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1. WO2019195417 - PROGRAMMABLE SOFT MATERIALS CONTAINING FERROMAGNETIC DOMAINS AND METHODS OF MAKING

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[ EN ]

CLAIMS

What is claimed is:

1. A transformable material comprising:

an elastomeric material;

ferromagnetic particles dispersed within the elastomeric material to provide an elastomeric-ferromagnetic composite material;

the elastomeric-ferromagnetic composite material having an initial shape; and the ferromagnetic particles being provided within the initial shape in a predetermined magnetization pattern;

wherein the transformable material changes shape from the initial shape into a predetermined transformed shape different than the initial shape upon application of a magnetic field, and

wherein the predetermined transformed shape depends upon the predetermined magnetization pattern.

2. The transformable material of claim 1, wherein the elastomeric-ferromagnetic composite material is a printable ink.

3. The transformable material of claim 1, wherein the elastomeric-ferromagnetic composite material is an elastomeric matrix material including a ferromagnetic material and one or more of a filler, a catalyst, and a crosslinker.

4. The transformable material of claim 1, wherein the elastomeric material includes Silicone (Polydimethylsiloxane) rubber, Polyurethane (PU) rubber, Styrene Ethylene Butylene Styrene (SEBS) rubber, Polyacrylate rubber, and Polycaprolactone (PCL).

5. The transformable material of claim 1, wherein the elastomeric material has a glass transition temperature lower than an operating temperature.

6. The transformable material of claim 1, wherein the elastomeric material has a Young’s modulus below 10 MPa.

7. The transformable material of claim 1, wherein the elastomeric material is a hydrogel.

8. The transformable material of claim 8, wherein the hydrogel includes one or more of alginate, pectin, and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA).

9. The transformable material of claim 1, wherein the ferromagnetic particles include an epoxy coating.

10. The transformable material of claim 1, wherein the ferromagnetic particles are corrosion-resistant.

11. The transformable material of claim 1, wherein the ferromagnetic particles include iron, cobalt, nickel, an alloy of one or more of iron, cobalt, and nickel, Neodymium-Iron-Boron (NdFeB), Samarium-Cobalt (SmCo), Aluminum -Nickel-Cobalt (AlNiCo), Barium -Iron Oxide (BaFeO), and Iron Oxide (FeO).

12. The transformable material of claim 1, wherein the elastomeric material includes a rheological modifier, the rheological modifier being one or more of fumed silica nanoparticles, graphene, nanoclay, and cellulose nanofibrils.

13. A method of transforming a surface, the method comprising:

forming an elastomeric-ferromagnetic composite material by dispersing one or more ferromagnetic particles within an elastomeric material;

printing of the elastomeric-ferromagnetic composite material into an initial shape of a surface;

applying a magnetic field to the elastomeric-ferromagnetic composite material during printing to provide the one or more ferromagnetic particles in a predetermined magnetization pattern within the initial shape;

curing the printed elastomeric-ferromagnetic composite material in the initial shape; and applying a magnetic field to the cured printed elastomeric-ferromagnetic composite material to transform the initial shape to a predetermined shape of the surface, the predetermined shape being different than the initial shape,

wherein the predetermined shape depends upon the predetermined magnetization pattern.

14. The method of claim 13, wherein the printing further includes direct ink printing and ferromagnetic 3D printing.

15. The method of claim 13, wherein the printing further includes a field-induced aligning of the one or more ferromagnetic particles.

16. The method of claim 13, wherein the applying the magnetic field further includes

applying at least one of the magnetic field of an electromagnet and the magnetic field of a permanent magnet.

17. The method of claim 13, wherein the applying the magnetic field further includes

generating a torque on the one or more ferromagnetic particles.

18. The method of claim 13, wherein the printing further includes magnetic shielding a

portion of a deposited ink.

19. The method of claim 13, wherein the method further includes programming a

ferromagnetic domain in the elastomeric-ferromagnetic composite material by selecting one or more magnetization profiles.

0. The method of claim 13, wherein the printing further includes applying a support ink to the surface.

21. The method of claim 20, wherein the applying the support ink further includes removing the support ink after curing the printed surface.