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1. WO2019229114 - MILD COMPOSITION FOR USE IN TOPICAL TREATMENT OF SKIN AND NAIL DISORDERS CAUSED BY VIRUS AND FUNGUS

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MILD COMPOSITION FOR USE IN TOPICAL TREATMENT OF SKIN AND NAIL DISORDERS CAUSED BY VIRUS AND FUNGUS

Field of the invention

The present invention relates to a composition comprising an alpha hydroxy acid selected from the group consisting of malic, lactic and glycolic acids, and combinations thereof, a wa ter-soluble zinc salt, e.g. zinc sulphate, and methyl salicylate for the treatment of skin and nail disorders caused by virus and fungus in mammals, especially in humans, by topical admin istration of the formulation on the affected area, as well as a kit comprising the formulation and an applicator, an applicator connected to a container holding the composition, and a method of treating the disorders in a subject using the formulation.

Background art

A cutaneous wart is generally a small, rough growth, typically on a human’s hands or feet. They are caused by a viral infection, specifically by one of the many types of human papillo ma viruses (HPV). It is possible to get warts from others, thus they are contagious and usually enter the body in an area of broken skin. A range of types of wart have been identified, vary ing in shape and site affected, as well as the type of human papilloma virus involved.

Common warts have a characteristic appearance under the microscope. They exhibit a thick ening of the stratum comeum (hyperkeratosis), thickening of the stratum spinosum (acan thosis), thickening of the stratum granulosum, rete ridge elongation, and large blood vessels at the dermoepidermal junction. Most warts, including flat warts and plantar warts, display some type of skin abnormality, such as hyperkeratotic surfaces.

Treatment of warts is typically painful, prolonged and can cause scarring. The treatments of warts, which presently exist, mainly destroy the outer layer of the skin on which the wart is growing. This can be both painful and unpleasant for the patients, especially in children. The chemical preparations that are commonly used today contain acids such as salicylic acid, tri chloroacetic acid or formic acid in different concentrations and are strongly corrosive. The skin is strongly challenged by these applications and inflammations are often the result.

Sharquie et al. (“Topical zinc sulphate solution for treatment of viral warts”, SaudiMedical Journal 2007, 28(9), 1418-21) describe the efficacy and safety of topical zinc sulphate solu-tion in the treatment of plane warts. Sharquie et al. conclude that 10% topical zinc sulphate is an effective, non-costly, new therapy for treatment of plane warts. Topical zinc sulphate solu-tion was however found to be ineffective in patients with common warts, probably due to thick hyperkeratotic surface that prevent penetration of the drug.

Khattar et al. (“Topical zinc oxide vs. salicylic acid-lactic acid combination in the treatment of warts”, International Journal of Dermatology 2007, 46(4), 427-30) compares the cure rates of warts treated with 20% zinc oxide ointment vs. those treated with a 15% salicylic acid and 15% lactic acid combination. The patients were followed up for 3 months or until cure, whichever came first. Under the heading“Discussion” Khattar et al. state that zinc oxide 20% ointment seems promising and is comparable with 15% salicylic acid combined with 15% lactic acid ointment in the treatment of warts. Under the heading“Conclusion” Khattar et al. find that zinc oxide is simple to apply and painless, and therefore may be promising for the treatment of children.

Fungal infection of the toenails or fingernails is caused by a fungal microbe that invades the nail bed. Fungal nail infection is also termed onychomycosis and tinea unguium. Fungal nail infection causes fingernails or toenails to thicken and discolor. Treatment is aimed at eradica tion of the causative organism, such as for example trichohopytum rubrum, and promotes a healthy appearance of the nail. The major challenge with treatment of onychomycosis is the thick nail plate which protects the fungus and allows them to survive in the skin.

It is an object of the present invention to provide an alternative and less painful, yet effective, treatment for removal of warts and nail fungus. Reduced pain is especially important for use on children.

Summary of the invention

According to the invention the above object has been achieved by a composition comprising: one or more alpha hydroxy acids selected from the group consisting of lactic acid, malic acid, and glycolic acid; a water soluble zinc salt; and methyl salicylate.

In one aspect the present invention thus relates to a composition comprising: one or more al pha hydroxy acids selected from the group consisting of lactic acid, malic acid, and glycolic acid in a total amount of from 50 to 80% by weight; from 0.1 to 10% by weight of methyl salicylate; together with a water soluble zinc salt in an amount, calculated as Zn, of from 0.2 to 4% by weight of the formulation.

According to the invention a combination of the above constituents has been found to form a mild and effective wart removal composition within the above ranges of amounts of the con stituents. The inventive composition avoids the use of corrosive acids, such as e.g. formic acid, and also avoids the use of painful freezing technique.

It is believed that the combined efficacy and mildness of the inventive composition is derived from the combination of an alpha hydroxy acid, Zn ions and methyl salicylate which unex pectedly enhances the bioavailability of the mixture and removes the warts and the fungus beneath the nail plate, without inducing pain and irritation.

In yet an aspect the invention relates to a method of treating warts, wherein the inventive composition is applied topically to an area of affected skin. Due to the reduced pain associat ed with the inventive method, the method is especially well-suited for use on children.

The inventive composition is effective in the treatment of warts caused by human papilloma virus.

Fungi are known to be sensitive to acids, and the inventive composition is also useful for the treatment of fungal infections of the toenails or fingernails.

In a further aspect the invention therefore relates to a method of treating fungal infections of the toenails or fingernails, wherein the inventive composition is applied topically to an area of an affected nail.

In another aspect the present invention relates to an applicator attached to a container contain ing the inventive composition, such as a pen applicator, which applicator can be used for topi cal administration of the composition on an affected skin or nail area for the treatment of warts or other viable infections, such as fungus in the nails.

It is believed that the inventive composition also will be effective in the treatment of fungal infection on the skin of feet.

Further aspects and advantages will become evident from the detailed description and ap pended claims.

Detailed description of the invention

The alpha hydroxy acids used according to the present invention have been found by the pre-sent inventors to provide a milder alternative to the corrosive acids used in prior art wart re-mo val formulations.

According to the invention, zinc ions have surprisingly been found to make the alpha hydroxy acid(s), which are used in the inventive composition, more tolerable and less irritating to the skin, thus making the inventive composition even milder, and also allowing for higher con centrations of the alpha hydroxy acid(s) to be used in the inventive formulation.

Zinc is known to have an antiviral effect. It is believed that the one or more alpha hydroxy acids of the invention will potentiate said effect of the zinc, such as possibly by enhancing penetration of zinc into the skin. Such enhanced penetration effect of zinc could improve the effectiveness of the inventive composition in treating a viral infection in the skin or nail. An especially preferred alpha hydroxy acid in this regard is glycolic acid.

In the inventive composition methyl salicylate is believed to further enhance penetration of the alpha hydroxy acid and zinc into the skin.

Zinc ions also seem to have a similar effect on methyl salicylate, thus also making the methyl salicylate, which is used in the inventive composition, more tolerable and less irritating to the skin.

Within the inventive range of zinc concentration (0.2-4) there seems to be a dose-response relationship. A preferred range of zinc is from 0.2-3% by weight, and more typically from 0.5-3% by weight.

The present invention enables accomplishing a composition, devoid of strong corrosive acids, for the treatment of warts and onychomycosis.

Glycolic acid is used in dermatological treatments depending on its exfoliant capacity. Gly-colic acid reacts with the upper layer of the epidermis, weakening the binding properties of the lipids that hold the dead skin cells together. This allows the stratum comeum to be exfoli ated, thereby exposing live skin cells. Alpha hydroxy acids also reduce the number of desmo-somes and tonofilaments. Other acids that can be used due to their exfoliant capacity are lactic acid and malic acid. Glycolic acid is however generally preferred according to the invention.

It is believed that an exfoliant, such as glycolic acid, may facilitate the solubility of the zinc ions and accelerate the removal of virus infected stratum comeum. For this purpose higher concentrations of glycolic acid are preferred.

In its most generic embodiment, the inventive composition contains a water soluble zinc salt, e.g. zinc sulphate, methyl salicylate, and an alpha hydroxy acid, selected from glycolic acid, lactic acid and malic acid, and combinations thereof.

The zinc ions of the inventive formulation can be generated from zinc salts selected from the group consisting of zinc sulphate, zinc chloride, zinc acetate, zinc glycolate, zinc gluconate, zinc carbonate, zinc oxide, zinc oleate, zinc stearate, zinc propionate, zinc salicylate, zinc lac-tate, zinc coceth sulphate, zinc citrate, zinc ascorbate and zinc glutamate. Preferred zinc salts are zinc sulphate, zinc chloride and zinc acetate. Especially preferred is zinc sulphate.

Methyl salicylate is considered to be a permeability enhancer. This enhancer acts as a solvent and interacts with and modifies the lipid domains of the stratum comeum and could thus fur ther increase the permeability of zinc ions and the acid. The inventive combination of alpha hydroxy acid and methyl salicylate could thus serve as a powerful penetration enhancer for the active mixture.

Moreover, methyl salicylate has a pleasant smell and will also increase the agreeability of the inventive formulation.

Methyl salicylate is preferably used in an amount within the range of 0.2-10%, and more typi-cally in an amount of 0.5-10% by weight of the composition.

Methyl salicylate will however typically not be soluble in a composition comprising for ex-ample merely glycolic acid and zinc sulphate. Accordingly, a solubiliser may be required for dissolving the methyl salicylate. The composition according to the invention thus preferably includes a solubiliser for the methyl salicylate. Different solubilisers, such as e.g. ethoxylated fatty alcohols, for example Oleth-20, can be used to solubilise methyl salicylate in the in ventive formulation.

In the case of Oleth-20, it was discovered that a very narrow and bell-shaped concentration the solubiliser created clear solutions wherein the methyl salicylate had been dissolved. A suitable amount of the solubilizer is about twice the amount of methyl salicylate. According ly, for the inventive range of methyl salicylate of from 0.1 to 10% by weight, the preferred corresponding amount of solubilizer is from 0.2 to 20% by weight, and for the preferred range of from 0.2-10% of methyl salicylate, the preferred corresponding amount of solubilizer is from 0.4 to 20% by weight etc. An especially preferred solubilizer is Oleth-20.

It was discovered that the inventive composition comprising methyl salicylate displayed a deeper effect on skin compared to a composition devoid of methyl salicylate. A deeper effect will also occur on the nail bed due to enhanced penetration of the actives.

In certain preferred embodiments methyl salicylate in an amount of from 2 to 5% w/w may be solubilised with Oleth-20 in an amount of from 4% to 10% w/w in a formulation comprising zinc sulphate (ZnS04x7H20) in an amount of from 1.0 % to 2.5 % w/w based on Zn, and gly colic acid of from 55 to 65% w/w.

The inventive composition can be provided as a kit comprising the composition and a device for topical application thereof, i.e. an applicator. Suitable applicators are known in the art, such as, e.g. a cotton swab, cotton tip, spatula, sponge applicator, brush and the like etc.

The applicator can be attached to a container holding the composition and capable of provid ing composition contained therein to the applicator. Suitable applicators are known in the art, such as e.g pen-like applicators, dispensing pens, and topical metered dosing dispensers. Ac- cordingly, the inventive composition can for example conveniently be provided in a pen ap plicator for the topical administration of the composition from a tip of the pen to an affected skin area for the treatment of warts. The tip of such applicator, from which tip the inventive composition is applied to an affected area, can for example be felt, a brush, or a roller ball.

It is also conceivable to apply the inventive composition by spraying, such as e.g. to the skin of feet for treating fungal infections on the feet. The inventive composition could thus be pro-vided contained in a dispenser for dispensing an aearosol.

Examples

The following examples are included to explain the principles of the present invention and are not intended to be understood as limiting the claimed scope. It will be apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art that modifications, including but not limited to, variations in amount, ingredients, mixing and application technique may be made without departing from the prin ciples and concepts described herein.

All chemicals used herein are used as acquired from the vendors.

Example 1

The formulations in Example 1 were manufactured by mixing the components specified in table 1 below. The mixture was then heated on a water bath until a clear solution was ob tained. The appearance of the different formulations was visually examined directly, after two hours, and after 4 days. The read-outs are included in the table 1.

Table 1. The influence of different concentrations of Oleth-20 and zinc sulphate on the clarity of the formulation.


Table 1 (continued).


* Given as added amount of Zn-salt:

5 % by weight of the Zn-salt corresponds to 1.1 % by weight of Zn;

3 % by weight of the Zn-salt corresponds to 0.7 % by weight of Zn; and,

7 % by weight of the Zn-salt corresponds to 1.6 % by weight of Zn.

From these experiments it was discovered that a very narrow and bell-shaped concentration of

Oleth-20 produced clear solutions. Smaller variations in the concentration of zinc did not alter the solubility.

Example 2

In order to confirm the postulated increased skin permeability by the combination of the alpha hydroxy acid and methyl salicylate an objective measurement protocol was used. The meas- urements were performed with a DermaLab® Combo (Cortex Technology, Hadsund, Den-

mark). Measurement of skin color is based on an active color detecting chip where illumina tion is provided by white LEDs and the measure of erythema corresponds to the redness (he- moglobin) of the skin. The target area for measurement is 7 mm in diameter. A surrogate marker, 0.4% methyl nicotinate in ethanol, was used since it causes redness of the skin when it penetrates the skin. Increased redness means that a larger amount of methyl nicotinate has penetrated the skin and thus the uptake has increased. As uptake of the active inventive com plex of Zn ion, acid, and methyl salicylate cannot be measured in this way methyl nicotinate was used as surrogate marker. The formulations in Table 2 are thus not formulations of the invention.

Table 2 Penetration enhancement of methyl nicotinate induced by methyl salicylate.


The formulations in Table 2 were manufactured by mixing the components set forth in the upper part of table 2. The mixture was then heated on a water bath until a clear solution was obtained. The appearance of the different formulations was visually examined after one hour and after 1 month. The read-outs are included in the lower part of table 2.

The formulations 2A, 2B and 2C were evaluated on intact skin after topical administration of 2 uL of the different formulations shown in table 2. After 50 minutes 2 uL of methyl nico tinate (0.4%) was administrated on the same spot as the formulations 2A, 2B and 2C. The colour-redness (erythema) was measured at different points of time by DermaLab® Combo and the results are shown in the lower part of table 2. The increase in redness was largest for the formulation containing both methyl salicylate and Oleth-20, with a maximum difference 4.6 for formulation 2A, 3.1 for 2B and 2.8 for 2C.

It was concluded that a formulation comprising glycolic acid, methyl salicylate and Oleth-20 has advantages for the penetration of the skin compared to a formulation devoid of methyl salicylate and Oleth-20.

Example 3

The formulations in Example 3 were manufactured by mixing the components set forth in the upper part of table 3. The mixture was then heated on a water bath until a clear solution was obtained. The appearance of the different formulations was visually examined after one hour. The read-outs are included in the lower part of table 3. Formulations 3B, 3D, and 3E are only comparative. Only 3C is inventive.

Table 3. The influence of each component on the degree of erythema.


5 % by weight of the Zn-salt corresponds to 1.1 % by weight of Zn.

The formulations 3B, 3C, 3D and 3E were evaluated by an occlusion study on intact skin where 40 pL of the formulations was added to patches (Finn-chambers) and then attached to the underarm for 6 hours. The effect on skin was evaluated visibly directly after removal of the patches (after 2 minutes) and after 48 hours according to a five grade scale where (-) means no visible effect on skin, (+) indicate a minor visible effect on skin and (++++) a major mark on the skin. The results are displayed in the lower part of Table 3.

The measurements of erythema and TransEpidermal Water Loss (TEWL) were performed with a DermaLab® Combo (Cortex Technology, Hadsund, Denmark). Measurement of skin color is based on an active color detecting chip where illumination is provided by white LEDs and the measure of erythema corresponds to the redness (hemoglobin). TEWL is a measure of skin barrier function to water and is made with an open-chamber with two combined humidi-ty/temperature sensors mounted in a cylindrical diffusion chamber (10 mm in diameter). After application of the probe onto the skin, the TEWL value is recorded into the computer until equilibrium. This value is used for further calculations. Erythema and TEWL values for the different time points are reported in the Table 3.

It was concluded that the comparative mixture (3B) containing methyl salicylate and no gly-colic acid did not produce any effect on the read-outs, and the comparative formulation (3D) containing glycolic acid and no methyl salicylate caused only a minor effect. Surprisingly it was found that the inventive mixture (3C) containing zinc sulphate, glycolic acid, and methyl salicylate produced much less visible and measured effect as compared to the comparative mixture (3E) devoid of zinc sulphate. The results indicate that the inventive formulation con-taining methyl salicylate and glycolic acid has advantages for the penetration of the skin of zinc ions, thus producing a milder formulation than compared to a formulation devoid of zinc. The inventive formulation 3C was astonishingly discovered to be a new mild and effective treatment of warts.

Example 4A - effect on warts:

The invention has been proved to be effective with disappearing warts without any reported side effects.

Individuals having warts, on the feet, toes, and/or hands were treated successfully with com-position 5B. The treatment until removal of the wart(s) varied from a few days to 4 weeks Older deeper warts generally required a longer period of treatment, while new warts disap peared merely after a shorter treatment.

Example 4B - effect on onychomycosis:

Woman (59 y) - long standing yellowing and thickening of the nails on the foot. Several treatment-failures with established medicinal products against nail fungus. Within two months of treatment with the inventive formulation 5B successful improvement with normal appear ing nail and non- infected nail bed was achieved.

Example 5

The formulations in example 5 were manufactured by mixing the components in table 5. The mixture was then heated on a water bath until a clear solution was obtained. The appearance of the different formulations was visually examined after one hour. The read-outs are included in the table 5.

Table 5. The inventive mixture with zinc sulphate gives significantly less irritation compared to a mixture without zinc sulphate.


* Given as added amount of Zn-salt:

10 % by weight of the Zn-salt corresponds to 2.3 % by weight of Zn.

Inventive formulation 5B and comparative formulation 5D were evaluated by an occlusion study on intact skin (on two patients) where 40 pL of the formulations was added to patches (Finn-chambers) and then attached to the underarm for 8 hours. The effect on skin was evalu- ated visibly directly after removal of the patches (after 15 minutes) and after 48 hours accord-ing to a five-grade scale where (-) means no visible effect on skin, (+) indicate a minor visible effect on skin and (++++) a major mark on the skin. The results are displayed in the Table 5.

The measurements of erythema and TEWL were performed with a DermaLab® Combo as described above. Erythema and TEWL values for the different points of time are reported in the Table 5.

It was surprisingly discovered an unpredictably large difference in the measured and visible read-out between the inventive formulation 5B containing zinc sulphate, and the comparative formulation 5D devoid of a water soluble zinc salt, such as zinc sulphate.

The surprising effect of the zinc ions can be seen from 3C vs. 3E, and 5B vs. 5D, respectively. It can also be seen that the higher percentage of zinc, 2.3 %, used in Example 5 produced a larger effect than the lower concentration of 1.1 % used in Example 3.