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1. (WO2019032271) MULTI-LEVEL SIGNALING IN MEMORY WITH WIDE SYSTEM INTERFACE
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MULTI-LEVEL SIGNALING IN MEMORY WITH WIDE SYSTEM INTERFACE

CROSS REFERENCE

[0001] The present Application for Patent claims priority to U.S. Patent Application No. 15/584,600 by Hollis et al., entitled "Multi-Level Signaling in Memory with Wide System Interface," filed December 26, 2017, which claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 62/542,160 by Holiis et al., entitled "Multi-Level Signaling in Memory with Wide System Interface," filed August 7, 2017, each of which is expressly incorporated by reference herein.

BACKGROUND

[0002] The following relates generally to using multi-level signaling with a memory device and more specifically to multi-level signaling in a memory device that includes a wide system interface.

[0003] Memory devices are widely used to store information in various electronic devices such as computers, wireless communication devices, cameras, digital displays, and the like, Information is stored by programing different states of a memory device. For example, binary devices have two states, often denoted by a logic "1" or a logic "0." In other systems, more than two states may be stored. To access the stored information, a component of the electronic device may read, or sense, the stored state in the memory device. To store information, a component of the electronic device may write, or program, the state in the memory device.

[0004] Various types of memory devices exist, including magnetic hard disks, random access memory (RAM), read only memory (ROM), dynamic RAM (DRAM), synchronous dynamic RAM (SDRAM), ferroelectric RAM (FeRAM), magnetic RAM (MRAM), resistive RAM (RRAM), flash memory, phase change memory (PCM), and others. Memory devices may be volatile or non-volatile. Non-volatile memory, e.g., FeRAM, may maintain their stored logic state for extended periods of time even in the absence of an external power source. Volatile memory devices, e.g., DRAM, may lose their stored state over time unless they are periodically refreshed by an external power source, FeRAM may use similar device architectures as volatile memory but may have non-volatile properties due to the use of a ferroelectric capacitor as a storage device. FeRAM devices may thus have improved performance compared to other non-volatile and volatile memory devices.

[0005] Improving memory devices, generally, may include increasing memory cell density, increasing read/write speeds, increasing reliability, increasing data retention, reducing power consumption, or reducing manufacturing costs, among other metrics,

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0006] FIG 1 illustrates an example of a memory device that supports multi-level signaling in memory with wide system interface in accordance with embodiments of the present disclosure.

[0007] FIG. 2 illustrates an example of an eye diagram that supports multi-level signaling in memory with wide system interface in accordance with embodiments of the present disclosure.

[0008] FIG 3 illustrates an example of a transmission circuit that supports multi-level signaling in memory with wide system interface in accordance with embodiments of the present disclosure.

[0009] FIG. 4 illustrates an example of a receiver that supports multi-level signaling in memory with wide system interface in accordance with embodiments of the present disclosure.

[0010] FIG. 5 illustrates an example of a memory device that supports multi-level signaling in memory with wide system interface in accordance with embodiments of the present disclosure.

[0011] FIG. 6 shows a block diagram of a device that supports multi-level signaling in memory with wide system interface in accordance with embodiments of the present disclosure.

[0012] FIG. 7 illustrates a block diagram of a system including a memory controller that supports multi-level signaling in memory with wide system interface in accordance with embodiments of the present disclosure.

[0013] FIG. 8 illustrates a method for multi-level signaling in memory with wide system interface in accordance with embodiments of the present disclosure,

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0014] Some memory devices may use wide communication lanes between connected devices (e.g., an array of memory ceils and a processor) to communicate data (e.g., high-bandwidth memory (HBM)). In some cases, these wide communication lanes include a large number of resistive channels. Because each channel is resistive, as the frequency of data transferred increases, the power needed to transfer the data goes up in a non-linear fashion relative to the frequency. Such characteristics may impose a practical frequency ceiling that can be used to transmit data given an amount of transmit power over a resistive channel.

[0015] Techniques are provided herein to increase a rate of data transfer across a large number of channels in a memory device using multi-level signaling. Such multi-level signaling may be configured to increase a data transfer rate without increasing the frequency of data transfer and/or a transmit power of the communicated data. An example of multi-level signaling scheme may be pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) such as PAM4 or PAM8. Each unique symbol of the multi-level signal may be configured to represent a plurality of bits of data.

[0016] Features of the disclosure introduced above are further described below in the context of a memory device. Specific examples are then described for a memory device that supports multi-level signaling in memory with wide system interface. These and other features of the disclosure are further illustrated by and described with reference to apparatus diagrams, system diagrams, and flowcharts that relate to multi-level signaling,

[0017] FIG. 1 illustrates an example memory device 100 in accordance with various examples of the present disclosure. The memory device 100 may also be referred to as an electronic memory apparatus. The memory device 100 may be configured to utilize multilevel signaling to communicate data between various components of the memor' device 100. Some examples of the multi-level signaling may include PAM signaling such as PAM4 signaling, PAM8 signaling, etc. The memory device 100 may include an array of memor ceils 105, a controller 110, a plurality of channels 115, signaling interfaces 120, other components, or a combination thereof.

[0018] A memory device 100 may use muiti -level signaling to increase an amount of information transmitted using a given bandwidth of frequency resources. In binary signaling, two symbols of a signal (e.g., two voltages levels) are used to represent up to two logic states (e.g., logic state '0' or logic state ' Γ). In multi-level signaling, a larger library of symbols may be used to represent data. Each symbol may represent more than two logic states (e.g.,

logic states with multiple bits). For example, if the signal is capable of four unique symbols, the signal may be used to represent up to four logic states (e.g., ΌΟ', 'ΟΓ, ΊΟ', and Ί Γ). As a result, multiple bits of data may be compressed into a single symbol, thereby increasing the amount of data communicated using a given bandwidth.

[0019] In some cases of multi-level signaling, the amplitude of the signal may be used to generate the different symbols. For example, a first amplitude level may represent '00' , a second amplitude level may represent '01 ', a third amplitude level may represent ' 10', and a fourth amplitude level may represent ' 1 1 '. One drawback of some multi-level signaling schemes is that the symbols may be separated by a smaller voltage than symbols in a binary signaling scheme. The smaller voltage separation may make the multi-level signaling scheme more susceptible to errors caused by noise or other aspects. The voltage separation of symbols in the multi-level signaling scheme, however, may be expanded by increasing a peak-to-peak transmitted power of a transmitted signal. In some situations, however, such an increase to peak-to-peak transmitted power may not be possible or may be difficult due to fixed power supply voltages, fixed signal power requirements, or other factors. Consequently, to implement multi-level signaling a transmitter may utilize more power and/or a receiver may be susceptible to an increased error rate, when compared to a binar signaling scheme.

[0020] A multi-level signal (sometimes referred to as a multi-symbol signal) may be a signal that is modulated using a modulation scheme that includes three or more unique symbols to represent data (e.g., two or more bits of data). The multi-level signal may be an example of an M-ary signal that is modulated using a modulation scheme where M is greater than or equal to three, where M represents the number of unique symbols, levels, or conditions possible in the modulation scheme. A multi-level signal or a multi-level modulation scheme may be referred to as a non-binary signal or non-binary modulation scheme in some instances. Examples of multi-level (or M-ary) modulation schemes related to a multi-level signal may include, but are not limited to, pulse amplitude modulation (e.g., PAM4, PAM8), quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK), and/or others.

[0021] A binary-level signal (sometimes referred to as a binary-symbol signal) may be a signal that is modulated using a modulation scheme that includes two unique symbols to represent one bit of data. The binary -level signal may be an example of an M-ary modulation scheme where M is less than or equal to 2. Examples of binary-level modulation schemes

related to a binary-level signal include, but are not limited to, non -return -to-zero (NRZ), unipolar encoding, bipolar encoding, Manchester encoding, PAM2, and/or others.

[0022] Each memory cell of the array of memory cells 105 may be programmable to store different states. For example, each memory cell may be programmed to store two or more logic states (e.g., a logic Ό', a logic ' , a logic '00', a logic ΌΓ, a logic Ί Ο', a logic ' 1 Γ, etc.). A memor cell may store a charge representative of the programmable states in a capacitor; for example, a charged and uncharged capacitor may represent two logic states, respectively. The memory cells of the array of memory cells 105 may use any number of storage mediums including DRAM, FeRAM, PCM, or other types of memory cells. A DRAM memory cell may include a capacitor with a dielectric material as the insulating material. For example, the dielectric material may have linear or para-electric electric pol arization properties and a ferroelectric memory cell may include a capacitor with a ferroelectric material as the insulating material. In instances where the storage medium includes FeRAM, different levels of charge of a ferroelectric capacitor may represent different logic states.

[0023] The array of memory cells 105 may be or include a three-dimensional (3D) array, where multiple two-dimensional (2D) arrays or multiple memory cells are formed on top of one another. Such a configuration may increase the number of memory cells that may be formed on a single die or substrate as compared with 2D arrays. In turn, this may reduce production costs or increase the performance of the memory array, or both. Each level of the array may be aligned or positioned so that memory ceils may be approximately aligned with one another across each level, forming a memory cell stack.

[0024] In some examples, the array of memory cells 105 may include a memory ceil, a word line, a digit line, and a sense component. In some examples, the array of memory cells 105 may include a plate line (e.g., in the case of FeRAM). A memory cell of the array of memory cells 105 may include a selection component and a logic storage component, such as capacitor that includes a first plate, a cell plate, a second plate, and a cell bottom. The cell plate and cell bottom may be capacitively coupled through an insulating material (e.g., dielectric, ferroelectric, or PCM material) positioned between them.

[0025] The memory cell of the array of memory cells 105 may be accessed (e.g., during a read operation, write operation, or other operation) using various combinations of word lines, digit lines, and/or plate lines. In some cases, some memory cells may share access lines (e.g., digit lines, word lines, plate lines) with other memory cells. For example, a digit line may be shared with memory ceils in a same column, a word line may be shared with memory cells in a same row, and a plate line may be shared with memory cells in a same section, tile, deck, or multiple decks. As described above, various states may be stored by charging or discharging the capaci tor of the mem ory cell .

[0026] The stored state of the capacitor of the memory cell may be read or sensed by operating various elements. The capacitor may be in electronic communication with a digit line. The capacitor may be isolated from digit line when selection component is deactivated, and capacitor can be connected to digit line when selection component is activated (e.g., by the word line). Activating selection component may be referred to as selecting a memory cell. In some cases, the selection component may be a transistor and its operation may be controlled by applying a voltage to the transistor gate, where the voltage magnitude is greater than the threshold magnitude of the transistor. The word line may activate the selection component; for example, a voltage applied to a transistor gate of a word line may connect a capacitor of a memory cell with a digit line.

[0027] The change in voltage of a digit line may, in some examples, depend on its intrinsic capacitance. That is, as charge flows through the digit line, some finite charge may be stored in the digit line and the resulting voltage depends on the intrinsic capacitance. The intrinsic capacitance may depend on physical characteristics, including the dimensions, of the digit line. The digit line may connect many memory cells of the array of memory cells 105 so digit line may have a length that results in a non-negligible capacitance (e.g., on the order of picofarads (pF)). The resulting voltage of the digit line may then be compared to a reference voltage (e.g., a voltage of a reference line) by a sense component in order to determine the stored logic state in the memory cell. Other sensing processes may be used.

[0028] The sense component may include various transistors or amplifiers to detect and amplify a difference in signals, which may be referred to as latching. The sense component may include a sense amplifier that receives and compares the voltage of the digit line and a reference line, which may be a reference voltage. The sense amplifier output may be driven to the higher (e.g., a positive) or lower (e.g., negative or ground) supply voltage based on the comparison. For instance, if the digit line has a higher voltage than reference line, then the sense amplifier output may be driven to a positive supply voltage.

[0029] In some cases, the sense amplifier may drive the digit line to the supply voltage. The sense component may then latch the output of the sense amplifier and/or the voltage of the digit line, which may be used to determine the stored state in the memory cell (e.g., logic ' Γ). Alternatively, for example, if the digit line has a lower voltage than reference line, the sense amplifier output may be driven to a negative or ground voltage. The sense component may similarly latch the sense amplifier output to determine the stored state in the memory cell (e.g., logic Ό'). The latched l ogi c state of the memory cell may then be output, for example, through a column decoder.

[0030] To write a memory cell, a voltage may be applied across the capacitor of the memory cell. Various methods may be used to write a memory cell. In one example, the selection component may be activated through a word line in order to electrically connect the capacitor to the digit line. A voltage may be applied across the capacitor by controlling the voltage of the cell plate (e.g., through a plate line) and the cell bottom (e.g., through a digit line). To write a logic 'Ο', the cell plate may be taken high (e.g., a voltage level may be increased above a predetermined voltage that is a "high" voltage). That is, a positive voltage may be applied to plate line, and the cell bottom may be taken low (e.g., virtually grounding or applying a negative voltage to the digit line). The opposite process may be performed to write a logic ' Γ, where the cell plate is taken low and the cell bottom is taken high.

[0031] The controller 1 10 may control the operation (e.g., read, write, re-write, refresh, decharge, etc.) of memory cells in the array of memory cells 105 through the various components (e.g., row decoders, column decoders, and sense components). In some cases, one or more of the row decoder, column decoder, and sense component may be co-located with the controller 110. Controller 110 may generate row and column address signals in order to activate the desired word line and digit line. In other examples, controller 1 10 may generate and control various voltages or currents used during the operation of memory device 100. For example, controller 1 10 may apply discharge voltages to a word line or digit line after accessing one or more memory cells. In general, the amplitude, shape, or duration of an applied voltage or current discussed herein may be adjusted or varied and may be different for the various operations discussed in operating the memory device 100. Furthermore, one, multiple, or all memory cells within the array of memory cells 105 may be accessed simultaneously. For example, multiple memory cells or all memory cells of the array of memory cells 105 may be accessed simultaneously during a reset operation in which multiple memory cells or all memory cells may be set to a single logic state (e.g., logic Ό').

[0032] Each of the plurality of channels 115 may he configured to couple the array of memory cells 105 with the controller 110. In exome examples, each of the plurality of channels 115 may be referred to as a plurality of legs. In some memory devices, the rate of data transfer between the memory device and a host device (e.g., a personal computer or other computing device) may be limited by the rate of data transferred across the plurality of channels 1 15. In some examples, the memory device 100 may include a large number of high-resistance channels. By increasing the number of channels, the amount of data transferred in the memory device 100 may be increased without increasing the data rate of the transfer. In some examples, the plurality of channels 1 15 may be referred to as a wide system interface. Each of the plurality of channels 115 may be part of an interposer positioned between the array of memory cells 105 and the controller 1 10. In some examples, one or more of the channels 115 may be unidirectional and in other examples, one or more of the channels 1 15 may be bidirectional.

[0033] In some examples, at least some (and in some cases, each) of the signaling interfaces 120 may generate and/or decode signals communicated using the plurality of channels 115. A signaling interface 120 may be associated with each component that is coupled with the plurality of channels 1 15. The signaling interface 120 may be configured to generate and/or decode multi-level signals, binary signals, or both (e.g., simultaneously). Each signaling interface 120 may include a driver 125 and a receiver 130. In some examples, each driver 125 may be referred to as a multi-leg driver.

[0034] Each driver 125 may be configured to generate a multi-level signal based on a logic state that includes multiple bits. For example, driver 125 may use PAM4 signaling techniques (or other type of multi-level signaling techniques) to generate a signal having an amplitude that corresponds to the logic state. The driver 125 may be configured to receive data using a single input line. In some cases, the driver 125 may include a first input line for a first bit of data (e.g., most-significant bit), a second input line for a second bit of data (e.g., least-significant bit). In some circumstances, the driver 125 may be configured to generate a binar -level signal (e.g., an NRZ signal). In some cases, the driver 125 may use single-ended signaling to generate the multi-level signal. In such cases, the multi-level signal may be transmitted without a differential.

[0035] Each receiver 130 may be configured to determine a logic state represented by a symbol of the multi-level signal received using the plurality of channels 1 15. In some cases, the receiver 130 may determine an amplitude of the received multi-level signal. Based on the

determined amplitude, the receiver 130 may determine the logic state represented by the multi -level signal. The receiver 130 may be configured to output data using a single output line. In some cases, the receiver 130 may include a first output line for a first bit of data (e.g., most-significant bit), a second output line for a second bit of data (e.g., least-significant bit). In some circumstances, the receiver 130 may be configured to decode a binary-level signal (e.g., an NRZ signal). For example, each of receivers 130 may be coupled with a transmitter (not illustrated) via a plurality of channels 1 15. Each of the channels 115 may be configured to output data that includes multiple bits, and the controller 110 may be configured to determine an output impedance offset between the data output. One or more transistors (not separately illustrated) may be configured to adjust a resistance level one or more of the pluralities of channels 1 15. This adjustment may be based at least in part on the determined output impedance offset.

[0036] In some cases, each of the signaling interfaces 120 may be configured to selectively generate and/or decode different types of signals (e.g., NRZ signals, PAM4 signals, PAM8 signals, etc.). Different types of signals may be used based on the operational circumstances of the memory device 100, For example, binary signaling may use less power than multi-level signaling and may be used when power consumption is driving consideration for performance. Other performance factors that may be used to determine which type of signaling should be used may include clock considerations, data strobe (DQS) considerations, circuit capabilities, bandwidth considerations, jitter considerations, or combinations thereof. In some cases, the controller 1 10 may be configured to select the type of signal, and the signaling interfaces 120 may be configured to implement the selection based on instructions received from the controller 1 10. In some cases, each of the signaling interfaces 120 may be configured to implement coding functions such as error detection procedures, error correction procedures, data bus inversion procedures, or combinations thereof.

[0037] In some cases, the signaling interfaces 120 may be configured to communicate multi-level signals and binary signals simultaneously. In such cases, a signaling interface 120 may include more than one set of drivers 125 and receivers 130. For example, a signaling interface 120 may be configured to communicate a first set of data (e.g., a control signal) using a binary-level signal using a first set of channels 115 at the same time that a second set of data (e.g., user information) is being communicated using a multi-level signal using a second set of channels 115.

[0038] FIG. 2 illustrates an example of an eye diagram 200 representing a multi-level signal in accordance with various embodiments of the present disclosure. The eye diagram 200 may be used to indicate the quality of signals in high-speed transmissions and may represent four symbols of a signal (e.g., ΌΟ', Ό , ΊΟ', or ' 11 '). In some examples, each of the four symbols may be represented by a different voltage amplitude (e.g., amplitudes 205-a, 205-b, 205-c, 205-d). In other examples, the eye diagram 200 may represent a PAM4 signal that may be used to communicate data in a memory device (e.g., memory device 100 as described with reference to FIG. 1). The eye diagram 200 may be used to provide a visual indication of the health of the signal integrity, and may indicate noise margins of the data signal. The noise margin may, for example, refer to an amount by which the signal exceeds the ideal boundaries of the amplitudes 205.

[0039] To generate the eye diagram 200, an oscilloscope or other computing device may sample a digital signal according to a sample period 210 (e.g., a unit interval or a bit period). The sample period 210 may be defined by a clock associated with the transmission of the measured signal. In some examples, the oscilloscope or other computing device may measure the voltage level of the signal during the sample period 210 to form a trace 215. Noise and other factors can result in the traces 2 5 measured from the signal deviating from a set of ideal step functions. By overlaying a plurality of traces 215, various characteristics about the measured signal may be determined. For example, the eye diagram 200 may be used to identify a number of characteristics of a communication signals such as jitter, cross talk, electromagnetic interference (EMI), signal loss, signal-to-noise ratio (SM ), other

characteristics, or combinations thereof. A closed eye may indicate a noisy and/or

unpredictable signal or other problems.

[0040] In some examples, the eye diagram 200 may indicate a width 220. The width 220 of an eye in the eye diagram 200 may be used to indicate a timing synchronization of the measured signal or jitter effects of the measured signal. In some examples, comparing the width 220 to the sample period 210 may provide a measurement of SM of the measured signal. Each eye in an eye diagram may have a unique width based on the characteristics of the measured signal. Various encoding and decoding techniques may be used to modify the width 220 of the measured signal.

[0041] In other examples, the eye diagram 200 may indicate a sampling time 225 (e.g., an ideal sampling time) for determining the value of a logic state represented by a symbol of the measured signal. For example, determining a correct time for sampling data (e.g., timing

synchronization) of the measured signal may be important to minimize the error rate in detection of the signal. For example, if a computing device samples a signal during a transition time (e.g., a rise time 230 or a fall time 235), errors may be introduced by the decoder into the data represented by a symbol of the signal. Various encoding and decoding techniques may be used to modify the ideal sampling time 225 of the measured signal .

[0042] The eye diagram 200 may be used to identify a rise time 230 and/or a fall time 235 for transitions from a first amplitude 205 to a second amplitude 205. The slope of the trace 215 during the rise time 230 or fall time 235 may indicate the signal's sensitivity to timing error, among other aspects. For example, the steeper the slope of the trace 215 (e.g., the smaller the rise time 230 and/or the fall times 235), the more ideal the transitions between amplitudes 205 are. Various encoding and decoding techniques may be used to modify the rise time 230 and/or fall time 235 of the measured signal.

[0043] In some examples, the eye diagram 200 may be used to identify an amount of jitter 240 in the measured signal. Jitter 240 may refer to a timing error that results from a misalignment of rise and fall times. Jitter 240 occurs when a rising edge or falling edge occurs at a time that is different from an ideal time defined by the data clock. Jitter 240 may be caused by signal reflections, intersymbol interference, crosstalk, process-voltage-temperature (PVT) variations, random jitter, additive noise, or combinations thereof. Various encoding and decoding techniques may be used to modify the jitter 240 of the measured signal. In some cases, the jitter 240 for each signal level or each eye may be different.

[0044] In other examples, the eye diagram 200 may indicate an eye opening 245, which may represent a peak-to-peak voltage difference between the various amplitudes 205. The eye opening 245 may be related to a voltage margin for discriminating between different amplitudes 205 of the measured signal. The smaller the margin, the more difficult it may be to discriminate between neighboring amplitudes, and the more errors that may be introduced due to noise. In some cases, a receiver (e.g., receiver 130 as described with reference to FIG. I) of the signal may compare the signal to one or more threshold voltages positioned between the various amplitudes 205. In other cases, the larger the eye opening 245, the less likely it is that noise will cause the one or more voltage thresholds to be satisfied in error. The eye opening 245 may be used indicate an amount of additive noise in the measured signal, and may be used to determine a S R of the measured signal. Various encoding and decoding techniques may be used to modify the eye opening 245 of the measured signal. In some cases, the eye opening 245 for each eye may be different. In such cases, the eyes of the multi-level signal may not be identical.

[0045] In other examples, the eye diagram 200 may indicate distortion 250. The distortion 250 may represent overshoot and/or undershoot of the measured signal due to noise or interruptions in the signal path. As a signal settles into a new amplitude (e.g., amplitude 205-b) from an old amplitude (e.g., an amplitude 205-c), the signal may overshoot and/or undershoot the new amplitude level. In some examples, distortion 250 may be caused by this overshooting and/or undershooting, and may be caused additive noise in the signal or interruptions in the signal path. Each eye in an eye diagram may have a unique opening based on the characteristics of the measured signal. V arious encoding and decoding techniques maybe used to modify the distortion 250 of the measured signal. In some cases, the distortion 250 for each signal level or each eye may be different.

[0046] The locations of the characteristics of the eye diagram 200 shown in FIG. 2 are for illustrative purposes only. Characteristics such as width 220, sampling time 225, rise time 230, fall time 235, jitter 240, eye opening 245, and/or distortion 250 may occur in other parts of the eye diagram 200 not specifically indicated in FIG. 2.

[0047] FIG. 3 illustrates an example of a transmission circuit 300 in accordance with various embodiments of the present disclosure. The transmission circuit 300 may be configured to generate a multi-level signal or a binary-level signal based on a one or more bits of data. The transmission circuit 300 may be an example of the driver 125 as described with reference to FIG. 1. The transmission circuit 300 may include a driver 315, a first-in first-out (FIFO) component 330, a multiplexer 335, and a pre-driver 340.

[0048] The driver 315 may include a pull-up circuit 305 and a pull-down circuit 310. The transmission circuit 300 may be configured to output a signal to a plurality of channels (e.g., channels 1 15 described with reference to FIG. 1) based on a logic state received from the memory core 325. In some examples, the transmission circuit 300 may be coupled with memory core 325, which may be an example of a controller 1 10 or an array of memory cells 05 of memory cells as described with reference to FIG. 1.

[0049] In some examples, the transmission circuit 300 may operate based on data received from memory core 325. In some examples, the identified data may include one or more bits of information. In other examples, the transmission circuit 300 or the memory controller may identify a desired amplitude level based on the identified data. The

transmission circuit 300 or the memory controller may identify a current amplitude level of the output signal of the transmission circuit 300 and, in some examples, the transmission circuit 300 or the memory controller may determine a set of instructions for the pull-up circuit 305 and/or the pull-down circuit 310 to transition from the current amplitude level to the desired amplitude level of the output signal . Additionally or alternatively, for example, the instaictions may include characteristics of gate voltages (e.g., amplitude of gate voltages, timing of gate voltages, and/or pattern of gate voltage activation) to apply to one or more switching components that couple an output 320 of the driver 3 15 to two or more voltage sources. The instructions may be configured to cause the output signal to be "pulled-up" or "pulled down" to the desired amplitude level,

[0050] In some examples, memor' core 325 may be coupled with the FIFO component 330. For example, the data transmitted from memory core 325 may be routed through FIFO component 330. FIFO component 330 may, for example, organize and/or manipulate the data transmitted from memory core 325. In some examples, FIFO component 330 may manipulate and/or organize the data according to time and prioritization. Thus, FIFO component 330 may process data on a first-come, first-served basis. In some examples, FIFO component 330 may utilize a same clock as a memory controller (e.g., controller 110 as described with reference to FIG. 1). In other examples, FIFO component 330 may utilize separate clocks for reading and writing operations.

[0051] In other examples, data transmitted from memory core 325 and through FIFO component 330 may be multiplexed via a multiplexer 335. Multiplexer 335 may be coupled with both memory core 325 and FIFO component 330. In some examples, the multiplexer 335 may select one of several input signals received from FIFO component 330. Upon selecting an input signal, the multiplexer 335 may forward the signal to pre-driver 340. Pre-driver 340, for example, may be coupled with multiplexer 335 and may utilize a biasing circuit to generate a low-power signal. In some examples, the signal generated via pre-driver 340 may be transmitted to pull-up circuit 305 and/or pull-down circuit 310. In some cases, the pre-driver 340 may include one or more inverters tied to the output of the multiplexer 335 to generate gate signals for switching components of the driver 3 5,

[0052] The pull-up circuit 305 may be configured to bias an output signal of the driver 315 from a first amplitude to a second amplitude that is greater than the first amplitude. For example, if the output signal is at a first amplitude 205-b as described with reference to FIG. 2, the pull-up circuit 305 may be used to transition the output signal to either of amplitudes 205-c or 205-d, The pull-up circuit 305 may be coupled to a first voltage source using one or more switching components (e.g., a transistor). The first voltage source may have a greater voltage than a second voltage source associated with the pull-down circuit 310.

[0053] The pull-down circuit 310 may be configured to bias an output signal of the driver 315 from a first amplitude to a second amplitude that is less than the first amplitude. For example, if the output signal is of a first amplitude 205-b, as described with reference to FIG. 2, the pull-down circuit 310 may be used to transition the output signal to amplitude 205-a. The pull-down circuit 310 may be coupled to a second voltage source using one or more switching components (e.g., a transistor). The second voltage source may have a lesser voltage than the first voltage source associated with the pull-up circuit 305. In some cases, the pull-down circuit 310 selectively couples the output of the driver 315 with a ground or virtual ground,

[0054] In some cases, the design of the pull-up circuit 305 and/or the pull-down circuit 310 may affect various characteristics of the output signal as represented by an eye diagram (e.g., eye diagram 200 as described with reference to FIG. 2). For example, the design of the pull-up circuit 305 and/or the pull-down circuit 310 may affect eye width (e.g., width 220 as described with reference to FIG. 2), eye opening (e.g., eye opening 245 as described with reference to FIG. 2), distortion (e.g., distortion 250 as described with reference to FIG. 2), jitter (e.g., jitter 240 as described with reference to FIG. 2), the location of the amplitude(s), other characteristics, or combinations thereof

[0055] In some cases, the transmission circuit 300 may be configured to selectively generate binary signals (e.g., NRZ signaling) or multi-level signals (e.g., PAM4 or PAM8). In other examples, the transmission circuit 300 may be configured to adjust a transmit power of the output signal of the driver 315. Additionally or alternatively, for example, the

transmission circuit 300 or a memory controller (e.g., controller 110 as described with reference to FIG. 1) may be configured to select one or more channels or one or more groups of channels to communicate the output signal to another component of the memory device,

[0056] FIG. 4 illustrates an example of a receiver 400 in accordance with various embodiments of the present disclosure. The receiver 400 may be configured to receive and/or decode a multi-level signal or a binary-level signal. For example, the receive 400 of a connected component (e.g., an array of memory ceils 105 or a controller 110 of a memory device 100) may receive a signal using one or more plurality of channels (e.g., channels 1 15).

The receiver 400 may be configured to output one or more bits of data based on a received signal. The receiver 400 may include one or more comparators 405 and a decoder 410. The receiver 400 may be an example of the receiver 130 described with reference to FIG. 1.

[0057] The one or more comparators 405 may be configured to compare the received signal to one or more reference voltages 415. The number of comparators 405 may be related to a number of symbols (e.g., amplitude levels) that may be represented in the received signal. For example, if the received signal is a multi-level signal configured to have four symbols (e.g., a PAM4 signal), the receiver 400 may include three comparators 405-a, 405-b, 405-c and three reference voltages 415-a, 415-b, 415-c.

[0058] Each comparator 405 may output a signal based on whether the received signal is greater than or less than the reference voltage 415. Said another way, the comparator 405 may determine whether received signal satisfies a voltage threshold defined by the comparator 405 and its associated reference voltage 415. For example, the comparator 405 may output a high voltage if the received signal is greater than the associated reference voltage 415 and the comparator 405 may output a low voltage if the received signal is less than the associated reference voltage 415 (or vice-versa). The decoder 410 may receive the outputs of the comparators 405. The reference voltages 415 may be selected to di scriminate between the expected amplitude levels of the received signal. For example, reference voltages 415 may be selected to be within an eye opening 245 of an eye in an eye diagram between two amplitude levels (e.g., amplitudes 205-a and 205-b).

[0059] The decoder 410 may be configured to determine a logic state represented by a symbol of the recei ved signal based on the outputs of the comparators 405, The combinati on of the outputs of the comparators 405 may be used to determine an amplitude of the received signal. In some cases, the decoder 410 may be an example of a look-up table that indexes the outputs of the comparators 405 to logic states of the received signal.

[0060] In some examples, if the received signal is less than all of the reference voltages 415, the decoder 410 may determine that a logic state '00' is represented by a symbol of the received signal. If the received signal is greater than one reference voltage 415 but less than two of the reference voltages 415, the decoder 410 may determine that a logic state ΌΓ is represented by a symbol of the received signal. If the received signal is greater than two of the reference voltages 415 but less than one of the reference voltages 415, the decoder 410 may determine that a logic state ' 10' is represented by a symbol of the received signal . If the received signal is greater than all of the reference voltages 415, the decoder 410 may determine that a logic state Ί is represented by a symbol of the received signal. It should be appreciated that the mapping of logic states to amplitudes may be modified based on design choices.

[0061] In some cases, the receiver 400 may be configured to selectively decode binary signals (e.g., NRZ signaling) or multi-level signals (e.g., PAM4 or PAM8). In some cases, the receiver 400 or a connected component may be configured to select one or more channels or one or more groups of channels to listen for the received signal from another component of the memory device.

[0062] FIG. 5 illustrates an example of a memory device 500 in accordance with various embodiments of the present disclosure. The memory device 500 may be an example of a high-bandwidth memory (HBM) device. The memory device 500 may be configured to provide more bandwidth for data transfer per unit of power used in the memory device 500. The memory device 500 may include an array 505 of memory cells, a processor 510, and an interposer 515. The memory device 500 may be an example of the memory device 100 described with reference to FIG. .

[0063] The array 505 of memory ceils may be an example of a 3D memory array. The array 505 may include a plurality of decks 520 of memory cells, each deck 520 being an example of a 2D memory array. The array 505 of memory cells may also include a base 525 that couples the array 505 with the interposer 515. The decks 520 of memory cells and the base 525 may be coupled using one or more through-silicon vias (TSVs) (not shown). The array 505 of memory cells may be an example of the array of memory cells 105 described with reference to FIG. 1. The array 505 of memory cells may be an example of DRAM technology, FeRAM technology, or PCM technology.

[0064] The base 525 may be configured as an input/output (I/O) device for the array 505 of memory cells. In some cases, the base 525 may be configured as a memory controller for the array 505 of memory cells accessing various memory cells using combinations of row decoders, column decoders, word lines, digit lines, other components, or combinations thereof. In some cases, the base 525 may be configured to buffer data communicated to and from the array 505 of memory cells. The base 525 may include a signaling interface (such as the signaling interface 120 described with reference to FIG. 1.) for communicating data across the interposer 515 using binary signaling and/or multi-level signaling.

[0065] The processor 5 0 may be configured to perform any function required by a host device. In some cases, the processor 510 may be an example of a graphics processing unit (GPU) in a graphics device. In some cases, the processor 510 may be an example of a central processing unit (CPU). In some cases, the processor 510 may include the functionality of a memory controller such as the controller 110 described with reference to FIG. 1. The processor 510 may include a signaling interface (such as the signaling interface 120 described with reference to FIG. 1) for communicating data across the interposer 515 using binary signaling and/or multi-level signaling. The processor 510 and the array 505 may be coupled with the interposer using micro pillars 540.

[0066] The interposer 515 is configured to provide wide communication lanes between connected components (e.g., the array 505, the processor 5 10, and/or the package substrate 535). The interposer 515 may include a plurality of high-resistance channels 530 for communicating between devices. The channels 530 may be completely independent of one another in some cases. Some channels 530 may be unidirectional and some channels 530 may be bidirectional. The array 505 and/or the processor 510 may select different combinations or groupings of channels to communicate data.

[0067] The interposer 515 may provide wide communication lanes by offering a high number of channels 530 to connect components. In some cases, the channels 530 may be thin traces of connecter, thereby making each individual channel lossy. Because each channel 530 is so resistive, as the frequency of data transferred increases, the power needed to transfer the data goes up in a non-linear fashion relative to the frequency. Such characteristics may impose a practical frequency ceiling that can be used to transmit data given an amount of transmit power over a channel 530. To increase the amount of data transferred in a given amount of time, the interposer 515 may include a very high number of channels 530, As such, a bus of the memory device 500 may be wider than other DRAM memories, such as DDR4 (double data rate fourth -generation synchronous dynamic random-access memory) or GDDR5 (double data rate type five synchronous graphics random-access memory). In some cases, the array 505 of memory cells may have two 128-bit channels per deck 520.

Accordingly, if the array 505 had four decks 520, the processor 510 would have a memory bus with a width of 4096 bits. In comparison, some GDDR memories may have only sixteen 32-bit channels for a memory bus with a total width of 512 bits. The interposer 515 may be formed of a first material (e.g., silicon) that is different from a second material that forms the package substrate 535, The interposer 515 and the package substrate may be coupled with other components using one or more solder balls 545, 550.

[0068] Multi-level signaling (e.g., PAM4) may be used in conjunction with the memory device 500 (e.g., an HBM device) to increase a data transfer rate without increasing the frequency of data transfer. As the frequency of data communicated across the interposer 515 goes up, the power needed to transmit the data goes up. This is due to the lossy nature of the channels 530. Multi-level signaling may be configured to increase a data rate of data communicated across the interposer 515 without increasing the frequency and/or the transmit power of the data.

[0069] The memory device 500 may be configured to select various types of signaling that may be used based on a situation. For example, in some situations (e.g., control signaling), the memory device 500 may want to use binary signaling (e.g., NRZ signaling), and in other situations (e.g., user data), the memory device may want to use multi-level signaling (e.g., PAM4, PAM8, etc).

[0070] The various components of the memory device 500 may include signaling interfaces that are capable of communicating using binar signaling and/or multi-level signaling. For example, the processor 510 and/or the base 525 may include a signaling interface such as the signaling interface 120 described with reference to FIG. 1.

[0071] The memory device 500 may be configured to perform a number of access operations (e.g., read operations or write operations) on the array 505. For a write operation, the processor 510 may identify information to be written to the array 505 of memory cells.

The processor 510 may generate a multi-level signal modulated using a first modulation scheme having at least three levels using a signaling interface (or a driver of a signaling interface) based on the identified information. The multi-level signal may represent more than one bit of the identified information. The processor 510 may transmit the multi-level signal to the array 505 of memory cells using a plurality of channels 530 of the interposer

515.

[0072] The base 525 may receive and decode the multi-level signal using a signaling interface (or a receiver of a signaling interface). The base 525 may determine an amplitude of the received multi-level signal. For example, the base 525 may use one or more comparators to compare the received multi-level signal to one or more voltage thresholds. Based on whether the voltage threshold is satisfied, the comparators may output certain signal. The base 525 may determine a plurality of bits represented by the amplitude of the multi-level signal based on the output of the comparators (e.g., using a decoder). The base 525 may identify one or more memory cells to store the plurality of bits. The base 525 may write the plurality of bits to the one or more memory cells of the array 505.

[0073] For a read operation, the processor 510 may identify some information stored on the array 505 that its wants to use for one of its operations. The processor 510 may transmit a signal (either a binary-level signal or a multi-level signal) to the array 505 requesting the identified information. The base 525 may identify one or more memory cells that currently store the identified information. The base 525 may read one or more bits of data out of the identified one or more cells using the procedures described with reference to FIG. I .

[0074] The base 525 may generate a multi-level signal modulated using a first modulation scheme having at least three levels using a signaling interface (or a driver of a signaling interface) based on the one or more bits of data read from the memory cells. The base 525 may transmit the multi-level signal to the processor 510 using a plurality of channel s 530 of the interposer 515.

[0075] The processor 510 may receive and decode the multi-level signal using a signaling interface (or a receiver of a signaling interface). The processor 510 may determine an amplitude of the received multi-level signal. For example, the processor 510 may use one or more comparators to compare the received multi-level signal to one or more voltage thresholds. Based on whether the voltage threshold is satisfied, the comparators may output certain signal. The processor 510 may determine a plurality of bits represented by the amplitude of the multi-level signal based on the output of the comparators (e.g., using a decoder).

[0076] FIG. 6 shows a block diagram 600 of a signaling component 615 that supports multi-level signaling in memory with wide system interface in accordance with embodiments of the present disclosure. The signaling component 615 may be a component of a signaling interface 120 described with reference to FIG. 1.

[0077] Signaling component 615 and/or at least some of its various sub-components may be implemented in hardware, software executed by a processor, firmware, or any

combination thereof. If implemented in software executed by a processor, the functions of the signaling component 615 and/or at least some of its various sub-components may be executed by a general-purpose processor, a digital signal processor (DSP), an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC), an field-programmable gate array (FPGA) or other programmable logic device, discrete gate or transistor logic, discrete hardware components, or any combination thereof designed to perform the functions described in the present disclosure. The signaling component 615 and/or at least some of its various sub -components may be physically located at various positions, including being distributed such that portions of functions are implemented at different physical locations by one or more physical devices. In some examples, signaling component 615 and/or at least some of its various sub-components may be a separate and distinct component in accordance with various embodiments of the present disclosure. In other examples, signaling component 615 and/or at least some of its various sub-components may be combined with one or more other hardware components, including but not limited to an I/O component, a transceiver, a network server, another computing device, one or more other components described in the present disclosure, or a combination thereof in accordance with various embodiments of the present disclosure.

[0078] The signaling component 615 may include biasing component 620, timing component 625, information manager 630, multi-level signal generator 635, cell manager 640, and binary signal generator 645. Each of these components may communicate, directly or indirectly, with one another (e.g., via one or more buses).

[0079] Information manager 630 may identify, by a controller of a memory device, information to be written to an array of memory cells.

[0080] Multi-level signal generator 635 may generate, by the controller, a multi-level signal modulated using a first modulation scheme having at least three levels that represent a set of bits of the identified information, transmit, by the controller, the multi-level signal to the array of memory cells across an interposer that includes a set of channels, and determine, by the array of memory cells, whether an amplitude of the multi-level signal satisfies one or more thresholds.

[0081] Cell manager 640 may identify, by the array of memory cells, the set of bits represented by the multi-level signal based on a number of thresholds of the one or more thresholds that are satisfied by the multi-level signal and write, by the array of memory cells, the set of bits represented by the multi -level signal to one or more memory ceils of the array of mem ory eel 1 s .

[0082] Binary signal generator 645 may transmit, by the controller, a binary-level signal to the array of memory cells across the interposer simultaneously with the multi-level signal. [0083] FIG. 7 shows a diagram of a system 700 including a device 705 that supports multi-level signaling in memory with wide system interface in accordance with embodiments of the present disclosure. Device 705 may be an example of or include the components of controller 110 as described above, e.g., with reference to FIG. 1. Device 705 may include components for bi-directional voice and data communications including components for transmitting and receiving communications, including signaling component 715, memory cells 720, basic input/output system (BIOS) component 725, processor 730, I/O controller 735, and peripheral components 740. These components may be in electronic communication via one or more buses (e.g., bus 710).

[0084] Memory cells 720 may store information (i.e., in the form of a logical state) as described herein.

[0085] BIOS component 725 be a software component that includes BIOS operated as firmware, which may initialize and run various hardware components. BIOS component 725 may also manage data flow between a processor and various other components, e.g., peripheral components, input/output control component, etc. BIOS component 725 may include a program or software stored in read only memory (ROM), flash memory, or any other non-volatile memory.

[0086] Processor 730 may include an intelligent hardware device, (e.g., a general -purpose processor, a DSP, a central processing unit (CPU), a microcontroller, an ASIC, an FPGA, a programmable logic device, a discrete gate or transistor logic component, a discrete hardware component, or any combination thereof). In some cases, processor 730 may be configured to operate a memory array using a memory controller. In other cases, a memory controller may be integrated into processor 730. Processor 730 may be configured to execute computer-readable instructions stored in a memory to perform various functions (e.g., functions or tasks supporting multi-level signaling in memory with wide system interface).

[0087] I/O controller 735 may manage input and output signals for device 705. I/O controller 735 may also manage peripheral s not integrated into device 705, In some cases, I/O controller 735 may represent a physical connection or port to an external peripheral. In some cases, I/O controller 735 may utilize an operating system such as iOS®, ANDROID®, MS-DOS®, MS-WINDOWS®, OS/2®, UNIX®, LINUX®, or another known operating system. In other cases, I O controller 735 may represent or interact with a modem, a keyboard, a mouse, a touchscreen, or a similar device. In some cases, I/O controller 735 may be

implemented as part of a processor. In some cases, a user may interact with device 705 via I/O controller 735 or via hardware components controlled by I/O controller 735.

[0088] Peripheral components 740 may include any input or output device, or an interface for such devices. Examples may include disk controllers, sound controller, graphics controller, Ethernet controller, modem, universal serial bus (USB) controller, a serial or parallel port, or peripheral card slots, such as peripheral component interconnect (PCI) or accelerated graphics port (AGP) slots.

[0089] Input 745 may represent a device or signal external to device 705 that provides input to device 705 or its components. This may include a user interface or an interface with or between other devices. In some cases, input 745 may be managed by I/O controller 735, and may interact with device 705 via a peripheral component 740.

[0090] Output 750 may also represent a device or signal external to device 705 configured to receive output from device 705 or any of its components. Exampl es of output 750 may include a display, audio speakers, a printing device, another processor or printed circuit board, etc. In some cases, output 750 may be a peripheral element that interfaces with device 705 via peripheral component(s) 740, In some cases, output 750 may be managed by I/O controller 735

[0091] The components of device 705 may include circuitry designed to cany out their functions. This may include various circuit elements, for example, conductive lines, transistors, capacitors, inductors, resistors, amplifiers, or other active or inactive elements, configured to carry out the functions described herein. Device 705 may be a computer, a server, a laptop computer, a notebook computer, a tablet computer, a mobile phone, a wearable electronic device, a personal electronic device, or the like. Or device 705 may be a portion or aspect of such a device.

[0092] In one embodiment, a device 705 or system 700 may include an array of memory cells, a controller configured to control access to the array of memory cells, an interposer to operatively couple the array of memory cells with the controller, the interposer including a plurality of channels between the array of memory cells and the controller, and a receiver configured to decode a multi-level signal modulated using a first modulation scheme having at least three levels communicated across at least one channel of the interposer.

[0093] Some examples of the device 705 or system 700 described above may also include a driver configured to generate the multi-level signal to be transmitted across the at least one channel of the interposer based at least in part on a plurality of information bits,

[0094] In some examples of the device 705 or system 700 described above, the driver may be configured to encode data using gray coding or data bus inversion or both.

[0095] I some examples of the device 705 or system 700 described above, the receiver further comprises: a plurality of comparators, each comparator configured to compare the multi-level signal to a voltage threshold.

[0096] In some examples of the device 705 or system 700 described above, the receiver further comprises: a decoder configured to determine a plurality of bits represented by the multi -level signal based at least in part on information received from a set of the plurality of comparators.

[0097] Some examples of the device 705 or system 700 described above may also include a plurality of information bits may be represented by an amplitude of the multi-level signal.

[0098] In some examples of the device 705 or system 700 described above, the multilevel signal may be encoded with information using a PAM scheme.

[0099] In some examples of the device 705 or system 700 described above, the controller transmits the multi-level signal across a subset of the plurality of channels of the interposer to the array of memory cells.

[0100] In some examples of the device 705 or system 700 described above, the controller transmits the multi-level signal using a unidirectional channel of the interposer.

[0101] In some examples of the device 705 or system 700 described above, the array of memory cells transmits the multi-level signal across a subset of the plurality of channels of the interposer to the controller.

[0102] Some examples of the device 705 or system 700 described above may also include a substrate formed of a first material, wherein the interposer may be formed of a second material different from the first material. In some examples of the device 705 or system 700 described above, the second material may be silicon,

[0103] Some examples of the device 705 or system 700 described above may also include a second array of memory cells stacked on top of the array of memory ceils, wherein the

second array of memory cells may be operatively coupled with the controller by the interposer.

[0104] Some examples of the device 705 or system 700 described above may also include an input/output device coupled with the array of memory cells and the interposer, wherein the input/output device may be configured to buffer information communicated with the array of memory cells.

[0105] FIG. 8 shows a flowchart illustrating a method 800 for multi-level signaling in memory with wide system interface in accordance with embodiments of the present disclosure. The operations of method 800 may be implemented by a controller 110 or its components as described herein. For example, the operations of method 800 may be performed by a signaling component as described with reference to FIG. 7. In some examples, a controller 1 10 may execute a set of codes to control the functional elements of the device to perform the functions described below. Additionally or alternatively, the controller 1 10 may perform aspects of the functions described below using special-purpose hardware.

[0106] In some cases, the method may also include identifying, by a controller of a memory device, information to be written to an array of memory ceils. In some cases, the method may also include generating, by the controller, a multi-level signal modulated using a first modulation scheme having at least three levels that represent a plurality of bits of the identified information. In some cases, the method may also include transmitting, by the controller, the multi-level signal to the array of memory cells across an interposer that includes a plurality of channels. In some cases, the method may also include determining, by the array of memory cells, whether an amplitude of the multi-level signal satisfies one or more thresholds. In some cases, the method may also include identifying, by the array of memory cells, the plurality of bits represented by the multi -level signal based at least in part on a number of thresholds of the one or more thresholds that are satisfied by the multi-level signal. In some cases, the method may also include writing, by the array of memor cells, the plurality of bits represented by the multi-level signal to one or more memory ceils of the array of memory cells. In some cases, the method may also include transmitting, by the controller, a binary-level signal to the array of memory cells across the interposer

simultaneously with the multi-level signal.

[0107] At block 805 the controller 1 10 may identify, by a controller of a memory device, information to be written to an array of memory cells. The operations of block 805 may be performed according to the methods descri bed herein. In certain examples, aspects of the operations of block 805 may be performed by an information manager as described with reference to FIG. 7.

[0108] At block 810 the controller 1 10 may generate, by the controller, a multi-level signal modulated using a first modulation scheme having at least three levels that represent a plurality of bits of the identified information. The operations of block 810 may be performed according to the methods described herein. In certain examples, aspects of the operations of block 810 may be performed by a multi-level signal generator as described with reference to FIG. 7.

[0109] At block 815 the controller 1 10 may transmit, by the controller, the multi -level signal to the array of memory cel ls across an interposer that includes a plurality of channels. The operations of block 815 may be performed according to the methods described herein. In certain examples, aspects of the operations of block 815 may be performed by a multi -level signal generator as described with reference to FIG. 7.

[0110] A method is described. The method may include identifying, by a controller of a memory device, information to be written to an array of memory cells, generating, by the controller, a multi-level signal modulated using a first modulation scheme having at least three levels that represent a plurality of bits of the identified information, and transmitting, by the controller, the multi-level signal to the array of memory ceils across an interposer that includes a plurality of channels.

[0111] The method 800 may be implemented by an apparatus that may include means for identifying, by a controller of a memory device, information to be written to an array of memory cells, means for generating, by the controller, a multi-level signal modulated using a first modulation scheme having at least three levels that represent a plurality of bits of the identified information, and means for transmitting, by the controller, the multi-level signal to the array of memory cells across an interposer that includes a plurality of channels.

[0112] The method 800 may be implemented by another apparatus that may include a processor, memory in electronic communication with the processor, and instructions stored in the memory. The instructions may be operable to cause the processor to identify, by a controller of a memory device, information to be written to an array of memory cells,

generate, by the controller, a multi-level signal modulated using a first modulation scheme having at least three levels that represent a plurality of bits of the identified information, and transmit, by the controller, the multi-level signal to the array of memory cells across an interposer that includes a plurality of channels.

[0113] The method 800 may be implemented by a non-transitory computer readable medium that may include instructions operable to cause a processor to identify, by a controller of a memory device, information to be written to an array of memory cells, generate, by the control ler, a multi-level signal modulated using a first modulation scheme having at least three levels that represent a plurality of bits of the identified information, and transmit, by the controller, the multi-level signal to the array of memory cells across an interposer that includes a plurality of channels.

[0114] Some examples of the method 800, apparatus, and non-transitory computer-readable medium described above may further include processes, features, means, or instructions for determining, by the array of memory ceils, whether an amplitude of the multi-level signal satisfies one or more thresholds.

[0115] Some examples of the method 800, apparatus, and non-transitory computer-readable medium described above may further include processes, features, means, or instructions for identifying, by the array of memory cells, the plurality of bits represented by the multi-level signal based at least in part on a number of thresholds of the one or more thresholds that may be satisfied by the multi-level signal .

[0116] Some examples of the method 800, apparatus, and non-transitory computer-readable medium described above may further include processes, features, means, or instructions for writing, by the array of memory cells, the plurality of bits represented by the multi-level signal to one or more memory ceils of the array of memory cells.

[0117] Some examples of the method 800, apparatus, and non-transitory computer-readable medium described above may further include processes, features, means, or instructions for transmitting, by the controller, a binary -level signal to the array of memory cell s across the interposer simultaneously with the multi-level signal .

[0118] In one embodiment, a device or system may include an array of memory cell s, an interposer operatively coupled with the array of memory ceils, the interposer that includes a plurality of channels, a control ler operatively coupled with the interposer, the control ler configured to: identify information to be written to the array of memory cells, generate a

?7

multi-level signal modulated using a first modulation scheme having at least three levels that represent a plurality of bits of the identified information, and transmit the multi-level signal to the array of memory cells across the interposer.

[0119] It should be noted that the methods described above describe possible

implementations, and that the operations and the steps may be rearranged or otherwise modified and that other implementations are possible. Furthermore, embodiments from two or more of the methods may be combined.

[0120] Information and signal s described herein may be represented using any of a variety of different technologies and techniques. For example, data, instructions, commands, information, signals, bits, symbols, and chips that may be referenced throughout the above description may be represented by voltages, currents, electromagnetic waves, magnetic fields or particles, optical fields or particles, or any combination thereof. Some drawings may illustrate signals as a single signal; however, it will be understood by a person of ordinary skill in the art that the signal may represent a bus of signals, where the bus may have a variety of bit widths.

[0121] As used herein, the term "virtual ground" refers to a node of an electrical circuit that is held at a voltage of approximately zero volts (0V) but that is not directly connected with ground. Accordingly, the voltage of a virtual ground may temporarily fluctuate and return to approximately 0V at steady state. A virtual ground may be implemented using various electronic circuit elements, such as a voltage divider consi sting of operational amplifiers and resistors. Other implementations are also possible. "Virtual grounding" or "virtually grounded" means connected to approximately 0V.

[0122] The term "electronic communication" and "coupled" refer to a relationship between components that support electron flow between the components. This may include a direct connection between components or may include intermediate components.

Components in electronic communication or coupled to one another may be actively exchanging electrons or signals (e.g., in an energized circuit) or may not be actively exchanging electrons or signals (e.g., in a de-energized circuit) but may be configured and operable to exchange electrons or signals upon a circuit being energized. By way of example, two components physically connected via a switch (e.g., a transistor) are in electronic communication or may be coupled regardless of the state of the switch (i.e., open or closed). [0123] As used herein, the term "substantially" means that the modified characteristic (e.g., a verb or adjective modified by the term substantially) need not be absolute but is close enough so as to achieve the advantages of the characteristic,

[0124] As used herein, the term "electrode" may refer to an electrical conductor, and in some cases, may be employed as an electrical contact to a memory cell or other component of a memory array. An electrode may include a trace, wire, conductive line, conductive layer, or the like that provides a conductive path between elements or components of memory device 100.

[0125] The term "photolithography," as used herein, may refer to the process of patterning using photoresist materials and exposing such materials using electromagnetic radiation. For example, a photoresist material may be formed on a base material by, for example, spin-coating the photoresist on the base material. A pattern may be created in the photoresist by exposing the photoresist to radiation. The pattern may be defined by, for example, a photo mask that spatially delineates where the radiation exposes the photoresist. Exposed photoresist areas may then be removed, for example, by chemical treatment, leaving behind the desired pattern. In some cases, the exposed regions may remain and the unexposed regions may be removed.

[0126] Chalcogenide materials may be materials or alloys that include at least one of the elements S, Se, and Te. Phase change materials discussed herein may be chalcogenide materials. Chalcogenide materials may include alloys of S, Se, Te, Ge, As, Al, Sb, Au, indium (In), gallium (Ga), tin (Sn), bismuth (Bi), palladium (Pd), cobalt (Co), oxygen (O), silver (Ag), nickel (Ni), platinum (Pt). Example chalcogenide materials and alloys may include, but are not limited to, Ge-Te, In-Se, Sb-Te, Ga-Sb, In-Sb, As-Te, Al-Te, Ge-Sb-Te, Te-Ge-As, In-Sb-Te, Te-Sn-Se, Ge-Se-Ga, Bi-Se-Sb, Ga-Se-Te, Sn-Sb-Te, In-Sb-Ge, Te-Ge-Sb-S, Te-Ge-Sn-O, Te-Ge-Sn-Au, Pd-Te-Ge-Sn, In-Se-Ti-Co, Ge-Sb-Te-Pd, Ge-Sb-Te-Co, Sb-Te-Bi-Se, Ag-In-Sb-Te, Ge-Sb-Se-Te, Ge-Sn-Sb-Te, Ge-Te-Sn-Ni, Ge-Te-Sn-Pd, or Ge-Te-Sn-Pt, The hyphenated chemical composition notation, as used herein, indicates the elements included in a particular compound or alloy and is intended to represent ail stoichiometries involving the indicated elements. For example, Ge-Te may include GexTey, where x and y may be any positive integer. Other examples of variable resistance materials may include binary metal oxide materials or mixed valence oxide including two or more metals, e.g., transition metals, alkaline earth metals, and/or rare earth metals. Embodiments are not limited to a particular variable resistance material or materials associated with the memory elements of the memory cells. For example, other examples of variable resistance materials can be used to form memory elements and may include chaicogenide materials, colossal magnetoresistive materials, or polymer-based materials, among others.

[0127] The term "isolated" refers to a relationship between components in which electrons are not presently capable of flowing between them, components are isolated from each other if there is an open circuit between them. For example, two components phy sically connected by a switch may be isolated from each other when the switch is open.

[0128] As used herein, the term "shorting" refers to a relationship between components in which a conductive path is established between the components via the activation of a single intermediary component between the two components in question. For example, a first component shorted to a second component may exchange electrons with the second component when a switch between the two components is closed. Thus, shorting may be a dynamic operation that enables the flow of charge between components (or lines) that are in electronic communication.

[0129] The devices discussed herein, including memory device 100, may be formed on a semiconductor substrate, such as silicon, germanium, silicon-germanium alloy, gallium arsenide, gallium nitride, etc. In some cases, the substrate is a semiconductor wafer. In other cases, the substrate may be a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate, such as silicon-on-glass (SOG) or silicon-on-sapphire (SOP), or epitaxial layers of semiconductor materials on another substrate. The conductivity of the substrate, or sub-regions of the substrate, may be controlled through doping using various chemical species including, but not limited to, phosphorous, boron, or arsenic. Doping may be performed during the initial formation or growth of the substrate, by ion-implantation, or by any other doping means.

[0130] A transistor or transistors discussed herein may represent a field-effect transistor (FET) and comprise a three terminal device including a source, drain, and gate. The terminals may be connected to other electronic elements through conductive materials, e.g., metals. The source and drain may be conductive and may comprise a heavily-doped, e.g., degenerate, semiconductor region. The source and drain may be separated by a lightly-doped

semiconductor region or channel. If the channel is n-type (i.e., majority carriers are electrons), then the FET may be referred to as a n-type FET, If the channel is p-type (i.e., majority carriers are holes), then the FET may be referred to as a p-type FET. The channel may be capped by an insulating gate oxide. The channel conductivity may be controlled by

applying a voltage to the gate. For example, applying a positive voltage or negative voltage to an n-type FET or a p-type FET, respectively, may result in the channel becoming conductive. A transistor may be "on" or "activated" when a voltage greater than or equal to the transistor's threshold voltage is applied to the transistor gate. The transistor may be "off or "deactivated" when a voltage less than the transistor's threshold voltage is applied to the transistor gate.

[0131] The description set forth herein, in connection with the appended drawings, describes example configurations and does not represent all the examples that may be implemented or that are within the scope of the claims. The term "exemplary" used herein means "serving as an example, instance, or illustration," and not "preferred" or

"advantageous over other examples " The detailed description includes specific details for the purpose of providing an understanding of the described techniques. These techniques, however, may be practiced without these specific details. In some instances, well-known structures and devices are shown in block diagram form in order to avoid obscuring the concepts of the described examples.

[0132] In the appended figures, similar components or features may have the same reference label. Further, various components of the same type may be distinguished by following the reference label by a dash and a second label that distinguishes among the similar components. If just the first reference label is used in the specification, the description is applicable to any one of the similar components having the same first reference label irrespective of the second reference label.

[0133] Information and signals described herein may be represented using any of a variety of different technologies and techniques. For example, data, instructions, commands, information, signals, bits, symbols, and chips that may be referenced throughout the above description may be represented by voltages, currents, electromagnetic waves, magnetic fields or particles, optical fields or particles, or any combination thereof.

[0134] The various illustrative blocks and components described in connection with the disclosure herein may be implemented or performed with a general -purpose processor, a DSP, an ASIC, an FPGA or other programmable logic device, discrete gate or transistor logic, discrete hardware components, or any combination thereof designed to perform the functions described herein. A general-purpose processor may be a microprocessor, but in the alternative, the processor may be any conventional processor, controller, microcontroller, or state machine, A processor may also be implemented as a combination of computing devices (e.g., a combination of a digital signal processor (DSP) and a microprocessor, multiple microprocessors, one or more microprocessors in conjunction with a DSP core, or any other such configuration).

[0135] The functions described herein may be implemented in hardware, software executed by a processor, firmware, or any combination thereof. If implemented in software executed by a processor, the functions may be stored on or transmitted over as one or more instructions or code on a computer-readable medium. Other examples and implementations are within the scope of the disclosure and appended claims. For example, due to the nature of software, functions described above can be implemented using software executed by a processor, hardware, firmware, hardwiring, or combinations of any of these. Features implementing functions may also be physically located at various positions, including being distributed such that portions of functions are implemented at different physical locations. Also, as used herein, including in the claims, "or" as used in a list of items (for example, a list of items prefaced by a phrase such as "at least one of or "one or more of) indicates an inclusive list such that, for example, a list of at least one of A, B, or C means A or B or C or AB or AC or BC or ABC (i.e., A and B and C). Also, as used herein, the phrase "based on" shall not be construed as a reference to a closed set of conditions. For example, an exemplary step that is described as "based on condition A" may be based on both a condition A and a condition B without departing from the scope of the present disclosure. In other words, as used herein, the phrase "based on" shall be construed in the same manner as the phrase "based at least in part on."

[0136] Computer-readable media includes both non-transitory computer storage media and communication media including any medium that facilitates transfer of a computer program from one place to another. A non-transitory storage medium may be any available medium that can be accessed by a general puipose or special purpose computer. By way of example, and not limitation, non-transitory computer-readable media can comprise RAM, ROM, electrically erasable programmable read only memory (EEPROM), compact disk (CD) ROM or other optical disk storage, magnetic disk storage or other magnetic storage devices, or any other non-transitory medium that can be used to carry or store desired program code means in the form of instructions or data structures and that can be accessed by a general-purpose or special-purpose computer, or a general-purpose or special-purpose processor. Also, any connection is properly termed a computer-readable medium. For example, if the

software is transmitted from a website, server, or other remote source using a coaxial cable, fiber optic cable, twisted pair, digital subscriber line (DSL), or wireless technologies such as infrared, radio, and microwave, then the coaxial cable, fiber optic cable, twisted pair, digital subscriber line (DSL), or wireless technologies such as infrared, radio, and microwave are included in the definition of medium. Disk and disc, as used herein, include CD, laser disc, optical disc, digital versatile disc (DVD), floppy disk and Biu-ray disc where disks usually reproduce data magnetically, while discs reproduce data optically with lasers. Combinations of the above are also included within the scope of computer-readable media.

[0137] The description herein is provided to enable a person skilled in the art to make or use the disclosure. Various modifications to the disclosure will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art, and the generic principles defined herein may be applied to other variations without departing from the scope of the disclosure. Thus, the disclosure is not limited to the examples and designs described herein, but is to be accorded the broadest scope consistent with the principles and novel features disclosed herein.