 1 104a and the at least one second working electrode 1 104b are in the plated state. The third opacity level can be greater than the second opacity level. In some examples, transitioning the at least one third working electrode 1 104c between the stripped and plated states can facilitate further adjustment of the opacity of the passage. This can facilitate adjustment of the opacity across an entirety of the passage 1 1 16 (e.g. where the nanoplating pattern extends generally continuously across an entirety of the passage 1 1 16 for nanoplating across the entirety of the passage 1 1 16), and/or adjustment of portions of the passage 1 1 16 (e.g. where the nanoplating pattern is shaped to provide an aperture in the passage 1 1 16 when the working electrodes are plated).

[00191 ] Referring to Figures 8A, in the example illustrated, the passage 1 1 16 has an open aperture size 1 134 for transmission of electromagnetic radiation therethrough when the one or more working electrodes 1 104 are in the stripped state. Referring to Figure 8B, in the example illustrated, the electrodeposition sites 1 1 10 are arranged to provide the passage with different aperture sizes depending on which of the working electrodes 1 104 are plated and which are stripped. In some examples, in addition to the aperture size, the opacity/transparency level and/or the shape of the plated portions defining the apertures may be adjusted (e.g. to provide a first plated configuration defining a central aperture having a first size when the working

electrodes are in a first state, to increase or decrease the opacity of the first plated configuration when the working electrodes are in a second state, to provide a second plated configuration defining a central aperture having a second size when the working electrodes are in a third state, and/or to provide a ring or annular shaped aperture when the working electrodes are in a fourth state).

[00192] For example, referring to Figure 8B, the electrodeposition sites in the illustrated example provide the passage 1 1 16 with a first aperture size 1 134a when the first working electrode 1104a is in the plated state and the second and third working electrodes 1 104b, 1 104c are in the stripped state. The first aperture size 1 134a is smaller than the open aperture size. As shown in Figure 8C, the electrodeposition sites 1 1 10 in the illustrated example are arranged to provide the passage 1 1 16 with a second aperture size 1 134b when the second working electrode 1 104b is in the plated state, the at least one first working electrode 1 104a is in either one of the stripped state and the plated state, and the third working electrode 1 104c is in the stripped state. The second aperture size 1 134b is smaller than the first aperture size 1 134a. As shown in Figure 8D, the electrodeposition sites 1 110 in the illustrated example are arranged to provide the passage 1 1 16 with a third aperture size 1 134c when at least the second and third working electrodes 1 104b, 1 104c are in the plated state and the at least one first working electrode 1 104a is in either one of the stripped state and the plated state. The third aperture size 1 134c is smaller than the first and second aperture sizes 1 134a, 1 134b. In some examples, the opacity of the plated portions defining the aperture size may be adjustable depending on which of the working electrodes are in the plated state and which are in the stripped state.

[00193] Referring to Figures 9 to 9C, a schematic example of another optic device 1200 is shown. The optic device 1200 has similarities to the device 1 100, and like features are identified with like reference characters, incremented by 100.

[00194] Referring to Figures 9, the optic device 1200 has a plurality of the working electrodes including at least one first working electrode 1204a and at least one second working electrode 1204b.

[00195] Referring to Figures 9A to 9C, in the example illustrated, electrodeposition sites 1210 (shown schematically and not to scale in Figure 9) of the optic device 1200 are arranged to provide one of a plurality of coded apertures 1252 in the passage 1216 depending on which of the working electrodes 1204 are nanoplated and which are stripped. For example, the passage 1216 can be generally transparent when the working electrodes 1204 are in the stripped state. Referring to Figures 9A and 9B, the electrodeposition sites 1210 can be arranged to provide a first coded aperture 1252a in the passage 1216 when the at least one first working electrode 1204a is in the plated state and the at least one second working electrode 1204b is in the stripped state, and to provide a second coded aperture 1252b in the passage 1216 when the at least one second working electrode 1204b is in the plated state and the at least one first working electrode 1204a is in one of the stripped state and the plated state. In the example illustrated, the first coded aperture 1252a has a first subaperture pattern and the second coded aperture 1252b has a second subaperture pattern different from the first subaperture pattern.

[00196] Referring to Figure 9C, in some examples, the electrodeposition sites 1210 can be arranged to provide the second coded aperture 1252b when the at least one second working electrode 1204b is in the plated state and the at least one first working electrode 1204a is in the stripped state, and to provide a third coded aperture 1252c in the passage 1216 when both the at least one first working electrode 1204a and the at least one second working electrode 1204b are in the plated state. The third coded aperture 1252c can have a third subaperture pattern different from the first and second subaperture patterns. The third subaperture pattern can be defined by a combination of at least the first and second subaperture patterns 1252a, 1252b.

[00197] Referring to Figures 9A to 9C, in the example illustrated, the first coded aperture 1252a includes a pattern of first blocking portions 1258a, the second coded aperture 1252b includes a pattern of second blocking portions 1258b, and the third coded aperture 1252c includes a pattern of third blocking portions 1258c. The third blocking portions can be defined by a combination of at least the first and second blocking portions 1258a, 1258b.

[00198] In some examples, each of the first blocking portions 1258a can have a respective first opacity level, each of the second blocking portions 1258b can have a respective second opacity level, and at least one of the third blocking portions 1258c can be formed by overlapping first and second blocking portions 1258a, 1258b to provide the at least one of the third blocking portions 1258c with a third opacity level that is greater than the first and second opacity levels of the overlapping first and second blocking portions 1258a, 1258b. In some examples, the opacity levels of the blocking portions of the first, second, and/or third coded apertures can be adjusted as a function of at least one of a value, application time, and pattern of the plating or stripping charge voltage.

[00199] In some examples, one or both of the working electrodes 1204a, 1204b may provide a different type of coded aperture, and/or the optic device 1200 can include additional working electrodes 1204 for transitioning between respective stripped and plated states to provide different types of coded apertures in the passage individually and/or in combination with one or more other working electrodes 1204.

[00200] An example of a different type of first coded aperture and complementary second coded aperture are shown in Figures 10A and 10B. In the example illustrated in Figures 10A and 10B, the first coded aperture has a subaperture pattern that is an inverse of the second coded aperture.

[00201 ] The optic devices of the present specification may allow for a greater range of transmissivity adjustment relative to some other technologies. For example, in some cases, when transitioned toward the stripped state, the optic devices of the present specification may allow for a greater transmissivity than can be provided using some liquid crystal display technologies. In some cases, when transitioned toward the plated state, the optic devices of the present specification may allow for a greater opacity than can be provided using some electrochromic technologies. This greater range of transmissivity adjustment may be helpful in, for example, photography, videography, and coded aperture applications, among others. In some examples, one or more of the optic devices of the present specification can include a coded aperture mask reversibly transitionable from a first state toward a second state in response to application of a charge voltage. When in the first state, the coded aperture mask can have a transmissivity of at least 70 percent, and when in the second state, the coded aperture mask can have a transmissivity of less than 30 percent and define a pattern of subapertures for providing light field information. The light field information can include, for example, information relating to intensity and direction. In some examples, when in the first state, the coded aperture mask can have a transmissivity of at least 90 percent, and when in the second state, the coded aperture mask can have a

transmissivity of less than 10 percent. In some examples, when in the second state, the coded aperture mask can have a transmissivity of less than 1 percent. In some examples, the coded aperture mask can include electrodeposition sites arranged on one or more working electrodes as described herein.

[00202] In some examples, one or more of the optic devices and/or systems in the present specification may further include one or more lenses arranged to cooperate with the working electrodes. In some examples, the one or more lenses can comprise at least one multifocal lens arranged to cooperate with the working electrodes. For example, one or more of the optic devices in the present specification may include at least one multifocal lens having a plurality of discrete optical zones, and a coded aperture mask in alignment with at least one of the optical zones. In some examples, the coded aperture mask can be provided via, for example, one or more working electrodes having electrodeposition sites arranged in a coded aperture plating pattern in alignment with the multifocal lens. The coded aperture mask can be transitionable from a first state toward a second state in response to application of a charge voltage. When in the first state, the coded aperture mask can be generally transparent, and when in the second state, the coded aperture mask can be generally opaque and define a pattern of subapertures extending over the at least one of the optical zones. The optical zones can include at least one of, for example, a refractive zone, a diffractive zone, and a combination thereof, and in some examples, may be ring-shaped. Such optic devices may be arranged so that visual information (e.g. relating to a scene) can pass through the multifocal lens and coded aperture and to an observer or an image sensor of the optic device and/or system. The multifocal lens may be positioned in front of or behind the coded aperture mask, and in some examples, a lens may be positioned in front of and behind the coded aperture mask. The lens and coded aperture may cooperate to provide, for example, light information suitable for determining depth of one or more objects in the scene. The lens and coded aperture may cooperate to focus far light relating to the scene through the optic device at a first time (e.g. by blocking out a radially outer zone of the lens), and focus near light relating to the scene through the optic device at a second time (e.g. by blocking out a radially inner zone of the lens). In some examples, such devices can be free of dispersers between the lens and the observer or image sensor and/or between the coded aperture mask and the observer or image sensor.

[00203] Referring to Figures 1 1A to 1 1 C, in some examples, at least one first working electrode and at least one second working electrode can be formed on a common substrate. For example, the first and second working electrodes can be spaced apart on different halves of the substrate as shown in Figure 1 1A, can be interlaced with one another as shown in Figure 1 1 B, can be in a sectored arrangement in which each extends circumferentially over a respective sector of the substrate as shown in Figure 1 1 C (with six separate working electrodes), and/or can be in any other suitable arrangement for carrying out the various aspects of the present disclosure. In such examples, the first and second working electrodes can be electrically insulated from one another via spacers, insulators, and/or molecular design of the electrolyte ions, so that the working electrodes can be transitioned independently of one another between respective plated and stripped states. For example, in some cases, certain spacing agents and/or leveling agents can be included in the electrolyte medium to help reduce likelihood that nanoplating will cause electrical contact between circuits of the two working electrodes. In some examples the first and second working electrodes can lie in a common plane normal to the passage axis.

[00204] In some examples, the working electrode(s) and corresponding electrodeposition sites can be arranged to provide a filtering nanoplating pattern for filtering a target wavelength of the electromagnetic radiation when the one or more working electrodes are in the plated state. In some examples, the filtering nanoplating pattern can comprise a plurality of gates having a gate spacing suitable for filtering the target wavelength. The gate spacing and the target wavelength can be adjustable as a function of at least one of a value, application time, and pattern of the plating or stripping charge voltage.

[00205] In some examples, the working electrodes and corresponding electrodeposition sites can be arranged to filter a first wavelength of electromagnetic radiation when at least one first working electrode is in the plated state and at least one second working electrode is in the stripped state, and to filter a second wavelength of electromagnetic radiation when the at least one first working electrode is in the plated state and the at least one second working electrode is in one of the stripped state and the plated state. The second wavelength can be different from the first wavelength.

[00206] In some examples, the electrolyte may include ions of a design responsive to a stronger external magnetic field, such as, for example ferromagnetic nanoparticles. In such examples, an externally applied magnetic field may be used to modulate the electrodeposition of the ions to control the specific direction and orientation of the nanoplated ions. The electrodeposition may be calibrated to filter for a specific phase of electromagnetic radiation, such as to, for example, create a microgrid (and/or microgates) for polarization of light. In such cases, a change in an orientation of the magnetic field during electrodeposition may change a direction of the microgrid and influence the phase of radiation and direction of polarization. Where a previous microgrid has been formed, a stripping charge voltage can be subsequently applied to reverse the electrodeposition, and the plating charge voltage can then be applied along with a new direction of the external magnetic field to induce controlled electrodeposition for forming a new microgrid in a new orientation. When used in combination with, for example, a monitor or projector, such polarization changes in time and space may allow for visual encryption of still and/or moving images. Various elements in the electrolyte medium such as spacing agents and/or leveling agents can also facilitate control of an amount and orientation of nanoplating in such embodiments.

[00207] In some examples, the working electrode(s) and corresponding electrodeposition sites can be arranged to provide a polarizing nanoplating pattern for polarizing electromagnetic radiation when at least one of the working electrodes is in the plated state. In some examples, the electrolyte medium can include charged or ionic nanoparticles structured for predefined directional assembly during nanoplating at the electrodeposition sites to facilitate polarization of the electromagnetic radiation. In some example, the nanoparticles can have a magnetic polarity property allowing for modification of the directional assembly via a magnetic field having a predetermined directionality and magnitude.

[00208] In some examples, the working electrode(s) and corresponding electrodeposition sites can be arranged to provide a first type of polarization to the electromagnetic radiation when at least one first working electrode is in the plated state and at least one second working electrode is in the stripped state, and to provide a second type of polarization to the electromagnetic radiation when the at least one

second working electrode is in the plated state and the at least one first working electrode is in one of the stripped state and the plated state. The second type of polarization can be different from the first type of polarization. Referring to Figure 12, in the example illustrated, an optic system 2000 is illustrated schematically. The optic system 2000 includes one or more optic devices 2100. The optic devices 2100 can comprise, for example, one or more of the optic devices of the present specification (e.g. optic device 100, 200, 1 100, 1200).

[00209] The optic system 2000 includes a controller 2170 operatively coupled to at least one of the optic devices 2100. The controller 2170 can operate to control transition of working electrodes 2104 of the optic devices 2100 between respective stripped and plated states to vary one or more optical properties of the optic devices 2100 (e.g. to adjust transmissivity).

[00210] In some examples, the system 2000 can further include at least one sensor 2172 in or adjacent the one or more optic devices 2100, a power source 2174 coupled to the one or more optic devices 2100, computer readable memory 2176 in communication with the controller 2170 for storing computer readable instructions retrievable by the controller 2170 for operation thereof, and/ora user input device 2178 for receiving user input. In some examples, and depending on the application, one or more of these or other components of system 2000 may be omitted.

[0021 1 ] In some examples, the controller 2170 can be operable to determine a state change to be applied to the working electrodes 2104, and initiate a transition at the working electrodes 2104 between respective stripped and plated states based on the determined state change.

[00212] In some examples, the controller 2104 can be operable to determine the state change based on a sensor signal representing one or more properties relating to a scene viewable through the one or more optic devices 2100. In such examples, the sensor 2172 can be configured to detect the one or more properties relating to the scene, and transmit the sensor signal representing the one or more properties relating to the scene to the controller 2104.

[00213] In some examples, the controller can be configured to: i) determine, from at least the sensor signal, whether the one or more properties satisfy an adjustment

condition; and ii) in response to determining that the one or more properties satisfy the adjustment condition, initiate transition of at least one of the working electrodes 2104 to resolve the adjustment condition. For example, based on the sensor signal, the controller 2104 may determine that the scene or objects therein are far away and initiate transition of the working electrodes for focusing far light, or the controller 2104 may determine that the scene or objects therein are near and initiate transition of the working electrodes for focusing near light. The adjustment condition may be defined by, for example, algorithms on computer-readable memory and/or control circuit logic.

[00214] In some examples, the controller 2104 is operable to determine the state change in response to receiving a state change indicator. The state change indicator can be generated via, for example, user input received at the input device 2178. For example, the system 2100 can be configured to require user input to generate a state change indicator, and in response to the state change indicator, the controller 2170 can operate to determine whether to apply the state change (e.g. based on sensor output, algorithms, control circuit logic, etc.).

[00215] In some examples, the one or more properties relating to the scene can comprise a property of incoming electromagnetic radiation. The controller 2170 can be configured to: (i) receive the sensor signal; (ii) determine, from the sensor signal, whether the property satisfies an adjustment condition; and (iii) in response to determining that the property satisfies the adjustment condition, control application of the plating charge voltage to transition at least one of the working electrodes 2104 to the plated state to reduce transmissivity of the one or more optic devices 2100 and inhibit transmission of at least a portion of the incoming electromagnetic radiation therethrough. In some examples, the property can include an intensity level of the electromagnetic radiation and the adjustment condition can include the intensity level being at or above an intensity threshold.

[00216] In some examples, the one or more properties relating to the scene can comprise properties for determining image and/or depth information relating to the scene. For example, in some embodiments, the sensor 2172 can include an image sensor for detecting light information relating to the scene. Based on the light information, the controller may determine an attribute of the scene (via one or more algorithms), such as depth information relating to one or more objects in the scene,

and control operation of the optic device based on the depth information. In some examples, the sensor 2172 may include one or more image sensors positioned rearward of the optic device, such that incoming light passes through the optic device to reach the image sensor. In such examples, the optic device may present a coded aperture through which the incoming light passes to reach the image sensor, which may facilitate determination of depth information relating to one or more objects in the scene and subsequent adjustment of the optic device.

[00217] In some examples, the controller 2104 can be operable to determine the state change to be applied to the working electrodes 2104 based on a user input, in addition to or in lieu of the sensor signal. In some examples, the input device 2178 can be configured for receiving the user input, and transmitting an input signal corresponding to the user input to the controller 2170. The input device 2178 may comprise, for example, a button, a dial, a camera, a motion sensor, a gesture sensor, an acceleration sensor, a proximity sensor, and/or one or more other suitable sensor for receiving user input.

[00218] In some examples, the controller 2104 can be operable to determine the state change based on output from a positioning system (e.g. a global position system (GPS)) representing a location of the optic device 2100.

[00219] In some examples, the components of the system 2000— such as, for example, the sensor 2172, input device 2178, memory 2176, controller 2170, etc.— may be provided in a common device, or one or more of the components may be in separate devices. The device(s) can include, for example, a computer, a smart phone (e.g. smart phone 2186 in Figure 12A), watch, ring, bracelet, tattoo (e.g. with an integrated RFID chip), garment, eyewear (e.g. eyewear 2180 in Figure 12A), and/or any other suitable device. The components of the system 2000 may include, for example, displays, user inputs, interfaces, sensors (e.g. luminance/light sensors, camera sensors, acceleration sensors, motion sensors, etc.), wireless communication interfaces (e.g., near field communication interface, blue tooth interface, etc.), positioning systems (e.g. global positioning system (GPS) receivers), wireless charging, power storage and supply, etc., of the device(s).

[00220] The components of the system 2000 can be linked for communication with one another through one or more wired or wireless communication interfaces.

[00221 ] The controller 2170 can include, for example, one or more processors (e.g. central processing units, digital signal processors, etc.), Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA), application specific integrated circuits (ASIC), and/or other types of control units capable of independently or in combination carrying out the functionality and methods of the present specification.

[00222] In some embodiments, the controller 2170 can include a plurality of control units, and each may be configured to perform dedicated tasks for controlling the optic device(s). For example, in some embodiments, the controller 2170 can include one or more first control units for carrying out a first operation of the system 2100 and one or more second control units for carrying out a second operation of the system 2100. For example, a first control unit (e.g. a control circuit) can be integrated with the sensor 2172 to process sensor signals, and a second control unit (e.g. a central processor) can be provided to control application of charge voltage to the optic device based on output from the first control unit and instructions stored on computer readable memory.

[00223] In some examples, the controller 2170 can include a first control unit provided in a first device (e.g. eyewear 2180 in Figure 12A), and a second control unit provided in a second device (e.g. smart phone 2186 in Figure 12A), and the first and second devices can be in wireless communication with each other for controlling operation of the optic device(s).

[00224] In some examples, one or more of the components of the system 2000 may be incorporated into eyewear. The eyewear may comprise, for example, eye glasses, goggles, etc. Referring to Figures 12A, in the example illustrated, one or more components of the system 2000 are incorporated into eyewear 2180 (shown in Figure 12A as eye glasses). The eyewear 2180 includes an eyewear frame 2182, and at least one of the optic devices 2100 can be coupled to the eyewear frame 2182 to form at least part of a lens 2184 through which a user may view a scene. The optic devices 2100 can be controlled to vary optical properties of the lens 2184, such as, for example, a reduction or increase in transmissivity. The optical properties may be varied manually via user input (e.g. having a user press a button or turn a dial to operate the optic devices 2100), dynamically through sensor output (e.g. by having the optic devices 2100 reduce transmissivity when a light sensor detects an increase in intensity of incoming light, and increase transmissivity when a light sensor detects a decrease in intensity of incoming light), and/or through a combination of user input and sensor output (e.g. requiring a user to provide user input to trigger automatic adjustment of the optic devices 2100 based on sensor output).

[00225] In some examples, the user input may comprise an action or gesture performed by a user. For example, the user input may include pressing on the temple of the eyewear frame 2182 while wearing or holding a second mobile device that includes components of the system 2000 (e.g. the smart phone 2186, a smart watch, bracelet, ring, tattoo etc.) in the ipsilateral hand (e.g. by pressing the left temple of the eyewear frame while holding the mobile device in the left hand). In some examples, the user input may comprise, for example, pressing a lug or hinge of the eyewear frame 2182 while wearing or holding the second mobile device in the ipsilateral hand. In some examples, the user input may comprise, for example, pressing on the bridge portion of the eyewear frame 2182 with the hand that is also wearing or holding the second mobile device. In some examples, the user input may comprise, for example, adjusting the glasses with the thumb and index finger holding the rim or lens portion of the eyewear with the ipsilateral hand wearing or holding the second mobile device. In some examples, the user input may comprise pressing on both temples of the eyewear frame simultaneously. In some examples, the user input may comprise, for example, touching a portion of the eyewear frame wrapped adjacent the ear with the ipsilateral hand while wearing or holding the second mobile device.

[00226] In some examples, the user input may comprise, for example, running the hand that is wearing or holding the second mobile device through the user’s hair on the ipsilateral side wearing or holding the mobile device. In some examples, the user input may comprise, for example, flipping the user’s hair with the hand wearing or holding the second mobile device on the ipsilateral side. In some examples, the user input may comprise, for example, flipping the wrist of the ipsilateral hand wearing or holding the second mobile device in close proximity to the eyewear. In some such examples, the second mobile device may be configured to require a user to put the second mobile device into a ready state prior to the above actions and/or gestures registering as user input by the controller.

[00227] In some examples, the present level of transparency of the optic device may not be known, and the optic device may be reset or cleared to either maximum

transparency or maximum opacity with a specific reset charge voltage prior to applying a target transparency charge voltage in order to achieve reproducible target transparencies. In some examples, the optic device can be periodically calibrated and the presumed level of transparency tracked, which may allow for specified charge voltages to be applied to achieve a target transparency. This may reduce the need for applying a reset charge voltage prior to the target transparency charge voltage. In some examples, a calibration procedure can include measuring a predetermined luminance through a portion of the optic device at a predetermined distance from the optic device. For example, in examples where the optic device forms part of an eyewear lens (such as the lens 2184 in Figure 12A), a light emitting diode on an interior wall of the eyewear frame may serve as an illumination source. With the eyewear frame naturally folded, the distance of the illumination source from the optic device (forming at least part of the eyewear lens) can be known, and can be compared relative to a size of the eyewear frame in an image or video captured with a camera of a mobile device (e.g. the smart phone 2186). In some examples, the mobile device can be positioned a known distance away from the eyewear, and the size and/or angle of the eyewear can be determined in part by matching a silhouette of the eyewear on the device screen. In some examples, the calibration may be static (e.g. performed using image capture), and in some examples, the calibration may be dynamic (e.g. performed using video capture). In some examples, the optic device may be static throughout the calibration sequence (i.e. is not transitioned between states). In other examples, the calibration sequence may be dynamic and include a pre-defined adjustment of the optic device during the calibration sequence (e.g. a transition from a plated state toward a stripped state or vice versa). In some examples, a transparency of the optic device can be measured after a reset charge voltage is applied, and in some examples, the transparency can be measured in the current state of the optic device.

[00228] In some applications, it may be desirable to modulate electromagnetic radiation over an increased effective area or along a longer passage axis. In some cases, however, enlarging electrodeposition components, such as electrodes and/or electrolyte reservoirs, may result in reduced performance (e.g. by causing a reduction in a rate and/or uniformity of nanoplating). Referring to Figure 13, in some examples, the one or more optic devices 2100 can include a plurality of optic devices 2100

arranged side-by-side (in parallel) to form a screen 2180. The controller can be operable to change an optical property of the screen via transitioning the working electrodes 2104 between respective plated and stripped states. Arranging a plurality of optic devices 2100 to form a screen 2180 may help to provide an increased effective area without necessarily requiring an enlargement of respective electrodeposition components, which may help with performance characteristics.

[00229] In such examples, the optic devices 2100 can have a shape suitable for arranging the optic devices 2100 in a side-by-side array to form the screen 2180. For example, referring to Figure 14, the optic devices 2100 can have a generally hexagonal shape for arranging the optic devices 2100 in a honeycomb structure to form the screen 2180. In some examples, the controller 2170 may operate the screen 2180 to form a coded aperture by transitioning different optic devices 2100 among the plated and stripped states. For example, in some cases, one or more of the optic devices 2100 may be held in a relatively opaque state to form one or more blocking portions of the coded aperture, and one or more of the optic devices 2100 may be held in a relatively transparent state to, in combination, form a subaperture pattern.

[00230] Referring to Figure 15, in some examples, the one or more optic devices 2100 can include a plurality of the optic devices stacked one in front of another (arranged in series) to form an optic stack 2182. The controller 2170 can be operable to change an optical property of the stack 2182 via transitioning of the working electrodes 2104 between respective plated and stripped states. Arranging a plurality of optic devices 2100 to form a stack 2182 may help to provide an increased optic passage length without necessarily requiring an enlargement of respective electrodeposition components, which may help maintain performance characteristics and may facilitate variation and combination of various working electrodes in some examples. In some examples, the controller may operate the stack 2182 to selectively provide one of a plurality of optical effects depending on which working electrode 2104 of the stack is transitioned between states. For example, the working electrode(s) 2104 of a first one of the optic devices 2100 may be transitioned toward the plated state to provide a first optical effect, and the working electrode(s) 2104 of a second one of the optic devices 2100 may, at the same or a different time, be transitioned toward the plated state to provide a second optical effect different from the first optical effect. The optical effects can include one or more of, for example, an opacity level adjustment, an aperture size adjustment, formation of a coded aperture, filtering of a wavelength and/or a polarity of electromagnetic radiation, etc.

[00231 ] Various methods of operating one or more optic devices and/or optic systems like those disclosed in the present specification will now be described.

[00232] Referring to Figure 16, a flowchart illustrating an example method 3100 of adjusting an aperture of an optic device is shown. At step 31 10, a plating charge voltage is applied across at least one working electrode and a counter electrode of the optic device to induce nanoplating of the working electrode with ions from an electrolyte medium, the nanoplating patterned to reduce an aperture size of a passage of the optic device. At step 3120, a second charge voltage is applied across the working electrode and the counter electrode to adjust the aperture size via adjustment of an amount of the nanoplating.

[00233] In some examples, the second charge voltage comprises the plating charge voltage and step 3120 includes increasing an amount of nanoplating to reduce the aperture size. In some examples, the method 3100 includes increasing a value of the plating charge voltage to increase a nanoplating rate of the nanoplating and a reduction rate of the aperture size. In some examples, at least one of an application time and pattern of the plating charge voltage is adjusted to reduce the aperture size.

[00234] In some examples, the second charge voltage comprises the stripping charge voltage and step (b) includes stripping at least some of the nanoplating from the working electrode to enlarge the aperture size. In some examples, the method 3100 includes increasing a value of the stripping charge voltage to increase a stripping rate of the stripping and an enlargement rate of the aperture size. In some examples, at least one of an application time and pattern of the stripping charge voltage is adjusted to enlarge the aperture size.

[00235] Referring to Figure 17, a flow chart illustrated another example method 3200 of adjusting an aperture of an optic device is shown. At 3210 a first plating charge voltage is applied across at least one first working electrode and a counter electrode of the optic device to induce a first nanoplating of the working electrode with ions from an electrolyte medium, the first nanoplating patterned to provide a passage of the optic device with an aperture size. At 3220, a second plating charge voltage is applied across at least one second working electrode and the counter electrode of the optic device to induce a second nanoplating of the second working electrode with ions from the electrolyte medium, the second nanoplating patterned to reduce the aperture size.

[00236] The method 3200 can further include, prior to step 3220, applying a stripping charge voltage across the first working electrode and the counter electrode to strip at least some of the first nanoplating from the first working electrode to enlarge the aperture size.

[00237] Referring to Figure 18, a flowchart illustrating an example method 3300 of generating light field information is shown. At 3310, first image data representing a scene is received from electromagnetic radiation passing through an open aperture in a passage of the optic device. At step 3320, a first plating charge voltage is applied across at least one first working electrode and the counter electrode to induce a first nanoplating of the working electrode with ions from an electrolyte medium, the first nanoplating arranged to provide a first coded aperture in the passage. At step 3330, second image data representing the scene is received from electromagnetic radiation passing through the first coded aperture. At step 3360, light field information relating to the scene is generated based on at least the first image data and the second image data. In some examples, the light field information comprises depth information relating to the scene.

[00238] The method 3300 can include an optional step 3340 of applying a second plating charge voltage across the at least one first working electrode and the counter electrode to induce a second nanoplating of the first working electrode with ions from the electrolyte medium, the second nanoplating arranged to provide a second coded aperture in the passage. The second coded aperture has a subaperture size different from that of the first coded aperture. The method 3300 can further include an optional step 3350 of receiving third image data representing the scene from electromagnetic radiation passing through the second coded aperture, and step 3360 can include generating the light field information based on at least the first, second, and third image data.

[00239] In some examples, the step 3340 can alternatively include applying a second plating charge voltage across at least one second working electrode and the counter

electrode of the optic device to induce a second nanoplating of the second working electrode with ions from the electrolyte medium, the second nanoplating arranged to provide a second coded aperture in the passage. The second coded aperture has a subaperture pattern different from that of the first coded aperture. In some such examples, the subaperture pattern of the second coded aperture may be an inverse of that of the first coded aperture.

[00240] In some examples, the first coded aperture can form at least a portion of a first coded aperture set defining a first subaperture pattern and the second coded aperture can form at least a portion of a second coded aperture set defining a second subaperture pattern. The light field information may be generated based on image data corresponding to the first coded aperture set and the second coded aperture set. The first subaperture pattern of the first coded aperture set can be an inverse of the second subaperture pattern of the second coded aperture set in some examples.

[00241 ] Image data attained from coded apertures in combination with, for example, open aperture images may allow for capture of encoded 4D light field information, from which depth and other light field information may be obtained. The addition of image data from complementary and/or multiple coded apertures may facilitate accuracy of light field information such as, for example, depth information, and may facilitate a decrease in artifacts generated from subsequent processing. For example, in examples where at least 2 different complementary coded apertures are provided, each complementary coded aperture can be used to provide image data of a scene almost simultaneously. The resulting image data may then include complementary information of the same scene, which can facilitate a reduction of artifacts when the data is compiled and depth and light field information is extracted.

[00242] Using optic devices of the present specification to change aperture configurations via nanoplating may facilitate relatively fast switching between the aperture configurations. In some cases, such switching can be on the order of milliseconds, which may allow for effectively simultaneous capture of images from objects and scenes through different aperture sizes and/or types.

[00243] In one example, image data from a pinhole capture of a near scene with most objects all in focus can be combined with a wide-open aperture capture of the same scene, which would result in objects at a specific distance being in focus with objects at other distances being blurred. The combination of image data from both images may allow for better edge information of objects based on the pinhole image and better depth information of objects based on the wide-open aperture. Similarly, in more complex complementary coded aperture image sets, the effectively simultaneous capture of image data through different aperture types may help provide a more robust image data set for generating light field information.

[00244] Referring to Figure 19, a flow chart illustrating a method 3400 of controlling nanoplating in an optic device is shown. At step 3410, an electrolyte medium is provided. The electrolyte medium has ionic nanoparticles structured for directional assembly during electrodeposition. At step 3420, a plating charge voltage is applied across at least one working electrode and a counter electrode of the optic device to nanoplate at least a portion of the working electrode with the nanoparticles from the electrolyte medium. During step 3420, a magnetic field is applied to the electrolyte medium. The magnetic field can be applied for a specific time and/or at a specific magnitude and/or pattern. The magnetic field has a magnitude, pattern, and/or temporal variation selected to influence directional assembly of the nanoparticles being nanoplated. The magnetic field can be applied via at least one of an electromagnet and a permanent magnet.

[00245] In some examples, the directional assembly is selected to arrange plated nanoparticles for filtering a wavelength of electromagnetic radiation. In some examples, the method 3400 further includes adjusting a direction of the magnetic field to plate the nanoparticles on the working electrode at a predefined spacing for filtering the wavelength.

[00246] In some examples, the directional assembly is selected to arrange plated nanoparticles for polarization of electromagnetic radiation. In some examples, the method further includes adjusting a direction of the magnetic field to provide at least one of a specific direction and a specific angle of the polarization. In some examples, the method 3400 further includes receiving encrypted video data via incoming electromagnetic radiation at an input of the optic device, and applying the magnetic field according to a selected temporal and spatial pattern such that light polarization provided by the optic device generates outgoing electromagnetic waves with a decrypted version of the encrypted video data at the output of the optic device.

[00247] Referring to Figure 20, a flow chart illustrating a method 3500 of adjusting transmissivity in an optic device is shown. In the example illustrated, the method 3500 includes operating a controller operatively coupled to the optic device to, at 3510, determine a state change to be applied to one or more working electrodes of the optic device. Each working electrode can have an arrangement of nanostructured electrodeposition sites and is reversibly transitionable from a stripped state toward a plated state when a plating charge voltage is applied across the working electrode and a counter electrode to induce nanoplating at the nanostructured electrodeposition sites with ions from an electrolyte medium. When in the stripped state, the one or more working electrodes are generally transparent and present a passage through the optic device for transmission of electromagnetic radiation. When the one or more working electrodes are in the plated state, the electrodeposition sites are nanoplated with ions from the electrolyte medium to reduce transmissivity through the passage relative to the stripped state. The method 3500 further includes operating the controller to, at 3520, initiate a transition at the one or more working electrodes between respective stripped and plated states based on the determined state change.

[00248] In some examples, operating the controller to initiate the transition includes controlling application of the plating charge voltage across at least one working electrode and the counter electrode. In some examples, the method 3500 can further include operating the controller to adjust the plating charge voltage, an application time of the plating charge voltage, and/or a pattern of the plating charge voltage.

[00249] In some examples, the method 3500 can further include operating the controller to determine the state change based on a user input. In some examples, the method further includes receiving the user input from an input device; and transmitting an input signal corresponding to the user input to the controller. In some examples, the user input includes a gesture and/or action performed by a user.

[00250] In some examples, the method 3500 further includes operating the controller to determine the state change based on a sensor signal representing one or more properties relating to a scene viewable through the optic device. In some examples, the method 3500 further includes operating a sensor to detect the one or more properties and transmit the sensor signal representing the one or more properties to the controller. In some examples, the method further includes operating the controller to: determine, from the sensor signal, whether the one or more properties satisfy an adjustment condition; and in response to determining that the one or more properties satisfy the adjustment condition, initiate the transition at the one or more working electrodes to resolve the adjustment condition.

[00251 ] In some examples, the one or more properties include an intensity level of electromagnetic radiation and the method comprises operating the controller to: determine whether the intensity level exceeds a first intensity threshold; and in response to determining that the intensity level exceeds the first intensity threshold, initiate the transition of the at least one working electrode towards the plated state. In some examples, the method further includes operating the controller to: determine whether the intensity level is below a second intensity threshold; and in response to determining that the intensity level is below the second intensity threshold, initiate the transition of the at least one working electrode towards the stripped state.

[00252] In some examples, the one or more properties include light information for determining depth of field information relating to one or more objects in the scene.

[00253] The method 3500 may be useful where the optic devices and/or systems are used in, for example, contact lenses, intraocular (or intracorporal) devices, glasses, goggles, other eyewear, windows, windshields, cockpit glass, etc.

[00254] For example, the method 3500 may be used with the optic devices and/or systems of the present specification to, for example, help protect an individual, objects, and/or eyes from injury caused by incoming electromagnetic radiation, such as from high intensity laser light. For such applications, the nanoplating can be configured to increase opacity and reflect incoming electromagnetic radiation (e.g. laser energy) in response to light sensor output to protect an individual’s eyes, face, objects, or persons located behind the optic devices and/or systems. The nanoplating may be configured to help facilitate reflection of the incoming radiation via a smooth nanoplated surface.

[00255] As another example, the method 3500 may be used with the optic devices and/or systems of the present specification to, for example, help optimize an individual’s dynamic range. For example, the optic devices and/or systems may be optimized for a maximum functional dynamic range for a given task under ambient

lighting conditions. For example, if the individual moves to a bright environment, nanoplating may be induced based on light sensor output to reduce the amount of light transmitted to the user’s eyes. When the individual moves to a dark environment, stripping of the nanoplating may be induced based on light sensor output to increase the amount of light transmitted to the user’s eyes. In some examples this adjustment to help optimize an individual’s dynamic range may be used in combination with augmented or mixed reality devices to allow the user to see both the generated display as well as their environment at an optimized illumination and make the necessary adjustments with changes in illumination intensity.

[00256] In some examples, the optic devices and/or systems of the present specification may be used to improve an individual’s dark adaptation. In such applications, one or more optic devices A may be used to control an amount of light transmitted to one eye A of the user (via contact lenses, intraocular devices, glasses, goggles, or other eyewear, for example), and one or more optic devices B may be used to independently control an amount of light transmission to the other eye B of the user.

[00257] The optic devices A may be controlled to help optimize vision under ambient lighting conditions, which may involve reducing transmissivity under very bright conditions and providing transparency under more comfortable illuminations for any given task. The optic devices B may be controlled to help optimize vision for dark adaptation. For example, the optic devices B may permit transmission of only a minimum amount of light necessary for the individual to perform any given task, and/or to provide comfort and/or allow for gross stereo-vision if required. At least one light sensor or switch may be used to detect decreases in illumination and to trigger application of a stripping voltage to the optic devices B to increase transparency and visibility through the optic devices B, which may allow the dark adapted eye B to have improved vision in the darker environment relative to eye A. The light sensor or switch may be used to detect subsequent increases in illumination, and trigger application of a plating voltage to the optic devices B to reduce transmissivity and help preserve dark adaption in the eye B. Such an application may be useful for individuals who transition often between extreme changes of illumination, such as, for example, soldiers or other military personnel who are, for example, examining buildings or dwellings in deserts or snow environments, or who are moving in and out of ship cabins at sea.

[00258] In some examples, the method 3500 can be varied to adjust transmittance based on a time of day, in addition to and/or in lieu of a property of electromagnetic radiation. This can facilitate use of the optic devices and/or systems of the present specification to help control, for example, an individual’s circadian rhythm. For example, light sensors and/or time input may be used throughout the day to control the amount of light being transmitted through the optic devices and/or systems to the user’s eyes depending on the needs of the individual’s circadian rhythm. Such an application may be especially useful for individuals engaged in shift work or who are shifting time zones. In some examples, the method 3500 can be varied to adjust transmittance based on, for example, location (e.g. longitude, latitude, and/or altitude) and/or weather conditions.

[00259] Referring to Figures 21 A, a schematic example of a meta-lens assembly including at least one meta-lens 4160 for use with one of the optic devices of the present specification (e.g. optic device 100, 200, 1 100, 1200, 2100, etc.) is shown.

[00260] Referring to Figure 22A, in the example illustrated, the meta-lens 4160 includes a substrate 4161 (shown schematically and not to scale) and at least one array 4162 of meta-lens wave-guide structures 4164 (shown schematically and not to scale) projecting from a first side 4161 a of the substrate 4161. In the example illustrated, the substrate 4161 can have a thickness between the first side and the second side on the nanoscale, and is generally transparent at least over wave-guide gaps 4168 provided between adjacent wave guide structures 4164, and through which electromagnetic radiation is guided. The wave-guide structures 4164 can be shaped and arranged for guiding electromagnetic radiation toward at least one focal point of the meta-lens 4160. The wave-guide structures 4164 can comprise nanostructures, such as, for example, nanopillars and/or nanofins having a suitable arrangement and geometry (e.g. a rectangular or other suitable cross-sectional shape) for guiding electromagnetic radiation toward the at least one focal point.

[00261 ] In the example illustrated, the array 4162 can be positioned to overlie at least a portion of the passage (e.g. passage 1 16, 216, 1 1 16, 1216, etc.) of the optic device for guiding electromagnetic radiation passing therethrough (e.g. to at least one focal point). In some examples, the meta-lens 4160 is concentric with the passage axis (e.g. axis 1 18, 1 118, etc.) when used with the optic devices. The array 4162 can extend over an entirety of the passage in some examples.

[00262] In some examples, the electrodeposition sites (e.g. 1 10, 210, 1 1 10, 1210, etc.) can be arranged to overlie at least a portion of the array 4162 for occlusion thereof when plated (e.g. by positioning one or more of the working electrodes having the electrodeposition sites in front of or behind the meta-lens 4160, or by having the electrodeposition sites integrated with the meta-lens 4160 itself as described in more detail below). For example, referring to Figures 21 A and 21 B, in the example illustrated, the array 4162 includes at least one first set 4162a of wave-guide structures 4164 and at least one second set 4162b of wave-guide structures, and the electrodeposition sites are arranged to reversibly occlude at least one of the first set 4162a and the second set 4162b of wave-guide structures 4164, to vary the one or more optical properties. In the example of Figure 21 A, both the first set and the second set of wave-guide structures are shown unoccluded. In the example of Figure 21 B, the first set 4162a of wave-guide structures 4164 is shown occluded, and the second set 4162b of wave-guide structures 4164 is shown unoccluded.

[00263] In some examples, the at least one first set 4162a can be configured for near vision focus, and the at least one second set 4162b can be configured for distance vision focus, and the electrodeposition sites can be arranged to overlie the first set 4162a of wave-guide structures 4164 for reversibly occluding the first set while the second set 4162b remains unoccluded to facilitate distance vision focus. In some examples, the optic device can be operable to reversibly occlude the second set 4162b of wave-guide structures 4164 while the first set 4162a remains unoccluded (or to occlude both the first set and the second set). In the example illustrated, each of the first set 4162a and the second set 4162b of wave-guide structures 4164, is concentric with the passage axis of the optic device (and meta-lens 4160 in the example illustrated), and the second set 4162b is radially inward of the first set 4162a.

[00264] In other examples, the sets of wave-guide structures 4164 may be arranged differently. For example, in some embodiments, the array 4162 may include a plurality of sets of wave-guide structures interspersed with (or arranged in another manner relative to) each other. Each set can be configured for, for example, a specific focal distance for objects at a certain distance. When all sets are active for focusing electromagnetic radiation, the meta-lens 4160 can provide an extended depth of field, and the optic device can be operable to deactivate one or more of the sets of wave guide structures 4164 (e.g. by plating over a corresponding portion or portions of the array via electrodeposition) while the remaining sets remain active to provide a narrowed depth of field.

[00265] Referring to Figure 22A, in some examples, the meta-lens 4160 (or a plurality of the meta-lenses 4160) can comprise at least one of the one or more working electrodes (e.g. the working electrodes 104, 204, 1 104, 1204, etc.) of the optic device.

[00266] In such examples, the electrodeposition sites can be integrated with the meta-lens 4160. For example, at least some of the meta-lens wave guide structures 4164 can comprise the electrodeposition sites of the one or more working electrodes. Referring to Figures 22B and 22C, the electrodeposition sites can be arranged to increase at least one dimension of the meta-lens wave guide structures 4164 when plated. In the example illustrated, each meta-lens wave guide structure 4164 projects form the substrate along an axis 4166 (Figure 22A), and the at least one dimension can include at least one of a height 4167 measured along the axis 4166 between the substrate and a tip of the meta-lens wave guide structure 4164 (see Figure 22C), and a cross-sectional area normal to the axis 4166 (see Figures 22B). Each of the height 4167 and the dimensions defining the cross-sectional area (e.g. thickness and width) can be on the nanoscale.

[00267] Referring to Figures 22B, in the example illustrated, the electrodeposition sites are shown formed on sides of the wave-guide structures 4164, and plated to increase the effective cross-sectional area of the wave-guide structures 4164 to vary the one or more optical properties. The electrodeposition sites are strippable to reduce the effective cross-sectional area. Adjacent wave-guide structures 4164 are spaced apart by the wave-guide gap 4168 through which electromagnetic radiation is guided. Adjusting the effective cross-sectional area of the wave-guide structures 4164 through nanoplating can adjust the size of the wave-guide gap 4168 between at least some of the adjacent wave-guide structures to vary the one or more optical properties.

[00268] Referring to Figure 22C, in the example illustrated, the electrodeposition sites are shown formed on the tip of the wave-guide structures 4164 and plated to increase the effective height 4167 of the wave-guide structures 4164 to vary the one or more optical properties. The electrodeposition sites are strippable to reduce the effective height 4167. In such examples, the sides of the wave-guide structures 4164 are shown to be free of electrodeposition sites so that the height 4167 can be adjusted via plating without necessarily increasing the cross-sectional area (or reducing corresponding wave-guide gaps 4168). In the example illustrated in Figures 22A and 22C, the height 4167 is shown measured from a first surface on the first side 4161 a of the substrate 4161 from which the structures 4164 project to the effective tip of the structures 4164. The height 4167 can be on the nanoscale, and in some examples can be, for example, between 200nm and 600nm. In some examples, the effective height of the structures 4164 can be measured from a second surface on a second side 4161 b of the substrate 4161 (opposite the first side 4161 a) to the tip of the structures 4164.

[00269] In some examples, in addition or in lieu of the wave guide structures 4164 comprising the electrodeposition sites, the electrodeposition sites can be arranged on the substrate 4161 of the meta-lens 4160 over at least some of the wave guide gaps 4168. In such examples, the electrodeposition sites can be electroplated to occlude the transparent portion of the substrate 4161 in the gaps 4168 and reduce (or completely block) transmission of electromagnetic radiation passing through the wave-guide gaps 4168. Referring to Figure 22D, in the example illustrated, electrodeposition sites are shown provided in the wave-guide gaps 4168 on the first side 4161 a of the substrate from which the wave-guide structures 4164 project. In some examples, the electrodeposition sites can be provided on the second side 4161 b of the substrate 4161 for overlying the wave-guide gaps 4168.

[00270] The examples of the systems and methods described herein may be implemented in hardware or software, or a combination of both. These embodiments may be implemented in computer programs executing on programmable computers, each computer including at least one processor, a data storage system (including volatile memory or non-volatile memory or other data storage elements or a combination thereof), and at least one communication interface. For example and

without limitation, the programmable computers may be a server, network appliance, embedded device, computer expansion module, a personal computer, laptop, personal data assistant, cellular telephone, smart-phone device, tablet computer, a wireless device, or any other computing device capable of being configured to carry out the functionality and methods described herein.

[00271 ] In some embodiments, the communication interface may be a network communication interface. In embodiments in which elements are combined, the communication interface may be a software communication interface, such as those for inter-process communication (IPC). In still other embodiments, there may be a combination of communication interfaces implemented as hardware, software, or a combination thereof.