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1. (WO2019063108) SYSTEM FOR NON-TERRESTRIAL COMMUNICATIONS
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Claims

A user equipment (22) of a system, the system comprising a gateway (30), a non-terrestrial node (10), a terrestrial node (40) and at least a user equipment (22) as well as a HARQ controller, wherein the gateway (30) is configured to forward a data packet, said data packet to be transmitted to the user equipment (22), to the non-terrestrial node (10), wherein the non-terrestrial node (10) is configured to forward the received data packet to the user equipment (22) using a signal, wherein the user equipment (22) is configured to analyze the received data packet with regard to a transmission error and/or to analyze the signal from the non-terrestrial node (10) with regard to a signal quality and to generate a negative acknowledgment command or an acknowledgement command dependent on the transmission error or to generate another signal indicating the reception signal quality dependent on the reception signal quality , wherein the user equipment (22) is configured to transmit the acknowledgement command and the non-acknowledgement command or the other signal to the terrestrial node (40) which communicates with the non-terrestrial node (10), the user equipment (22) comprising a transceiver which comprises:

a non-terrestrial signal receiver configured to receive the data packet from the non-terrestrial node (10);

means for analyzing the signal quality of the data packet, said means are configured to generate the acknowledgement command in case of a sufficiently correct reception of the data packet or to generate the non-acknowledgement command in case of an incorrect reception of the data packet; and

a terrestrial signal transmitter configured to transmit the acknowledgement command or the non-acknowledgement command to the terrestrial node (40) in order to initiate using the non-acknowledgement command a retransmission of the data packet and/or a redundancy version of the data packet.

The user equipment (22) according to claim 1 , the transceiver of which comprises a terrestrial signal receiver, wherein the user equipment (22) receives the retransmitted data packet or the retransmitted redundancy version of the data packet using the terrestrial signal receiver.

The user equipment (22) according to claim 1 or 2, which is configured to receive the transmitted data packet or the retransmitted redundancy version of the data packet using the non-terrestrial signal receiver.

The user equipment (22) according to one of the previous claims, wherein the transceiver uses the terrestrial signal transmitter to transmit another data packet to be transmitted to the gateway (30).

A method for operating a user equipment (22) of a system, the system comprising a gateway (30), a non-terrestrial node (10), a terrestrial node (40) and at least a user equipment (22) as well as a HARQ controller, wherein the gateway (30) is configured to forward a data packet, said data packet to be transmitted to the user equipment (22), to the non-terrestrial node (10), wherein the non-terrestrial node (10) is configured to forward the received data packet to the user equipment (22) using a signal, wherein the user equipment (22) is configured to analyze the received data packet with regard to a transmission error and/or to analyze the signal from the non-terrestrial node (10) with regard to a signal quality and to generate a negative acknowledgment command or an acknowledgement command dependent on the transmission error or to generate another signal indicating the reception signal quality dependent on the reception signal quality, wherein the user equipment (22) is configured to transmit the acknowledgement command and the non-acknowledgement command or the other signal to the terrestrial node (40) which communicates with the non-terrestrial node (10), the method comprising the following steps:

receiving a data packet using a non-terrestrial signal receiver;

analyzing the signal quality of the data packet and generating the acknowledgment command in case of a sufficiently correct reception of the data packet or generating a non-acknowledgement command in case of an incorrect reception of the data packet; and

transmitting the acknowledgment command or the non-acknowledgment command to the terrestrial node (40) using a terrestrial signal transmitter in order to initiate using the non-acknowledgment command a retransmission of the data packet or a retransmission of a redundancy version of the data packet.

6. A terrestrial node (40) of a system, the system comprising a gateway (30), a non- terrestrial node (10), a terrestrial node (40) and at least a user equipment (22) as well as a HARQ controller, wherein the gateway (30) is configured to forward a data packet, said data packet to be transmitted to the user equipment (22), to the non-terrestrial node (10), wherein the non-terrestrial node (10) is configured to forward the received data packet to the user equipment (22) using a signal, wherein the user equipment (22) is configured to analyze the received data packet with regard to a transmission error and/or to analyze the signal from the non-terrestrial node (10) with regard to a signal quality and to generate a negative acknowledgment command or an acknowledgement command dependent on the transmission error or to generate another signal indicating the reception signal quality dependent on the reception signal quality, wherein the user equipment (22) is configured to transmit the acknowledgement command and the non- acknowledgement command or the other signal to the terrestrial node (40) which communicates with the non-terrestrial node (10), the terrestrial node (40), the terrestrial node (40) comprising:

a non-terrestrial signal receiver configured to receive the data packet or a redundancy version of the data packet from the non-terrestrial node (10);

a memory configured to buffer the data packet or the redundancy version of the data packet;

a terrestrial signal receiver configured to receive the acknowledgement command or the non-acknowledgement command from the user equipment (22); and

a terrestrial signal transmitter configured to retransmit the data packet or a redundancy version of the data packet to the user equipment (22) as response to the non-acknowledgment command.

The terrestrial node (40) according to claim 6, wherein the terrestrial node (40) is configured to forward another data packet received from the user equipment (22) to the non-terrestrial node (10).

The terrestrial node (40) according to claim 6 or 7, wherein the terrestrial node (40) is configured to listen to signal from the non-terrestrial node (10) in order to receive the data packet sent to the user equipment (22).

The terrestrial node (40) according to one of claims 6-8, wherein the HARQ controller is integrated into the terrestrial node (40) and configured to decode the acknowledgement command and the non-acknowledgment command and to control the retransmission.

The method according to one of claims 6-9, wherein the terrestrial node (40) is configured to forward the acknowledgement command and/or the non-acknowledgement command to the gateway (30) via the satellite (10).

The terrestrial node (40) according to one of the claims 8-10, wherein the terrestrial node (40) comprises a decoder which is configured to decode the data packet in order to generate at least one redundancy version of the data packet.

The terrestrial node (40) according to claim 1 1 , wherein the decoder performs the decoding and generating the redundancy versions for each data packet received by the satellite signal receiver independent on a request.

The terrestrial node (40) according to claim 1 1 or 12, wherein the decoder is configured to decode and generate data packets on request.

The terrestrial node (40) according to claim 1 1 , 12 or 13, wherein the decoder is configured to receive an information from the user equipment (22) regarding the reception signal quality and to suppress the decoding and generating, when the reception signal quality is marked as idle or when non .

The terrestrial node (40) according to one of claims 1 1 -14, wherein the decoder is configured to decode the data packet, when the user equipment (22) is associated with the terrestrial node (40), and to suppress the decoding, in case the user equipment (22) is not associated with the terrestrial node (40).

The terrestrial node (40) according to one of the claims 6-15, wherein the terrestrial node (40) is configured to receive the data packet or a redundancy version of the data packet via a separate channel from the non-terrestrial node (10).

A method for operating a terrestrial node (40) a system, the system comprising a gateway (30), a non-terrestrial node (10), a terrestrial node (40) and at least a user equipment (22) as well as a HARQ controller, wherein the gateway (30) is configured to forward a data packet, said data packet to be transmitted to the user equipment (22), to the non-terrestrial node (10), wherein the non-terrestrial node (10) is configured to forward the received data packet to the user equipment (22) using a signal, wherein the user equipment (22) is configured to analyze the received data packet with regard to a transmission error and/or to analyze the signal from the non-terrestrial node (10) with regard to a signal quality and to generate a negative acknowledgment command or an acknowledgement command dependent on the transmission error or to generate another signal indicating the reception signal quality dependent on the reception signal quality, wherein the user equipment (22) is configured to transmit the acknowledgement command and the non-acknowledgement command or the other signal to the terrestrial node (40) which communicates with the non-terrestrial node (10), the method comprises the following steps:

receiving the data packet or a redundancy version of the data packet from the non-terrestrial node (10) using a non-terrestrial signal receiver;

buffering the data packet or the redundancy version of the data packet using a memory;

receiving the acknowledgment command and/or the non-acknowledgment command from the user equipment (22) using the terrestrial signal receiver; and

retransmitting the buffer data packet or the buffered redundancy version of the data packet to the user equipment (22) using a terrestrial transceiver as response to the non-acknowledgment command.

A satellite (10) of a system, the system comprising a gateway (30), a non-terrestrial node (10), a terrestrial node (40) and at least a user equipment (22) as well as a HARQ controller, wherein the gateway (30) is configured to forward a data packet, said data packet to be transmitted to the user equipment (22), to the non-terrestrial node (10), wherein the non-terrestrial node (10) is configured to forward the received data packet to the user equipment (22) using a signal, wherein the user equipment (22) is configured to analyze the received data packet with regard to a transmission error and/or to analyze the signal from the non-terrestrial node (10) with regard to a signal quality and to generate a negative acknowledgment command or an acknowledgement command dependent on the transmission error or to generate another signal indicating the reception signal quality dependent on the reception signal quality, wherein the user equipment (22) is configured to transmit the acknowledgement command and the non-acknowledgement command or the other signal to the terrestrial node (40) which communicates with the non-terrestrial node (10), the satellite (10) comprises a transceiver comprising:

one or more transmitters, wherein the one or more transmitters are configured to transmit the data packet to the user equipment (22) and to transmit the data packet or a redundancy version of the data packet to the terrestrial node (40).

19. The satellite (10) according to claim 18, wherein the one or more transmitters are configured to transmit the data packet or the redundancy version of the data packet to the terrestrial node (40) using dedicated wide band channel.

The satellite (10) according to claim 18 or 19, wherein the HARQ controller is integrated into the gateway (30) and controls the transmitter of the satellite (10), wherein the transmitter of the satellite (10) is controlled by the gateway (30) which assigns different resources for transmitting the data packet to the user equipment (22) and for transmitting the data packet or the redundancy version of the data packet to the terrestrial node (40).

The satellite (10) according to one of claims 18-20, wherein the transmitter of the satellite (10) is controlled by the gateway (30) which assigns different resources for transmitting the data packet to the user equipment (22) and for transmitting the data packet or the redundancy version of the data packet to the terrestrial node (40).

A method operating a satellite (10) of system, the system comprising a gateway (30), a non-terrestrial node (10), a terrestrial node (40) and at least a user equipment (22) as well as a HARQ controller, wherein the gateway (30) is configured to forward a data packet, said data packet to be transmitted to the user equipment (22), to the non-terrestrial node (10), wherein the non-terrestrial node (10) is configured to forward the received data packet to the user equipment (22) using a signal, wherein the user equipment (22) is configured to analyze the received data packet with regard to a transmission error and/or to analyze the signal from the non-terrestrial node (10) with regard to a signal quality and to generate a negative acknowledgment command or an acknowledgement command dependent on the transmission error or to generate another signal indicating the reception signal quality dependent on the reception signal quality, wherein the user equipment (22) is configured to transmit the acknowledgement command and the non-acknowledgement command or the other signal to the terrestrial node (40) which communicates with the non-terrestrial node (10), the method comprising the steps:

transmitting the data packet to the user equipment (22); and

transmitting the data packet or a redundancy version of the data packet to the terrestrial node (40).

A satellite (10) of a system, the system comprising a gateway (30), a non-terrestrial node (10), a terrestrial node (40) and at least a user equipment (22) as well as a HARQ controller, wherein the gateway (30) is configured to forward a data packet, said data packet to be transmitted to the user equipment (22), to the non-terrestrial node (10), wherein the non-terrestrial node (10) is configured to forward the received data packet to the user equipment (22) using a signal, wherein the user equipment (22) is configured to analyze the received data packet with regard to a transmission error and/or to analyze the signal from the non-terrestrial node (10) with regard to a signal quality and to generate a negative acknowledgment command or an acknowledgement command dependent on the transmission error or to generate another signal indicating the reception signal quality dependent on the reception signal quality, wherein the user equipment (22) is configured to transmit the acknowledgement command and the non-acknowledgement command or the other signal to the terrestrial node (40) which communicates with the non-terrestrial node (10),

the satellite (10) comprises a memory which is configured to buffer the data packet to be sent to the user equipment (22) and/or a redundancy version of the data packet.

The satellite (10) according to claim 23, wherein the satellite (10) is configured to forward the data packet or a redundancy version of the data packet to the terrestrial node (40) in order to buffer same at the terrestrial node (40).

The satellite (10) according to claim 24, wherein the forwarded redundancy versions of the data packet are different redundancy versions when compared to the redundancy versions buffered by the memory of the satellite (10).

The satellite (10) according to one of claims 23-25, wherein the HARQ controller is integrated into the gateway (30) and configured to control the buffering of the redundancy versions performed by the satellite (10) and/or the terrestrial node

(40).

27. A method for operating a satellite (10) or system, the system comprising a gateway (30), a non-terrestrial node (10), a terrestrial node (40) and at least a user equipment (22) as well as a HARQ controller, wherein the gateway (30) is configured to forward a data packet, said data packet to be transmitted to the user equipment (22), to the non-terrestrial node (10), wherein the non-terrestrial node (10) is configured to forward the received data packet to the user equipment (22) using a signal, wherein the user equipment (22) is configured to analyze the received data packet with regard to a transmission error and/or to analyze the signal from the non-terrestrial node (10) with regard to a signal quality and to generate a negative acknowledgment command or an acknowledgement command dependent on the transmission error or to generate another signal indicating the reception signal quality dependent on the reception signal quality, wherein the user equipment (22) is configured to transmit the acknowledgement command and the non-acknowledgement command or the other signal to the terrestrial node (40) which communicates with the non-terrestrial node (10), the method comprises the following steps:

buffering the data packet or a redundancy version of the data packet by a memory of the satellite (10); and/or

forwarding the data packet or the redundancy version of the data packet to a terrestrial node (40), such that the terrestrial node (40) buffers the data packet or the redundancy version of the data packet.

A HARQ controller of a system, the system comprising a gateway (30), a non-terrestrial node (10), a terrestrial node (40) and at least a user equipment (22) as well as a HARQ controller, wherein the gateway (30) is configured to forward a data packet, said data packet to be transmitted to the user equipment (22), to the non-terrestrial node (10), wherein the non-terrestrial node (10) is configured to forward the received data packet to the user equipment (22) using a signal, wherein the user equipment (22) is configured to analyze the received data packet with regard to a transmission error and/or to analyze the signal from the non-terrestrial node (10) with regard to a signal quality and to generate a negative acknowledgment command or an acknowledgement command dependent on the transmission error or to generate another signal indicating the reception signal quality dependent on the reception signal quality, wherein the user equipment (22) is configured to transmit the acknowledgement command and the non-acknowledgement command or the other signal to the terrestrial node (40) which communicates with the non-terrestrial node (10),

the HARQ controller is configured to control the buffering performed a memory of the satellite (10) and/or by a memory of the terrestrial node (40);

The HARQ controller according to claim 28, wherein the controller is configured to buffer the data packet and additional data packets or a redundancy version of the data packet and a redundancy version of the additional data packets up to a congestion level of the memory of the satellite (10) and/or of the memory of the terrestrial node (40).

The HARQ controller according to claim 29, wherein redundancy versions of the data packet and/or of the additional data packets are distributed alternatingly to the memories of the satellite (10) and the terrestrial node (40).

The HARQ controller according to claim 29 or 30, wherein the buffering is performed, such that the first redundancy versions are buffered by the memory of the terrestrial node (40), while the last redundancy versions are buffered the memory of the satellite (10).

A gateway (30) comprising a HARQ controller according to one of the claims 28-31 .

A method for operating a HARQ controller of a system, the system comprising a gateway (30), a non-terrestrial node (10), a terrestrial node (40) and at least a user equipment (22) as well as a HARQ controller, wherein the gateway (30) is configured to forward a data packet, said data packet to be transmitted to the user equipment (22), to the non-terrestrial node (10), wherein the non-terrestrial node (10) is configured to forward the received data packet to the user equipment (22) using a signal, wherein the user equipment (22) is configured to analyze the received data packet with regard to a transmission error and/or to analyze the signal from the non-terrestrial node (10) with regard to a signal quality and to generate a negative acknowledgment command or an acknowledgement command dependent on the transmission error or to generate another signal indicating the reception signal quality dependent on the reception signal quality, wherein the user equipment (22) is configured to transmit the acknowledgement command and the non-acknowledgement command or the other signal to the terrestrial node (40) which communicates with the non-terrestrial node (10), wherein the method comprises the steps:

buffering the data packet or a redundancy version of the data packet to a memory of the satellite (10); and/or

buffering the data packet or the redundancy version of the data packet to a memory of the terrestrial node (40).

A system, the system comprising a gateway (30), a non-terrestrial node (10), a terrestrial node (40) and at least a user equipment (22) as well as a HARQ controller, wherein the gateway (30) is configured to forward a data packet, said data packet to be transmitted to the user equipment (22), to the non-terrestrial node (10), wherein the non-terrestrial node (10) is configured to forward the received data packet to the user equipment (22) using a signal, wherein the user equipment (22) is configured to analyze the received data packet with regard to a transmission error and/or to analyze the signal from the non-terrestrial node (10) with regard to a signai quality and to generate a negative acknowledgment command or an acknowledgement command dependent on the transmission error or to generate another signal indicating the reception signal quality dependent on the reception signal quality, wherein the user equipment (22) is configured to transmit the acknowledgement command and the non-acknowledgement command or the other signal to the terrestrial node (40) which communicates with the non-terrestrial node (10).

A computer readable digital storage medium having stored there on a computer program having a program code for performing, when running on a computer a method of one of the claims 5, 17, 22, 27 and 33.

A terrestrial node (40) of a system, the system comprising a gateway (30), a non-terrestrial node (10), a terrestrial node (40) and at least a user equipment (22) as well as a HARQ controller, wherein the gateway (30) is configured to forward a data packet, said data packet to be transmitted to the user equipment (22), to the non-terrestrial node (10), wherein the non-terrestrial node (10) is configured to forward the received data packet to the user equipment (22) via a non-terrestrial channel, wherein the user equipment (22) is configured to analyze a channel quality of the non-terrestrial channel and to transmit an information regarding the channel quality of the non-terrestrial channel to the base station, the terrestrial node (40) comprising:

a non-terrestrial signal receiver configured to receive the data packet or a redundancy version of the data packet from the non-terrestrial node (10);

a memory configured to buffer the data packet or the redundancy version of the data packet;

a terrestrial signal receiver configured to receive the information regarding the channel quality of the non-terrestrial channel from the user equipment (22); and

a terrestrial signal transmitter configured to retransmit the data packet or a redundancy version of the data packet to the user equipment (22) as response to a channel quality of the non-terrestrial channel below a threshold.

A method for operating a terrestrial node (40) a system, the system comprising a gateway (30), a non-terrestrial node (10), a terrestrial node (40) and at least a user equipment (22) as well as a HARQ controller, wherein the gateway (30) is configured to forward a data packet, said data packet to be transmitted to the user equipment (22), to the non-terrestrial node (10), wherein the non-terrestrial node (10) is configured to forward the received data packet to the user equipment (22) via a non-terrestrial channel, wherein the user equipment (22) is configured to analyze a channel quality of the non-terrestrial channel and to transmit an information regarding the channel quality of the non-terrestrial channel to the base station, the method comprises the following steps:

receiving the data packet or a redundancy version of the data packet from the non-terrestrial node (10) using a non-terrestrial signal receiver;

buffering the data packet or the redundancy version of the data packet using a memory;

receiving the information regarding the channel quality of the non-terrestrial channel from the user equipment (22) using the terrestrial signal receiver; and

retransmitting the buffer data packet or the buffered redundancy version of the data packet to the user equipment (22) using a terrestrial transceiver as response to a channel quality of the non-terrestrial channel below a threshold.

A terrestrial node (40) of a system, the system comprising a gateway (30), a non-terrestrial node (10), a terrestrial node (40) and at least a user equipment (22) as well as a HARQ controller, wherein the gateway (30) is configured to forward a data packet, said data packet to be transmitted to the user equipment (22), to the non-terrestrial node (10), wherein the non-terrestrial node (10) is configured to forward the received data packet to the user equipment (22) using a signal, wherein the user equipment (22) is configured to analyze the received data packet with regard to a transmission error and/or to analyze the signal from the non-terrestrial node (10) with regard to a signal quality and to generate a negative acknowledgment command or an acknowledgement command dependent on the transmission error or to generate another signal indicating the reception signal quality dependent on the reception signal quality, wherein the user equipment (22) is configured to transmit the acknowledgement command and the non-acknowledgement command or the other signal to the terrestrial node (40) which communicates with the non-terrestrial node (10), the terrestrial node (40) comprising:

a terrestrial signal receiver configured to receive another data packet from the user equipment (22), the other data packet is to be transmitted to the gateway

(39);

means for analyzing the signal quality of the other data packet, said means are configured to generate an acknowledgement command in case of a sufficiently correct reception of the data packet or to generate an non-acknowledgement command in case of an incorrect reception of the data packet; and

a terrestrial signal transmitter configured to transmit the acknowledgement command or the non-acknowledgement command to the user equipment (22) in order to initiate using the non-acknowledgement command a retransmission of the other data packet and/or a redundancy version of the other data packet, wherein parallel resources are used for the retransmission.

39. The terrestrial node (40) according to claim 38 comprising a controller configured to choose or adapt the modulation and coding scheme in accordance to the communication requirements of the transmission between the user equipment (22) and the terrestrial node (40) and/or in accordance to the communication require- ments of the transmission between the terrestrial node (40) and the non-terrestrial node (10).

40. A method for operating a terrestrial node (40) a system, the system comprising a gateway (30), a non-terrestrial node (10), a terrestrial node (40) and at least a user equipment (22) as well as a HARQ controller, wherein the gateway (30) is configured to forward a data packet, said data packet to be transmitted to the user equipment (22), to the non-terrestrial node (10), wherein the non-terrestrial node (10) is configured to forward the received data packet to the user equipment (22) using a signal, wherein the user equipment (22) is configured to ana- lyze the received data packet with regard to a transmission error and/or to analyze the signal from the non-terrestrial node (10) with regard to a signal quality and to generate a negative acknowledgment command or an acknowledgement command dependent on the transmission error or to generate another signal indicating the reception signal quality dependent on the reception signal quality, wherein the user equipment (22) is configured to transmit the acknowledgement command and the non-acknowledgement command or the other signal to the

terrestrial node (40) which communicates with the non-terrestrial node (10), the method comprises the following steps:

receiving another data packet from the user equipment (22) using a non-terrestrial signal receiver, the other data packet is to be transmitted to the gateway (39);

analyzing the signal quality of the other data packet and generating an acknowledgement command in case of a sufficiently correct reception of the data packet or generating an non-acknowledgement command in case of an incorrect reception of the data packet; and

transmitting the acknowledgement command or the non-acknowledgement command to the user equipment (22) using a terrestrial signal transmitter to in order to initiate using the non-acknowledgement command a retransmission of the other data packet and/or a redundancy version of the other data packet, wherein parallel resources are used for the retransmission.

. The method according to claim 40 comprising choosing or adapting the modulation and coding scheme in accordance to the communication requirements of the transmission between the user equipment (22) and the terrestrial node (40) and/or in accordance to the communication requirements of the transmission between the terrestrial node (40) and the non-terrestrial node (10).

, A computer readable digital storage medium having stored there on a computer program having a program code for performing, when running on a computer a method of one of the claims 37 and 40 and 41.