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1. WO2020006145 - SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR DETERMINING A CURRENT HEMOGLOBIN LEVEL

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What is claimed is:

1. A computerized method of determining a current hemoglobin level comprising:

providing a computing device having an input/output interface, one or more processors and a memory;

receiving a series of hemoglobin measurements taken within a time window;

determining a current hemoglobin level based on the series of hemoglobin measurements using a linear regression model; and

providing the current hemoglobin level via the input/output interface.

2. The method of claim 1, further comprising selecting the time window based on a specified number of hemoglobin measurements.

3. The method of claim 1, wherein the determining and providing steps are performed only after the time window is complete.

4. The method of claim 3, wherein the time window is a rolling time window and the determining and providing steps are repeated for each new hemoglobin measurement.

5. The method of claim 1, further comprising selecting the linear regression model from a group of at least two models comprising:

yt = a0xi N. + b where yL is the current hemoglobin level, a is a first coefficient, xi N is the hemoglobin measurement, and b is a second coefficient;

yL = !=0 CLjXi N.-j + b where M is a number of hemoglobin measurements taken within the time window;

yL = bo + f0 A(t)xi(t)dt where b0 is an intercept term, x{ (t) is a smoothing function, and A(t) is a smooth coefficient function that establishes a relationship between yL and xL(t): or yL = b + axί r where xί r are principal component scores that quantify the variability of Xj(t) along yr(ί). and yr(ί) are functional principal components of xL(t) explaining the variability in xL(t).

6. The method of claim 5, further comprising receiving or determining the first coefficient and the second coefficient.

7. The method of claim 1, further comprising smoothing the series of hemoglobin measurements using a B-spline basis function.

8. The method of claim 1, wherein the series of hemoglobin measurements are received from the input/output interface, or one or more sensors communicably coupled to the one or more processors, or the memory.

9. The method of claim 1, wherein a time interval between the hemoglobin measurements is not equally spaced.

10. The method of claim 1, wherein the series of hemoglobin measurements includes missing data or outlier data.

11. The method of claim 1, further comprising adjusting the current hemoglobin level based on one or more prior laboratory determined hemoglobin levels.

12. The method of claim 1, further comprising sending an alert via the input/output interface whenever the current hemoglobin level or a rate of change of the current hemoglobin level is outside one or more limits.

13. The method of claim 1, further comprising receiving one or more patient factors via the input/output interface, one or more sensors or one or more modules.

14. The method of claim 13, wherein the one or more patient factors comprise a heart rate, an arterial oxygen saturation, an intravascular volume, a Pleth variability index, a perfusion index, a total oxygen content, an age, an injury type, a Glasgow coma index, a sex, a body mass index, a systolic blood pressure, a diastolic blood pressure, or a transfusion target range.

15. The method of claim 13, further comprising adjusting the current hemoglobin level based on the one or more patient factors.

16. The method of claim 13, wherein the one or more sensors or the one or more modules comprise a pulse oximeter, an intravascular volume estimator, or a patient medical data source.

17. The method of claim 13, further comprising:

determining a blood product of fluid amount, a blood product of fluid type, a transfusion rate, or a transfusion timing based on the current hemoglobin level and the one or more patient factors; and

providing the blood product or fluid amount, the blood product or fluid type, the transfusion rate, or the transfusion timing via the input/output interface.

18. The method of claim 17, further comprising administering the blood product or fluid amount of blood product or fluid type to a patient at the transfusion rate and transfusion timing using one or more devices communicably coupled to the input/output interface.

19. The method of claim 1, wherein the input/output interface comprises a remote device, and the remote device is communicably coupled to the one or more processors via one or more networks.

20. The method of claim 1, wherein the computing device comprises a server computer, a workstation computer, a laptop computer, a mobile communications device, a personal data assistant, or a medical device.

21. An apparatus for determining a current hemoglobin level comprising:

an input/output interface;

a memory; and

one or more processors communicably coupled to the input/output interface and the memory, wherein the one or more processors receive a series of hemoglobin measurements taken within a time window, determine a current hemoglobin level based on the series of hemoglobin measurements using a linear regression model, and provide the current hemoglobin level via the input/output interface.

22. The apparatus of claim 21, wherein the one or more processors receive a selection of the time window based on a specified number of hemoglobin measurements via the input/output interface.

23. The apparatus of claim 21, wherein the one or more processors determine and provide the current hemoglobin level only after the time window is complete.

24. The apparatus of claim 23, wherein the time window is a rolling time window and the one or more processors determine and provide the current hemoglobin level for each new hemoglobin measurement.

25. The apparatus of claim 21, wherein the one or more processors receive a selection of the the linear regression model from a group of at least two models comprising:

yt = a0xi N. + b where yL is the current hemoglobin level, a is a first coefficient, xi /v . is the hemoglobin measurement, and b is a second coefficient;

yL = CLjXi N.-j + b where M is a number of hemoglobin measurements taken within the time window;

yL = bo + f0 A(t)xi(t)dt where b0 is an intercept term, x{ (t) is a smoothing function, and A(t) is a smooth coefficient function that establishes a relationship between yL and xL(t): or yL = b + axί r where xί r are principal component scores that quantify the variability of Xj(t) along yr(ί). and yr(ί) are functional principal components of xL(t) explaining the variability in xL(t).

26. The apparatus of claim 25, wherein the one or more processors receive or determine the first coefficient and the second coefficient.

27. The apparatus of claim 21, wherein the one or more processors smooth the series of hemoglobin measurements using a B-spline basis function.

28. The apparatus of claim 21, wherein the series of hemoglobin measurements are received from the input/output interface, or one or more sensors communicably coupled to the one or more processors, or the memory.

29. The apparatus of claim 21, wherein a time interval between the hemoglobin measurements is not equally spaced.

30. The apparatus of claim 21, wherein the series of hemoglobin measurements includes missing data or outlier data.

31. The apparatus of claim 21, wherein the one or more processors adjust the current hemoglobin level based on one or more prior laboratory determined hemoglobin levels.

32. The apparatus of claim 21, wherein the one or more processors send an alert via the input/output interface whenever the current hemoglobin level or a rate of change of the current hemoglobin level is outside one or more limits.

33. The apparatus of claim 21, wherein the one or more processors receive one or more patient factors via the input/output interface, one or more sensors or one or more modules.

34. The apparatus of claim 33, wherein the one or more patient factors comprise a heart rate, an arterial oxygen saturation, an intravascular volume, a Pleth variability index, a perfusion index, a total oxygen content, an age, an injury type, a Glasgow coma index, a sex, a body mass index, a systolic blood pressure, or a diastolic blood pressure.

35. The apparatus of claim 33, wherein the one or more processors adjust the current hemoglobin level based on the one or more patient factors.

36. The apparatus of claim 33, wherein the one or more sensors or the one or more modules comprise a pulse oximeter, an intravascular volume estimator, or a patient medical data source.

37. The apparatus of claim 33, wherein the one or more processors:

determine a blood product or fluid amount, a blood product or fluid type, a transfusion rate, or a transfusion timing based on the current hemoglobin level and the one or more patient factors; and

provide the blood product or fluid amount, the blood product of fluid type, the transfusion rate, or the transfusion timing via the input/output interface.

38. The apparatus of claim 37, wherein the blood product or fluid amount of the blood product or fluid type are administered to a patient at the transfusion rate and the transfusion timing using one or more devices communicably coupled to the input/output interface.

39. The apparatus of claim 21, wherein the input/output interface comprises a remote device, and the remote device is communicably coupled to the one or more processors via one or more networks.

40. The apparatus of claim 21, wherein the apparatus comprises a server computer, a workstation computer, a laptop computer, a mobile communications device, a personal data assistant, or a medical device.