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1. (WO2019033104) METAL-ORGANIC FRAMEWORKS AS ION-TO-ELECTRON TRANSDUCERS AND DETECTORS
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WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:

1. A method of detecting an ion in a sample, said method comprising:

associating the sample with an ion-selective electrode comprising a metal-organic framework and an electrode surface,

wherein the metal-organic framework comprises one or more metals and one or more ligands coordinated with the one or more metals,

wherein the metal-organic framework is associated with the electrode surface in a manner that forms an interface between the metal-organic framework and the electrode surface,

and wherein the metal-organic framework mediates ion-to-electron transduction through the interface;

detecting the presence or absence of the ion in the sample,

wherein the detecting comprises detecting a change in potential of the ion- selective electrode, and correlating the change in the potential to the presence or absence of the ion.

2. The method of claim 1, wherein the metal-organic framework serves as an ion membrane for capturing ions.

3. The method of claim 1, wherein the metal organic framework simultaneously mediates ion sensing and ion-to-electron transduction through the interface.

4. The method of claim 1, wherein the metal-organic framework simultaneously serves as an ion recognition sensor, an ion-to-electron transducer, and an electrode.

5. The method of claim 1, wherein the metal-organic framework is in the form of a two-dimensional conductive network, and wherein the metal-organic framework is in crystalline form.

6. The method of claim 1, wherein the metal-organic framework is in the form of a layer, a powder, a compressed powder, a pellet, a pencil-lead, a free-standing film, a substrate-supported film, or combinations thereof.

7. The method of claim 1, wherein the one or more metals are selected from the group consisting of divalent metals, transition metals, iron, nickel, copper, cobalt, zinc, manganese, platinum, palladium, gold, bismuth, chromium, magnesium, tin, and combinations thereof.

8. The method of claim 1, wherein the one or more ligands are selected from the group consisting of organic ligands, hexatopic ligands, polydentate functional groups, aromatic ligands, phthalocyanine-based ligands, metallophthalocyaline-based ligands, naphthalocyanine-based ligands, tridentate ligands, triphenylene-based ligands, triphenylene derivatives, hexahydroxytriphenylene -based organic linkers, hexaiminotriphenlyene-based organic linkers, thiol-based ligands, and combinations thereof.

9. The method of claim 1, wherein the one or more ligands comprise triphenylene-based ligands selected from the group consisting of 2,3,5,6, 10,11 -hexahydroxytriphenylene (HHTP),

2,3,5,6, 10,11-hexaiminotriphenylene (HITP), 2,3,5,6, 10,11-hexathiotriphenylene (HTTP), and combinations thereof.

10. The method of claim 1, wherein the metal-organic framework is selected from the group consisting of Co3HTTP2, Ni3HTTP2, Cu3HTTP2, Co3HHTP2, Ni3HHTP2, Cu3HHTP2, and combinations thereof.

11. The method of claim 1, wherein the ion is selected from the group consisting of anions, cations and combinations thereof.

12. The method of claim 1, wherein the ion comprises a cation, and wherein the cation is selected from the group consisting of Ca2+, Co2+, Mg2+, Zn2+, Pb2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Na+, K+, NH4+, and combinations thereof.

13. The method of claim 1, wherein the ion comprises an anion, and wherein the anion is selected from the group consisting of CH3COO", N03", C104", CI", I", F, Br", S042", S2082", Cr207 ", and combinations thereof.

14. The method of claim 1, wherein the sample is in a gaseous form, a liquid form, a solid form, or combinations of such forms.

15. The method of claim 1, wherein the associating results in the reversible association of any ion in the sample with the metal-organic framework.

16. The method of claim 1, wherein the associating results in the selective association of a specific ion in the sample with the metal-organic framework.

17. The method of claim 1, wherein the metal-organic framework serves as the electrode surface.

18. The method of claim 1, wherein the electrode surface is in the form of a conductive substrate.

19. The method of claim 1, wherein the interface is hydrophobic.

20. The method of claim 1, wherein the change in the potential of the ion-selective electrode is detected by detecting a change in voltage of the ion-selective electrode over time.

21. The method of claim 1, wherein the change in the potential of the ion-selective electrode is correlated to the presence or absence of the ion by comparing the change in the potential to the change in potential of the ion- selective electrode in response to known ions.

22. The method of claim 1, wherein the change in the potential of the ion-selective electrode is correlated to the presence or absence of the ion by comparing the change in the potential to potentiometric slopes of known ions.

23. The method of claim 1, wherein the detecting comprises detecting the concentration of the ion.

24. The method of claim 1, further comprising an ion-selective membrane for capturing the ion.

25. The method of claim 24, wherein the ion-selective membrane is associated with a surface of the metal-organic framework, wherein the surface is opposite of a surface associated with the electrode surface.

26. An ion-selective electrode comprising:

a metal-organic framework and an electrode surface,

wherein the metal-organic framework comprises one or more metals and one or more ligands coordinated with the one or more metals,

wherein the metal-organic framework is associated with the electrode surface in a manner that forms an interface between the metal-organic framework and the electrode surface,

and wherein the metal-organic framework is capable of mediating ion-to-electron transduction through the interface.

27. The ion-selective electrode of claim 26, wherein the ion-selective electrode is selected from the group consisting of carbon electrodes, glassy carbon electrodes, gold electrodes, solid contact electrodes, and combinations thereof.

28. The ion-selective electrode of claim 26, wherein the metal-organic framework serves as the electrode surface.

29. The ion-selective electrode of claim 26, wherein the electrode surface is in the form of a conductive substrate.

30. The ion-selective electrode of claim 26, wherein the interface is hydrophobic.

31. The ion-selective electrode of claim 26, wherein the metal-organic framework serves as an ion membrane for capturing ions.

32. The ion-selective electrode of claim 26, wherein the metal organic framework

simultaneously mediates ion sensing and ion-to-electron transduction through the interface.

33. The ion-selective electrode of claim 26, wherein the metal-organic framework

simultaneously serves as an ion recognition sensor, an ion-to-electron transducer, and an electrode.

34. The ion-selective electrode of claim 26, wherein the metal-organic framework is in the form of a two-dimensional conductive network, and wherein the metal-organic framework is in crystalline form.

35. The ion-selective electrode of claim 26, wherein the metal-organic framework is in the form of a layer, a powder, a compressed powder, a pellet, a pencil-lead, a free-standing film, a substrate-supported film, or combinations thereof.

36. The ion-selective electrode of claim 26, wherein the one or more metals are selected from the group consisting of divalent metals, transition metals, iron, nickel, copper, cobalt, zinc, manganese, platinum, palladium, gold, bismuth, chromium, magnesium, tin, and combinations thereof.

37. The ion-selective electrode of claim 26, wherein the one or more ligands are selected from the group consisting of organic ligands, hexatopic ligands, polydentate functional groups, aromatic ligands, phthalocyanine-based ligands, metallophthalocyaline-based ligands, naphthalocyanine-based ligands, tridentate ligands, triphenylene-based ligands, triphenylene derivatives, hexahydroxy triphenylene-based organic linkers, hexaiminotriphenlyene-based organic linkers, thiol-based ligands, and combinations thereof.

38. The ion-selective electrode of claim 26, wherein the one or more ligands comprise triphenylene-based ligands selected from the group consisting of 2,3,5,6,10,11-hexahydroxytriphenylene (HHTP), 2,3,5,6, 10,11-hexaiminotriphenylene (HITP), 2,3,5,6,10,11-hexathiotriphenylene (HTTP), and combinations thereof.

39. The ion-selective electrode of claim 26, wherein the metal-organic framework is selected from the group consisting of Co3HTTP2, Ni3HTTP2, Cu3HTTP2, Co3HHTP2, Ni3HHTP2, Cu3HHTP2, and combinations thereof.

40. The ion-selective electrode of claim 26, wherein the ion-selective electrode further comprises a wiring and a potentiostat, wherein the wiring electrically connects the electrode surface to the potentiostat.

41. The ion-selective electrode of claim 36, wherein the ion-selective electrode further comprises an output display, wherein the output display is electrically connected to the potentiostat.

42. The ion-selective electrode of claim 26, further comprising an ion-selective membrane for capturing an ion.

43. The ion-selective electrode of claim 42, wherein the ion-selective membrane is associated with a surface of the metal-organic framework, wherein the surface is the surface opposite of the surface associated with the electrode surface.