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1. (WO2019046659) COMPOSITION FOR AND METHOD TO INCREASE SERUM ADIPONECTIN AND REDUCE BODY FAT
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COMPOSITION FOR AND METHOD TO INCREASE SERUM ADIPONECTIN AND

REDUCE BODY FAT

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION

The present application relies on the disclosures of and claims priority to and the benefit of the filing dates of U.S. Provisional Application No. 62/552,378, filed August 30, 2017. The disclosures of that application are hereby incorporated by reference herein in their entireties.

BACKGROUND

Field of the Invention:

[0001] The field of the invention relates to the use of a composition comprising a high specific blend of HPMC (Hydroxypropyl Methyl Cellulose) and an anti -inflammatory myristic fatty acid for use in increasing serum adiponectin and reducing the percentage of body fat. The composition of the present invention increases plasma levels of the hormone adiponectin, which is correlative to a decrease in obesity and/or excessive visceral body fat accumulation.

[0002] Specifically, the present invention is directed to compositions comprising HPMC and an anti-inflammatory, such as myristic acid, for the purpose of increasing plasm adiponectin and reducing the percentage of body fat.

Description of Related Art:

[0003] With the exception of the subject invention, measurements and methods to increase adiponectin by using treatments that increase its plasma levels are rare and have been shown to be ineffective. Current pharmacological fat loss treatment regimens generally have negative side effects and are either unable to increase adiponectin or they are ineffective at burning fat.

[0004] The following patents, published patent applications, and non-patent literature are incorporated herein by reference.

[0005] There have been patents issued covering HPMC to lower serum cholesterol levels, however those patents (e.g., U.S. Patent Nos. 5,585,366 and 5,721,221) do not provide treatments for increasing adiponectin. Other references include:

[0006] U.S. Patent No. 8,936,817 teaches a preparation for weight loss management.

[0007] WO 2002072149 Al teaches methods for reducing fat by administration of adiponectin.

[0008] U.S. Patent Publication No. 20120009165 teaches blood-adiponectin-concentration increase-accelerator and/or decrease-inhibitor thereof.

[0009] U.S. Patent No. 8,883, 138 teaches an adiponectin production accelerating composition.

[0010] U.S. Patent Publication No. 20090088462 teaches a pharmaceutical composition for enhancing adiponectin.

[0011] BioMed Research International published non-patent literature; New insight into adiponectin role in obesity and obesity-related. BioMed Research International Volume 2014, Article ID 658913, 14 pages; Ersilia Nigro, Olga Scudiero, Maria Ludovica Monaco, Alessia Palmieri, Gennaro Mazzarella, Ciro Costagliola, Andrea Bianco, and Aurora Daniele, published 7 July 2014.

[0012] University of Toronto Medical Journal published non-patent literature; Leptin and adiponectin: Examining their clinical significance in obesity. Joelle Tan, MBBS Candidate, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia William T. Gibson, MD, PhD, FRCPC, FCCMG, Associate Professor, Department of Medical Genetics, University of British Columbia, Senior Clinician Scientist, Child and Family Research Institute, Published in UTMJ, Volume 92, Number 2, March 2015.

[0013] Diabetes Journal published non-patent literature; Discrimination between obesity and insulin resistance in the relationship with adiponectin, Fahim Abbasi, James W. Chu, Cindy Lamendola, Tracey McLaughlin, John Hayden, Gerald M. Reaven, Peter D. Reaven, published in Diabetes, Volume. 53, March 2004.

[0014] Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders published non-patent literature;

Adiponectin and energy homeostasis, Bonggi Lee and Jianhua Shao, Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, published in final edited form as: Rev. Endocr. Metab. Disord. 2014 June; 15(2): 149-156.

[0015] Adiponectin and energy homeostasis published non-patent literature; Adiponectin oligomers as potential indicators of adipose tissue improvement in obese subjects, Anna De Rosa, Maria Ludovica Monaco, Mario Capasso, Pietro Forestieri, Vincenzo Pilone, Carmela Nardelli, Pasqualina Buono and Aurora Daniele, published in European Journal of

Endocrinology (2013) 169 37-43.

[0016] The Journal of Biological Chemistry published non-patent literature; Structure-function studies of the adipocyte-secreted hormone Acrp30/adiponectin: Implications for metabolic regulation and bioactivity, Pajvani UB, Du X, Combs TP, Berg AH, Rajala MW, Schulthess T, Engel J, Brownlee M, Scherer PE., published in J. Biol. Chem. 2003 Mar 14; 278(11): 9073-85.

[0017] The European Journal of Clinical Nutrition Factors published non-patent literature;

Factors determining the risk of the metabolic syndrome: is there a central role for adiponectin? Calton EK, Miller VS, Soares MJ, published in Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 2013 May; 67(5): 485-91.

[0018] Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism published non-patent literature; Molecular analysis of the adiponectin gene in severely obese patients from Southern Italy, A. Daniele, R.

Cammarata, F. Pasanisi, C. Finelli, G. Salvatori, G. Calcagno, R. Bracale, G. Labruna, C.

Nardelli, P. Buono, L. Sacchetti, F. Contaldo, G. Oriani, published in Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, November 2008.

[0019] International Journal of Hypertension published non-patent literature; Chronic kidney disease, obesity and hypertension: the role of leptin and adiponectin, M. Tesauro, A. Mascali, O. Franzese, S. Cipriani, C. Cardillo, and N. Di Daniele, published in International Journal of Hypertension Volume 2012.

SUMMARY

[0020] The objective of the present invention is to provide patients with an increase in adiponectin and a decrease in percentage of body fat. In a preferred embodiment, the invention is a product that can be safely, effectively, and easily taken on a daily basis.

[0021] Embodiments of compositions and methods described herein to provide patients with an increase in adiponectin and/or a decrease in percentage of body fat, body mass, waist circumference, and other indicators of successful treatment and prevention of obesity.

[0022] One embodiment of the composition is a product that can be safely, effectively, and easily taken on a daily basis.

[0023] The prevalence of obesity and accumulation of visceral fat has reached alarming rates in the United States and abroad. The Center for Disease Control reported that 66% of adults in the United States for the period 2003 to 2004 were overweight or obese. The trends are moving in an unfortunate direction, with adults who are overweight and obese increasing to 71% for the period 2013 to 2014. The primary concerns regarding excess body fat accumulation and obesity are the increased risks in a number of comorbidities, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease.

[0024] There is great interest and importance in reducing adiposity in overweight and obese individuals. Plasma adiponectin is correlative to obesity and the accumulation of visceral fat. The present invention increases adiponectin through a highly tolerable method. Additionally, this application teaches and includes clinical evidence that the claimed composition and method increase adiponectin and correlatively decrease the percentage of body fat.

[0025] In one embodiment of the present invention, a method is provided whereby a composition including HPMC and/or an anti-inflammatory, such as a myristic fatty acid, is used to increase blood levels of adiponectin. An increase in adiponectin has been correlated to the improvement of energy metabolism, obesity and excessive stored fat related diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, inflammatory related diseases, hypertension, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and several types of cancer.

[0026] In another embodiment of the present invention, a method is provided whereby a composition including HPMC and/or an anti -inflammatory, such as a myristic fatty acid, is used to reduce an animal's, including a human's, percentage of body fat.

[0027] In a double-blind placebo controlled randomized university clinical trial, embodiments of the present invention showed significant efficacy in the area of waist circumference reduction, percentage of body fat reduction, and weight loss. The invention comprises a food grade ingredient that is generally recognized as safe (GRAS). Myristic acid is also safe. The clinical study also reported anthropometric efficacy responses which were superior to other treatments.

[0028] Aspect 1 is a method of increasing the level of adiponectin in the plasma or bloodstream, comprising administering a daily dose to a patient of a composition comprising HPMC and myristic fatty acid.

[0029] Aspect 2 is a method of Aspect 1, wherein the method reduces the percentage of body fat.

[0030] Aspect 3 is a method of Aspect 1 whereby the daily dose of HPMC and myristic fatty acid is administered for a period of time from 4 weeks to 8 weeks.

[0031] Aspect 4 is a method of Aspect 1 whereby the daily dose of HPMC and myristic fatty acid is administered for a period of time from 4 weeks to 8 weeks, whereby said daily dose comprises about 0.50 to about 10.00 grams.

[0032] Aspect 5 is a method of Aspect 1, whereby the method increases the level of adiponectin in the plasma or bloodstream by around 40 to 60 percent after around 4 weeks of treatment.

[0033] Aspect 6 is a method of Aspect 1, whereby the method increases the level of adiponectin in the plasma or bloodstream by around 100 to 125 percent after around 8 weeks of treatment.

[0034] Aspect 7 is a method of Aspect 1, whereby a formulation of the composition has a minimum viscosity of about 25,000 cps.

[0035] Aspect 8 is a method of Aspect 1, whereby the composition is consumed with a drink, shake, or mixed with any other food.

[0036] Aspect 9 is a method of Aspect 1, whereby the method reduces the percentage of body fat by around 1 to 10 percent after 4 weeks of treatment.

[0037] Aspect 10 is a method of Aspect 1, whereby the method reduces the percentage of body fat by around 10 to 20 percent after 8 weeks of treatment.

[0038] Aspect 11 is a composition for increasing the level of adiponectin in the plasma or bloodstream comprising HPMC and myristic fatty acid.

[0039] Aspect 12 is a composition of Aspect 11, whereby the percentage of HPMC in the composition is around 98% and the myristic fatty acid in the composition is around 2%.

[0040] Aspect 13 is a composition of Aspect 11, whereby the HPMC comprises a tri blended formula comprising K15, K100, and K200.

[0041] Aspect 14 is the tri blended formula of Aspect 13 comprising around 55% K15, 30% K100, and 15% K200.

[0042] Aspect 15 is a composition of Aspect 11, whereby the composition is administered in powder form.

[0043] Aspect 16 is a composition of Aspect 11, whereby the composition is administered in powder form mixed in foodstuff or beverages.

[0044] Aspect 17 is a composition of Aspect 11, whereby the composition is administered in capsule form.

[0045] Aspect 18 is a composition of Aspect 11, whereby the composition is administered in tablet form.

[0046] Aspect 19 is the tri blended formula of Aspect 13 comprising around 40% K15, 50% K100, and 10% K200.

[0047] Aspect 20 is the tri blended formula of Aspect 13 whereby the HPMC level is equal to or greater than the average viscosity level of around 25,000 cps.

[0048] Aspect 21 is the tri blended formula of Aspect 13 whereby the HPMC level is equal to or less than the average viscosity level of around 75,000 cps.

[0049] Aspect 22 is the tri blended formula of Aspect 13 whereby the HPMC level of K15 is around 15,000 cps.

[0050] Aspect 23 is the tri blended formula of Aspect 13 whereby the HPMC level of K100 is around 100,000 cps.

[0051] Aspect 24 is the tri blended formula of Aspect 13 whereby the HPMC level of K200 is around 200,000 cps.

[0052] Aspect 25 is the tri blended formula of Aspect 13 that is formulated for timed release in the digestive tract of a human or animal.

[0053] Aspect 26 is the tri blended formula of Aspect 25 whereby K15 is released more rapidly than K200.

[0054] Aspect 27 is a composition of Aspect 11, whereby the weight percentage of HPMC in the composition is about 98 weight percent and the weight percent of myristic fatty acid in the composition is around 2 weight percent.

[0055] Aspect 28 is the tri blended formula of Aspect 13 in an oral composition containing about 55 weight percent K15, about 30 weight percent K100, and about 15 weight percent K200.

[0056] Aspect 29 is the tri blended formula of Aspect 13 comprising about 40 weight percent K15, about 50 weight percent K100, and about 10 weight percent K200.

[0057] Aspect 30 is the tri blended formula of Aspect 13 wherein the formula contains about 30 to about 60 weight percent K15.

[0058] Aspect 31 is the tri blended formula of Aspect 13 wherein the formula contains about 20 to about 60 weight percent K100.

[0059] Aspect 32 is the tri blended formula of Aspect 13 wherein the formula contains about 5 to about 25 weight percent K200.

[0060] Aspect 33 is the tri blended formula of Aspect 13 comprising around 50% K15, 40% K100, and 10% K200.

[0061] Aspect 34 is the tri blended formula of Aspect 13 comprising around 49% K15, 39.2% K100, and 9.8% K200.

[0062] Aspect 35 is the tri blended formula of Aspect 13 whereby the HPMC level of K15 is around 10,000 to 20,000 cps.

[0063] Aspect 36 is the tri blended formula of Aspect 13 whereby the HPMC level of K100 is around 75,000 to 125,000 cps.

[0064] Aspect 37 is the tri blended formula of Aspect 13 whereby the HPMC level of K200 is around 150,000 to 250,000 cps.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0065] The present invention has been described with reference to particular embodiments having various features. It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that various modifications and variations can be made in the practice of the present invention without departing from the scope or spirit of the invention. One skilled in the art will recognize that these features may be used singularly or in any combination based on the requirements and specifications of a given application or design. Embodiments comprising various features may also consist of or consist essentially of those various features. Other embodiments of the invention will be apparent to those skilled in the art from consideration of the specification and practice of the invention. The description of the invention provided is merely exemplary or explanatory in nature and, thus, variations that do not depart from the essence of the invention are intended to be within the scope of the invention.

[0066] Before explaining at least one embodiment of the invention in detail, it is to be understood that the invention is not limited in its application to the details of construction and the arrangement of the components set forth in the following description or illustrated in the drawings. The invention is capable of other embodiments or of being practiced or carried out in various ways. Also, it is to be understood that the phraseology and terminology employed herein is for the purpose of description and should not be regarded as limiting.

[0067] Low serum adiponectin levels have been identified as a key factor involved in regulating visceral fat accumulation and obesity. In one preferred embodiment, the invention herein comprises a tri blend of high viscosity HPMC with the blend averaging in the range of about

25,000 cps, although the HPMC blend can range from around 5,000 cps to 75,000 cps, such as from 5,000 cps to 10,000 cps, 10,000 cps to 15,000 cps, and so on. The anti -inflammatory ingredient comprising myristic fatty acid, in a preferred embodiment, averages around 2% to 10% of the overall composition, but can range from 0.1 % to 10%, such as from 0.1% to 0.2%, from 0.2% to 0.3%, and so on.

[0068] A key attribute of the efficacy in terms of raising adiponectin with no or limited side effects was the dual challenge solved by the invention. Raising adiponectin has numerous positive and health protective qualities, including curbing obesity, reducing fat and fat accumulation, as well as alleviating inflammation, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

Therefore, inventing a therapeutic composition to safely raise adiponectin would be beneficial in terms of preservation or treatment of these and other obesity related conditions, but doing so safely and effectively in the way achieved by the present invention is not taught by the prior art.

[0069] The invention also provides a composition for effectively and safely reducing the percentage of body fat in animals, such as humans, and correspondingly increasing the plasma level of adiponectin by administering the composition over a minimum of, in one aspect, a 4- to 8-week period of time to both increase adiponectin and reduce the percentage of body fat. The period of administration may be administered at a minimum of from 1 week to 20 weeks, such as from 1 week to 2 weeks, 2 weeks to 3 weeks, and so on. In a preferred embodiment, the period of administration is at least 4 to 8 weeks. The period of administration may also be a few days, and the treatment may occur over the lifetime of a treated individual.

[0070] Experimental results of this non-pharmacological and highly tolerable approach, according to a clinically studied formula, show surprising and unexpected superiority over what is practiced by the prior art. One preferred formula reported clinical results of body fat reduction of around 11% with the percentage of body fat being reduced from 43.4% down to 36.1% in 8 weeks.

[0071] Prior to subjecting a preferred formula to clinical testing at the University of Connecticut there were multiple iterations of the formula. After developing numerous fiber related formulas which had limited impact on losing weight or reduction of waist circumference, a non-choleric fiber containing 15K HPMC was tested, which appeared to work for losing weight. The formula was advanced to 200K of HPMC in capsule form, and projecting this higher viscosity level had an impact on losing weight and fat more effectively. However, the 200K HPMC formula carried with it unacceptable side effects, including, but not limited to, stomach and intestinal cramping, constipation, and intestinal pain. A formula using HPMC providing for efficacy of fat loss, no side effects and, most importantly, substantively increasing adiponectin, was continually modified. The formulation of a tri blend was developed in which K15, K100, and K200 was used. The results of the tri blend HPMC formula seemed to work on a sample basis, eventually leading to a formula used to measure adiponectin levels in a university developed clinical study.

[0072] There were numerous ingredients used originally prior to the preferred formula being subjected to a randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled, university clinical study. The various formulas were blended and encapsulated and provided to approximately 4 network marketing companies for efficacy feedback to formulate the best formula to be used in a clinical trial.

[0073] Despite obtaining knowledge through the fine tuning and guidance of the invention, the ultimate level of significant efficacy results achieved in a clinical setting was surprising and unexpected to one of ordinary skill in the art.

[0074] Twenty-two women completed an 8-week placebo controlled, double-blind study. Results from the study are shown in Tables 1-4.

Table 1.

[0075] Significant decreases (P < 0.05) were observed for body weight.

Table 2.

[0076] The percentage of body fat reduction achieved significant results (P < 0.05).

Table 3.

[0077] Waist circumference showed a significantly greater (P < 0.05) reduction from baseline measurement.

Table 4.

[0078] Serum adiponectin levels were significantly increased (P < 0.05).

The objective of the invention is to increase adiponectin levels and to correspondingly reduce the percentage of stored body fat. It is known that the consumption of fibers, including dietary fiber, provides positive metabolic effects, such as reduction in glucose and insulin concentrations. The effects of various fibers on adiponectin, body composition, fuel utilization, and excessive fat accumulation had not been previously widely studied or known. A variety of fibers were included in an original rendition of possible formulas to accomplish the objective ultimately achieved by the current invention. Such fibers as glucomannan, beta glucan, gaur gum and concentrated carrot fiber were employed as trial-and-error encapsulated formulas for the objective of determining in a clinical study which formula would raise adiponectin and correlatively lower body fat. If a well-designed and university tested clinical study showed positive results in increasing adiponectin and reducing body fat, with no reported side effects, the invention could healthfully reduce the global pandemic of obesity and the increased risk of a number of comorbidities including hypertension, type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. However, it was unpredictable which combination of ingredients would be most effective and

safe. The invention claimed herein, after trying different combinations and variations based on the prior art, would not have been expected by one of ordinary skill in the art to be as effective and safe as it was, especially based on data known before such experimentation.

[0079] Upon the completion of the clinical study and obtaining the independent results, achievement of the two objectives was met:

1. The significant increase in plasma adiponectin; and

2. The significant reduction in the percentage of body fat.

[0080] The invention can be easily consumed from encapsulated products, tablets, and can be mixed into foods, shakes, flavored drink mixes, juices, yogurt, health bars, pastries, cereals, oatmeal, eggs and flavored water or soups.

[0081] The formulations produced for feedback prior to subjecting to a clinical study included, but were not limited to, the following formulas and percentage of respective compositions. Weight loss, speed of weight loss, and waist circumference were the three chosen and most critical feedback criteria.

Formula 1

Formula 2

Formula 5

Ingredient Percentage of Formula (w/w)

Carrot Powder 30%

HPMC (Blend K15 and K100) 60%

Myristic Acid 10%

Total 100%

Formula 6

Ingredient Percentage of Formula (w/w)

HPMC Tri blend (K15, K100, K200) 90%

Myristic Fatty Acid 10%

Total 100%

[0082] Based on the clinical testing and trial -and-error, the tri blend was chosen for its promising time dependent digestive response.

Clinically Tested Formula (Formula Selected)

Total 100%

[0083] Also, according to testing, a tri blend averaging a viscosity measurement of around 25,000 cps was ultimately chosen for the university clinical trial.

[0084] The precise tri blend HPMC formula which was used in the clinical study was reported to have no reported side effects and was tolerated by the subjects. The tri blend consisted of the following use of the HPMC blend.

[0085] Surprisingly, this formula used in the clinical study reported a substantive increase in adiponectin. The formula was shown to be a useful therapeutic approach against obesity and obesity related diseases.

[0086] The final formula included 2% of myristic acid for its anti-inflammatory properties. Inclusive of the tri blend of HPMC and the myristic acid - the clinically studied formula is represented below:

Tri Blend Formula

HPMC - K100 39.2%

HPMC - K200 9.8%

Myristic Acid 2.0%

Total 100%

[0087] The tri blend nomenclature represents three different forms of HPMC, each with a different viscosity. The final formula used included 2% of myristic acid. A formula or oral composition may comprise from about 1 to about 10 weight percent of myristic acid.

[0088] This same formula produced the most surprising results of a significant increase in adiponectin and its increase correlating near perfectly with - % of body fat, waist circumference and weight loss. Results demonstrated this invention is a novel and safe therapy for increasing adiponectin and the unique treatment of obesity, excess fat accumulation and obesity-related diseases.

[0089] During testing, the high viscosity form of HPMC (K200) caused painful side effects to such an extent that the project of using HPMC was nearly abandoned. The modification of HPMC usage and the development of the tri blend resolved side effect issues of painful stomach and intestinal cramping. It was the unique and synergistic attributes of the formula which were the cause of efficacy in terms of significantly increasing adiponectin and the fact that there were no side effects reported in the study. The efficacy results reported in the clinical trial were substantive and superior to the most optimistic results expected. The tri blend formula was novel in every respect - including use of any of the ingredients used to increase adiponectin.

[0090] Turning to the figures, Figure 1 graphically illustrates the correlative relationship between body mass and plasma adiponectin levels. The coefficient of determination (r2) being a strong and highly correlative number of .984.

Figure 1

30


0

76 78 80 82 84 86 88

Body Mass (k)

[0091] Figure 2 graphically illustrates the strong relationship between plasma adiponectin and the percentage of body fat; indicating that higher plasma adiponectin is directly correlative with lower body fat. The coefficient of determination (r2) was a near perfect .996.

Figure 2

30


0

35 37 39 41 43 45

Body Fat (%)

[0092] Figure 3 graphically illustrates the strong relationship between plasma adiponectin levels and the circumference of the waist. As illustrated, there is a strong negative correlative relationship between waist circumference and plasma level of adiponectin, indicating that as adiponectin increases the waist circumference decreases with the coefficient of determination (r2) being .979.

Figure 3

30


0

90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104

Waist Circumference (cm)

[0093] Regarding the University of Connecticut study specifically, the preferred formula which was subjected to clinical testing in a university setting was approved by the University's

Institutional Review Board (TRB), including blood collection and biochemical analysis. The serum adiponectin was determined using an enzyme immunoassay. The university certified that all applicable institutional and government regulations concerning the ethical use of human volunteers were followed.

[0094] The level of the strength of the correlative relationship between adiponectin and the other key variables as shown in Figures 1, 2, and 3 were unexpected. The surprisingly strong coefficient of determination (r2) is further evidence of the correlative properties with adiponectin and the other three variables.

[0095] The results of the data sets of a clinical study in which adiponectin and the three variables discussed all had a surprisingly high coefficient of determination (r2) which showed an exceptionally strong and highly predictive correlation with adiponectin.

[0096] The three variables determining body mass, percentage of body fat, and waist

circumference were measured as follows: 1) body mass was measured to the nearest 0.1 pound by using a calibrated clinical scale; 2) waist circumference was measured using a standard spring - loaded measuring tape; and 3) body composition, or percentage of body fat was obtained using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) using a total body scanner.

Example 1

[0097] The present invention has shown in a published clinical study (Eur. J. Appl. Physiol., 2009 Mar.; 105(5): 665-72, "Influences of a dietary supplement in combination with an exercise and diet regimen on adipocytokines and adiposity in women who are overweight") to be effective at decreasing body fat and raising plasma adiponectin concentrations. In one aspect, the invention may be taken in the form of an encapsuled product or may be consumed with any hot beverage, soup, or any liquid as stirred, shaken, or otherwise fully or partially dissolved. However, the invention may be administered by any acceptable means of administering a composition.

[0098] According to this study, the invention provides a method of significantly reducing body fat percentages and correlatively increasing plasma adiponectin levels in humans for a time of around 8 weeks to reduce the percentage of body fat and increase adiponectin plasma levels, although the time of administering the composition may be shorter or longer. With daily consumption of around 2.4 grams of the composition taught by the current invention, the percentage of body fat and the level of adiponectin in the blood generally change at around four weeks, and more so at eight weeks.

[0099] The invention, in one aspect, may be consumed daily on an indefinite basis as the invention is safe and well tolerated. The invention is preferably mixed in any liquid, such as shake or food form, including food (e.g., oatmeal) or a beverage.

Example 2

[0100] A clinical study was conducted at the University of Connecticut measuring the influence the invention had on plasma adiponectin levels and percentage of body fat. The subjects completed an 8-week placebo controlled, double blind study. Percentage of body fat and serum adiponectin amongst other factors were assessed at pre-, mid-, and post-intervention. Significant decreases were observed for percentage of body fat and body weight. Significant increases occurred in serum adiponectin levels over the mid- and post-intervention.

[0101] Response of serum adiponectin and body fat percentage

Week O Week 4 Week 8

Adiponectin Plasma 12.2 18.2 26.3

Levels

Body Fat (%) 43.4 39.9 36.1

Example 3

[0102] There is a direct and inverse relationship between the increase of plasma adiponectin and the decrease in the percentage of body fat in week 4; with these trends continuing through week 8.

[0103] The reduction of body mass is correlated with the increase in plasma adiponectin.

[0104] Response of serum adiponectin and body mass

Waist 101.9 96.5 92.1

Circumference

(cm)

[0106] The decrease in waist circumference is correlated with the increase in plasma

adiponectin. The trend in the reduction in waist circumference in week 4 continued through week 8.

Example 5

[0107] Response of serum adiponectin and hip measurement

[0108] There is a correlation in the decrease in hip measurement and the increase in adiponectin. The trend in the reduction in hip measurement in week 4 continued through week 8.

[0109] One skilled in the art will recognize that the disclosed features may be used singularly, in any combination, or omitted based on the requirements and specifications of a given application or design. When an embodiment refers to "comprising" certain features, it is to be understood that the embodiments can alternatively "consist of or "consist essentially of any one or more of the features. Other embodiments of the invention will be apparent to those skilled in the art from consideration of the specification and practice of the invention.

[0110] It is noted in particular that where a range of values is provided in this specification, each value between the upper and lower limits of that range is also specifically disclosed. The upper and lower limits of these smaller ranges may independently be included or excluded in the range as well. The singular forms "a," "an," and "the" include plural referents unless the context clearly dictates otherwise. It is intended that the specification and examples be considered as exemplary or explanatory in nature and that variations that do not depart from the essence of the invention fall within the scope of the invention. Further, all of the references cited in this disclosure are each individually incorporated by reference herein in their entireties and as such are intended to provide an efficient way of supplementing the enabling disclosure of this invention as well as provide background detailing the level of ordinary skill in the art.