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1. (WO2019027943) ELASTIC MATERIAL FOR COUPLING TIME-VARYING VIBRO-ACOUSTIC FIELDS PROPAGATING THROUGH A MEDIUM
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ELASTIC MATERIAL FOR COUPLING FIELDS PROPAGATING THROUGH A MEDIUM RELATED APPLICATIONS This application claims priorit Provisional Application OF GEOMETRIC ALTERATION TO ENABLE ELASTIC METAMATERIAL FUNCTIONALITY WITHIN LATTICE to was filed on My and incorporated by FIELD OF THE The present invention relates in general to articles of manufacture including heterogeneous composites as well as methods of and relates more particularly heterogeneous composites that exhibit a impedance with other and materials well as the method of manufacturing BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTIO lattice where elastic beams are connected together at joints to form a regular lattice of support extra degree of due to the absence of an elastic boundary condition at the Chiral and lattice feature trass termed for the purpose of this which extend from joints a specific rotational handedness to form a chiral The presence of truss beams in lattices can produce a particularly stiffness when compared to the stiffness of their component materials due to degree of The low stiffness in turn leads to low wave speeds short which are essential design features for applications that rely phase mitigation and While chiral and lattices known in their use in that wave propagation other has been to narrow range approximately matches that of the chiral lattice limitation due to the physical requirement that the impedance of two media must be in order to exchange significant of energy between the simpli fied of a wave propagating a normal incidence to the interface between two the impedance 1 oc each medium is proportional to the square root of the s stiffness and densit C is the relevant stiffness tensor component for a particular elastic wave polarization in elastic while C is the modulus fluid For homogenous both chiral and lattices from that material can lower stiffnesses than the in accordance with the impedance the density of ould have to increase in proportion to the decrease in stiffness order to keep the impedance of the lattice matched to its homogenous material I with density the ehirai and lattices would be to media with lower Matching the impedance of lattices is particularly challenging the matching similar t a dense fluid such as Many common elastic materials such as and biological matter have impedances that are least similar to and often higher than Taking water as an it is to reduce the of chiral lattices Blade irons plastic materials to achieve wave speeds of less than a tenth of The low stiffness and phase speed are achieved by rcnioving to form the of but this removal of material decreases the density of the plastic further reducing impedance to Although such low speeds advantageous for phase mitigation and resonance particularly those that require compact spatial the low compared with water makes lattices impractical for exchanging the lattices and a volume of BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION An embodiment of the inventio includes a for use in a comprising a medium The device includes an elastic material including a plurality of The plurality of cel ls includes first unit The uni cell includes a first cell joint comprising a first joint wall defining a first joint a first join inclusion located in the first joint central at least two first connected to and extending away from the first The elastic material includes an acousiic The impedance the medium impedance are sufficiently to propagating fields between maierial the An embodiment of the instant invention includes heterogeneous chiral and lattices for use m m i the of wa fields An illustrative goal of the embodiment to the phase manipulation of wave fields the wave fields ate reflected irons or transmitted through the An embodiment of invention includes heterogeneous elastic composites having impedance match with or adjacent fluid elastic The impedance enables the coupling of wave fields betwee elastic composites at least one where the wave propagation in the external mediom in turn be and mitigated through the proper design of such It finds particular application in conjunction utilizing ehirai lattice can be designed to have low ic wave speeds compared to their underlying material and will be described with particular reference However it is to appreciated that the present exemplary embodiments are also amenable to other Another embodiment of the invention includes the lattices selected to exhibit a low while simultaneously increasing the the Thi s embodiment of invention maintains the impedance a c lose to of a particular irrespective of the selection of wave speeds at different spatial locations within the BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS The following is a description of the which are presented for the purposes of illustrating the exemplary embodiments disclosed herein not purposes limiting the 1A is a schematic diagram of elastic material comprising a plurality of unit cells that form lattice in accordance with the present is a schematic diagram of a of an unit accordance with the present 2A is a schematic diagram of a unit cell having connecting arms extend from the edge of the unit ceil joint wall in accordance with the present is a schematic diagram of a unit cell having connecting from center of the uni t cell l in accordance with the present 2G a schematic diagram of a unit having arms that from a point between edge and the center of the unit joint in accordance with the present 2D is a schematic diagram of a unit cell with additional material added to the arms in accordance the present 3 A a schematic diagram of a of unit cells that are in the vertical direction in accordance with the present 3B is schematic diagram of a plurality of unit cells that alternate their geomelry other cell to form a in accordance with the present 3C a schematic diagram of a plurality of unit ceil their composition ever cell with a material is either homogenous or heterogenous in aeeordatice with present 3D is a schematic diagram of a plurality of cells having underlying unit cell geometries that are randoml in accordance with present A a diagram of cell connecting arms lengthened in one spatial direction in accordance the present 4B is a schematic diagram of an anisotropic unit joint walls and joist central voids extended in one spatial direction accordance the present 4C is a schematic diagram of an anisotropic unit cell with materials adjacent central voids accordance with the present 4D is a schematic diagram of an anisotropic unit cell with joint walls and joint central voids composed of different shapes in accordance the present 4E is a schematic of a trichiral unit in accordance wit the present 4F is a schematic diagram of an unit in accordance with the j 4 is a schematic di agram of a uni cell in accordance with the present is schematic diagram of trait i accordance wit the present is a diagram of the joining region two adjacent unit cells in the absence of joining region inclusions in accordance with the present 5B is a of the joining region between two adjacent unit cells having identical joining region located at the joining interface accordance with the present is a schematic diagram of the joining region two adjacent unit cells having joining region located at the joining interface that are different in and composition in accordance with the SD is a schematic diagram of the joining between two adjacent a unit cells having inclusions set back from the joining interface i accordance with the present 5E is schematic diagram of the joining regio between adjacent unit cell where joining region inclusions are used to directly a joint wall on one side of the joining region to an arm the other in accordance with the present 5F is a schematic diagram of the joining region an unit cell different homogenous or heterogeneous in accordance with the present is a schematic diagram of the joining region between two adjacent unit cells have rotated orientations and have as mmetric joining inclusions connecting the respective adjacent unit arms in accordance the present 6A is a diagram illustrating aperture that alters propagating fields that from a surface in accordance with the present is a schematic diagram illustrating aperture that alters propagating fields that are reflected transmitted throug said aperture i accordance the present schematic diagram illustrating an aperture featuring negative refraction that alters propagating fields that are reflected through said aperture in accordance with the present a schematic diagram illustrating an aperture that alters propagaiing fields that are incident on emanating from a curved source sensor in accordance with the present 7B is schematic diagram illustrating aperture that alters propagating fields thai are incident cm emanatin from a dire acoustic source in accordance with the present invention DETAILED DESCRIPTIO OF INVENTION J A complete understanding of articles processes disclosed herein can obtained b to the accompanying These figures are merely schematic representations based and the ease of demonstrating the present to indicate relative size and dimensions of the devices or components thereof to the scope the exemplary Although terms are used the following descriptio for the sake of these terms are intended to refer only to particular structure of the embodiments selected for illustration in the and are not t limit the scope of the An objective of instant invention is an material couples propagating field from a first medkim that support the propagation of such fields to a an embodiment of the second is the elastic material For the purpose of the instant the term refers to oscillation the position of particles that make up a which includes acoustic wave in fluids elastic wave fi In some embodiments of the the elastic material is made up of an underlying lattice of the wave of the propagating fields lattice becomes significantly reduced compared to the characteristic eompressional speed of the base material used to the In some embodiments of the the wave speed in the lattice is significantly lower than One or more wa ve speeds in the coupled Lower wa speeds produce shorter which result resonance phenomena at lower frequencies with a higher wave speed Shorter wavelengths also improve the of energy that is a propagating field the field propagates across a particular spatial one or more embodiments of the wa speeds the elastic material are spatially dependent and advance or retard the phase of propagating fields different amounts depending on the spatial location within the underlying goal of an embodiment of the invention is to maintain the coupling between a medium the elastic when the modulation are spatially For an embodiment of the 1A an elastic material including a plurality of unit cells The plurality of unit cells is also defined as a an embodiment of the invention such as shown in I the plurality of unit cells as an Although F A shows a in another embodiment of the number of unit cells in the lattice 100 Is extended the three orthogonal Cartesian directions to create a elastic of size appropriate to a another embodiment of the the lattice is extruded out of F A shows an illustrative unit cell as outlined by a rectangle with a Each unit cell 102 of the lattice is composed of least one 1 A an cell as outlined b a rectangle with a For in the rectangular border around cell includes dots and and the rectangular border around includes Each includes which tur includes an elastic joint wall encloses a joint central Each joint wall is connected adjacent joint y at least tw elastic connecting arms where the adjacent joint walls are in the same cell or an adjacent unit 1 and B show four connecting arms for of However one of ordinary ski ll in the readily appreciate that the of depends on the application includes or more than four connecting 1 B show connecting arms that straight without curvature for ease of one of ordinary skill in the art will readily appreciate that the curvature of the connecting depends on the s application and the optionally curve to two adjacent joint walls at varying The joint walls 1 12 connecting arms are separated by Although only tw gaps are in A and one of a in the readily appreciate that the number of gaps depends on the application and optionally includes or more The gaps are filled with a that allows the connecting arms to fle out of where one of the vectors defines the fiexural plane is parallel to the direction of the connecting extension the joint a embodiment in ven comprising the gaps includes a standard such as a standard embodiment of the the gaps are thereb enclosing a vacuum or still another the are filled with a standard elastic material with a bulk shear density that not suppress the propagation of waves along the connecting In the shown I A and I unit 102 of the lattice connecting arms 1 S oriented some embodiments of the the unit has connecting arms oriented a other embodiments of the the plurality of unit cells include an a or An illustrative goal of instant invention is to create a material that couples propagating fields between the lattice and an exterior medium when the exterior medium is brought into mechanical contact with the The term is defined herein as act of bringing exterior medium into mechanical contact the lattice 100 some fraction of energ contained in a field transfers the two an embodiment of the the exterior medium for standard fluid or standard elastic and exterior a standard homogenous material or a standard heterogeneous another embodiment of the the aforementioned heterogeneous material includes In order to achieve sufficient coupling between the exterior medium and the the material of the joint void is chose such that the plurality unit as a whole are approximately to the exterior For the purpose of the present an impedance match is defined as a impedance contrast between the lattice and exterior medium that sufficiently small such the transferred portion of propagating energy achieves the goal of an embodiment of the invention under The primary of selecting the composition of the joint central to predetermined composi te of the plurality of unit cells a The composite is herein as the density that the lattice appears to have if the lattice were assumed to be a homogenous at a given frequency of The composite density has also been termed an in the Seleeting the composition of the joint central voids in this way determines the den sity of the lattice without signi ficantly impacting the and mechanical stiffnesses of the plurality of unit the freedom to select the composite density of the plurality of unit cells while leaving stiffness only slightly provides a of selecting the wave speed of the lattice while maintainin approximately same m an of the the joint central voids for filled wit a standard acoustic fluid or a standard elastic and the central voids for filled with a standard homogenous a standard heterogeneous another embodiment of the the central voids for tilled with of such standard Another illustrative goal of invention is to create a material that a wave that simultaneously maintains the coupling of propagating fields between the plurality of unit cells a medium or order to accomplish this a mechanism is required to the dynamic composite stiffness of lurality of unit cells as a whole without significantly modifyin density of the The composite defined herein as the stiffness that the lattice appears to have if the lattice were assumed to be a homogenous medium at a given frequency o The dynamic composite stiffness has also been an in the relevant The second mechanism is to select the position and orientation of the connecting arms As illustrated the embodiment of an unit cell 206 in the position of the connecting s can be at the edge 1 of the joint wall as shown in at the center of the joint wall as shown in or in between the edge and center of the joint wail as shown in in each case without c hanging the directi on of extension of the connecting arms The embodimen t of the invention shown by way of illustration in 2B represents the special where the asymmetry of the unit is An embodiment of the shown by way of illustration 2 represents the geometric configuration of the unit 102 with the lowest while embodiment of the shown by way of illustration in represents the highest stiffness of ordinary in the art will readily appreciate that positioning of the connecting arras between these two extremes allows for the selec tion of a stiffness appropriate for the By selecting geometric position of the connecting amis 228 and the material composition of the central joint voids wave speed and impedance of the lattice independently In this the wave speed of the lattice can be selected to have plurality of values while preserving an approximate impedance match with an exterior In some embodiments of the the connecting do not have a uniforftT thickness acros their ex In other of the such that shown additional material materials 209 added to the connecting arms and serve to provide an additional means of selecting the composite density and stiffness of the The additional materials 209 include standard or standard homogeneous and their geometry respect to the can be selected to meet the requirements of specific the geometries of the additional 209 for standard shapes as and The additional material 208 not be the same as the additional material 209 iocaied in a different part of the unit cell and their respective geometries need not be the material composition of the joint walls the connecting the joint central voids 1 the gaps and the additional materials to the connecting arms depend on intended For an illustrative embodiment the joint wall and connecting are made from a standard a siandar a standard metal a a standard a standard a standard a standard elastic and or a standard ceramic that is amenable to manufacturing usin a standard additive build Examples such metal include and an example of such a ceramic is and an of such a polymer is butadiene some embodiments of the the polymers used in additive build process are standard After manufacturing the joint walls and the joint central voids and gaps are optionally filled in standard Examples such fi lling materials are standard standard and other standard an illustrative embodiment that is intended to with the exterior medium of the joint walk and connecting arms are out of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene using a standard The joint central voids are filled with where the tungsten is inserted using rods that have the same geometry as the joint central The gaps with In the aforementioned embodiment of the th wave speed of the lattice can be reduced to that of water while maintaining a impedance match with Tungsten composite density of the lattice reduce the wave and to the impedance of the Although tungsten used to the joint central voids in this embodiment of the one of ordiiiary skill in the art will readily appreciate that any that is denser than water he used to the joint central other embodiments of the the tungsten is exchanged another dense material such as or some embodiments of the one or more components of the unit cell are manufactured out of a standard piezoelectric such as lead or a standard or as a standard polymer containing ferromagnetic in order to introduce an active component that acoustic fields within the lattice the application of an electric or magnetic In some embodiments o f the the components of the unit cell are east wi thin a using a standard casting The casting process and moid components depend on embodiments that utilize for illustrative casting materials standard and embodiments that utilize the casting of for illustrative casting materials include polycarbonate and some embodiments of the the joint walk and connecting act as for the of materials into the joint central voids and In oilier embodiments of the the joint central voids and gaps act as molds for the easti ng of materi into the joint walls one more embodiments of the the of the cell are manufactured out of standard foams that have high in some embodiment of the the base of the foams includes standard such as other embodiments of the base material of the foams includes standard such as aluminum or In one or more embodiments of the the components of the unit cell are etched out of a standard semiconducting material using a standard For standard semiconducting wafer etching used to produce lattice structures consistent with embodiments of the Examples of such semiconducting material s include gallium or For an illustrative embodiment of the where the joint and connecting are at of a semiconducting the joint central voids and gaps are then filled with other through rd mask and deposition applications include the production of delay lines that function using surface acoustic waves or other coupled elastic one or more embodiments of the the are manufactured with characteristic scale that is important to the propagation of the transport of a In such embodiments of the unit are optimized for the purpose of thermal or phonon through the elastic material In one or embodiments of the the materials the unit cell components are standard composite materials such as carbon epoxy or standard nylon compos other the materials making up the unit cell components ate standard rubbers such as butyl rubber or one or more embodiments of the invention multiple gaps axe the materials filling the gaps and are not the same in other gap 104 and gap have respective one or more embodiments of the plurality of unit cells produce gaps at certain oscillation frequencies suppress the propagation of acoustie A is defined herein as a band of frequencies where there are modes of p ropagating fie lds in the latti such embodimen ts of the material composition of the joint central voids and or the location of the connecting arras 1 determine the range of frequencies at which gaps In some embodiments of the the range in frequency of the gaps is determined by selecting the materi al composition of the central void In one or more embodiments of the the plural ity of unit cells 100 produce a of propagating oscillation frequencies where the lattice vibrates at only one vibrational embodiments of the the single vibrational has a polarization defined by or mi of and shear The material composition of joint central voids and the location of connecting arms 1 deiemiined in order to select in turn the ra ge of at which these single vibrational modes An illustrative embodiment of the that produces single modes propagation is lattice where the joint walls and connecting arms of the unit cell 102 are composed of acrylon In an of the in vention where the joint 114 are filled with the band of is broken up by complete band an embodiment of the in vention where the joint wall is seleeted to be thereby in the joint central void butadiene the gaps forms at higher while the bands of propagation at lower an embodiment of the invention where th connecting arms 228 of the unit 204 are selected to be between the center and edge of the joint wall the of propagation forms at a higher frequen cy compared to an embodi ment of the i nvention wh erein a unit celt includes connecting arms at the edge of the joint Another illustrative of this invention is to create a material that has a spatiall heterogeneous distribution of wave accordance some aspects of the present embodiments of the showing standard anisotropic and standard disordered heterogeneous elastic materials a plurality of cells The erm elastic as used for the purpose of the instant specification refers to an elastic material with a plurality of unit but where at least one of the unit cells is not identical to the Each unit 3 does no have the same geometry as its adjacent unit In some of the such as shown in 3 ceils have wherein the unit cells have one or more features that diffe from cell to cell in at one spatial other embodiments of the the cells 312 have wherein the unit cells one or more geometric features thai differ from plurality of unit cells to plurality of cells i at least one spatial in other embodiments of the the unit cells have wherein unit cells have one more geometric features that differ between of unit in at least spatial embodiments of the as tha shown in unit alternate back forth between at two cell geometries in at least one The of such embodiments are referred to as a in the literature for the of this The lattices shown and 3B are described as which for the purpose of this specification are lattices that have than one type of unit that repeat in a regular order in at least one one or more embodiments of the such as that shown in the unit cells alternate with other types of material geometries 309 in at least one spatial The alternate geometries 308 309 are a heterogeneous geometry or a homogeneous and need no be composed of the same The term refers to a composed of a single refers to a composed of more than one material Heterogeneous geometries can be heterogeneous geometries or lattice The term heterogeneous refers herein to a geometry composed of multiple component that do not repeat in space with a regular The term refers herein to a an underlying unit cell repeats space with a Disordered heterogeneous geometries are either wherein there are no lattice geometries any component or disordered heterogeneous which contain component geometries that form a lattice but that do not repeat space beyond a confined in one or of the such as that shown in cells have geometries that do not repeat i a order and have randomized hut nevertheless preserve an underlying regular spatial In one or embodiments of the the rotational of each unit cell is not preserved between causing functionally or random orientations across the entire plurality of unit cel ls accordance some aspects of the present illustrates alternate embodiments of the unit cells that make up the structures depicted in one or embodiments of the such as shown in the connecting arms 404 of the unit cell 400 are lengthened in at one direction when compared to connecting arms 406 in orthogonal directions in order to produce an anisotropic and thereby produce anisotropic material one or more embodiments of the such show size geometry of the elastic joint walls 416 of the unit 4 1 extended or contracted in at least compared to other orthogonal thereby creating anisotropic material In or more such as in the material composition of one joint central void 408 of the unit cell 402 differs from that of at one adjacent joint void thereby creating material In one or more embodiments of the such as shown geometric shape of the elastic joint walls 426 are selected to impose alternative symmetries and asymmetries to the unit In such embodiments of the the geometry of one particular elastic joint 420 is the same or different from the joint of adjacent In one or more embodiments the such shown in the elastic joint wait includes a standard shap such as rectangle a standard oval a standard triangle or a standard In one or embodiments of the axes of symmetry of the geometry defining the elastic joint 426 is with respect to the direction of extension of the connecting arms which is exemplified by rotated 422 in the upper of the unit cell in 4 in one or of the the introduced by appropriately selecting the geometry of the unit cells 40 403 i at one principal directio creates directional band gaps in at least one principal direction compared to other In some embodiments of the the directional band gap creates a hyperbolic band structure over a range of oscillation such embodiments the the range of frequencies tha t feature the directional hyperbol ic bands are determined by appropriate selection of the material composition of the connecting arms the join walls and the joini central voids and one or of the snob in and the lattice unit cell is configured as a an or a symmetry respectively In one or more embodiments of the the unit cells such as in and are extruded of plane to form a In other embodiments of the such a tetrachiral unit cell shown the lattice is the fl embodiment of any unit cell consistent this in embodiments of the the unit cells 415 take on any geometric modifications consisten with this In one or more embodiments of the the bands approach a B mm a linear such of the the which the and the boundary is selected by the geometric material composition of the the joint the joint central For the selection of locating the connecting arms S at the edge of the joint walls In if instead the connecting are located between the edge and the center of the joint walls the dynamic composite stillness of unit whicli turn increases the frequency which a linear another illustrative embodiment of the the f at which a crosses the boundary is selected by selecting the scale of the unit In one or more embodiments of the invention where different unit cells are coupled for example as show in a of requires a modification of the joinin regions where the cells are coupled to other adjacent unit For the illustrative joining region 500 in 5 no modification of the joining region is required to couple two identical cells 02 because the connecting arm to the left of the joining region meets the connecting 522 the right of the joining region in the spatial For the joining region shown in some embodiments of the invention include joining region inclusions to couple the connecting arm 521 to of the joining region connecting 532 to righ of the joining because the two connecting arras 532 do not meet in the same spatial Such a inclusion for for embodiments of the invention wherei the filling the gaps 536 the connecting has a substantially different impedance when the material composition of the for embodiment of the invention where the connecting include a metal and the 536 are filled with there significantly degraded coupling between connecting the gap because of the high impedance contrast such the joining region inclusions 505 are selected to be composed of an appropriate such as the same to provide improved coupling adjacent unit one or more embodiments of the such as shown in the joining region inclusions 507 have the same geometry and are symmetric about the joining region other embodiments of the the joining region inclusions 08 do not have the same material symmetry of location the the example shown FIG the joining region 504 i selected to have a geometry from the inclusion the joining region inclusion 50 is selected to have different material composition the inclusion In or more embodim en ts of invention such shown in the joining region inclusions 527 are located at a position offset from the joining regio location When offset by some distance from the joining region some embodiments of the inventio joining inclusions 525 selected to have the same material Other embodiments of the invention will have joining 527 that t have different material or more embodiments of the as show in the connecting arms 537 of a single cell 202 are connected directly to the joint walls 538 of an unit 102 joining region inclusions 1 one or more of the such as shown in unit cell is coupled to a homogenous or heterogenous geometry by attaching the connecting arms 542 the geometry at the joining region one more of the the homogenous or heterogenous 528 fills the gaps 544 on the other side of the joining regioo one or more of the such shown in where adjacent unit cells 102 and 204 have a rotated orientation with respect to joining region inclusions are used to couple the connecting arms of these two cells The joining region inclusions 516 are extended to bridge the additional space by the rotated The additional space 546 is for with any material consistent with thi s di or is In embodiments of the the material filling the additional 546 is selected to be same as the selected to the gaps in other embodiments of the the materials filling the additional space and gaps each Another illustrative of this Invention i to that can alter the propagation of fields an exterior as the field propagates away from its order to alter the propagation of such the fields must be coupled into the one or more embodiments of the such as depicted exterior media coupled to lattices In one or embodiments the such as shown in the lattice 602 is resting on a surface that primarily reflects incoming propagating fields in such embodiments of the exterior media include standard heterogeneous media or homogeneous and include or elastic embodiments f the the lattices include a plurality of unit cells with composition that is consistent the instant invention as described purpose of the embodiment F 6A is to use the coupling with lattice 602 to preserve or modify the outgoing reflected propagating field In one or more embodiments of the exterior medium 600 some embodiments of the the lattice 602 has a acoustic wave speed such that the ou field 60S propagates away from the lattice at a different reflection angel than the incident angle of the incident field some embodiments of the the field 60S is focused and a finite spatial within the exterior In embodiments of the amplitude of the field 60S is minimized due to finite absolution in the lattice In some embodiments of the the field is dispersed in random other embodiments of the the field 608 mimics the radiated spatial and temporal field would have generated by least one source situated on the reflecting surface one or embodiments of the such as depicted in the lattice transfers an incident propagating field 606 from a source medium 614 to destination some embodiments of the source and are of the same standard in other embodiments of the the source medium and the destination medium are composed of different standard A purpose of the embodiment of the invention depicted in 6 to use the aeoustic coupling with the lattice 610 to preserve or modify both the field 608 reflected from lattice and the field 620 transmitted through the some embodiments of the the lattice wave such at least one of the fields reflected 608 and transmitted 620 by the lattice propagates with different reflection angle and transmission angle with that of the incident angle In one or more embodiments of the at least one of the fields reflected 608 and transmitted 620 by lattiee is fbcused and within finite spatial region within at least one of the exterior media 614 and some of the the amplitude of one of the fields reflected 608 and transmitted 620 by the lattice due t finite absorption in in other embodiments of the at least one of the fields reflected and transmitted 620 by the lattice is dispersed in random one more embodiments of the the amplitude of reflected field 608 is to an approximate impedance match between the lattice and exterior media 614 and other embodiments of the invention the impedance of the source medium 614 differs from that of the destination medium the amplitude of the reflected field 608 is minimized a acoustic impedance in lattice In one or more embodiments of the the lattices 602 are used to exchange the primary polarization of incident wave such embodiments of th the 602 and polarization to shear polarization transform the shear polarization to one or more embodiments of the source and destination medium are other embodiments of the the source medium 614 is a standard elastic material contains a standard while the destination medium is the body of animal or body of a in other embodiments of the the source medium 614 is a standard elastic that contains a standard while the medium is a elastic medium thai is the target of In one more embodiments of the inventi the thickness of the lattices 602 and i s much smaller than the wa velength of propagation in at least one of the source medi a and the destination medium In embodiments of lattices 602 and 610 are defined as for the purpose of the one or more embodiments of the purpose of coupling to such meiasuriaee lattices ami is to create resonances in the meiasuriaee some embodiments of the the lattices 602 and delay the phase a propagating over length by up to and including 360 In one or more embodiments of the the lattices 602 and 610 are used to focus a field into a spatial that size and smaller than the diffraction limit Such a embodiment functions as a for purpose of the instant s that term is used in the relevant When the focusing occurs due to an interaction a hyperbolic band such an embodiment functions as a for th purpose of the specification as that term is used in the relevant In such embodiments of the is possible to focus the components of a one or more embodiments of the such a tot the lattice creates negative refraction backward Backward reflection occurs when the field 624 propagates a direction is back the incident field on the side of the 628 to the surface interfacin with the lattice Negative refraction occurs when the transmitted field 630 propagates away i a direction tha is on the same side of the line 629 to the interfacing with the lattice one or more embodiments of the in as shown the lattices are wrapped around field sources sensors which are situated in exterior media The purpose of such embodiments of the invention is to preserve or the spatial temporal content of the fields as they leave the or recei ved by the One of ord inary skill in the art readily appreciate that a component that be as a field source can also used to sense embodiments of the the media 701 heterogeneous or and standard acoustic or standard elastic such embodiments of the the lattices have a of unit composition is consistent with the instant invention as described in some embodiments of the the field sensor include a group of multiple standard sources standard one or more of the as that shown in the field source 708 propagates fields outward an pattern with or cylindrical of the the lattice 706 maintains changes the spatial of the propagating fields 704 such that spherical or symmetry is preserved or is when the field source used to sense incoming fields the or cylindrical symmetry of the spatial sensitivity is preserved or one or more embodi ments of the as shown in the propagates fields 705 outward in a directed beam soch embodiments of the the lattice 712 maintains or changes the temporal spatial content the propagating fields 705 that the beam shape it directivity is when the field source to sense incoming fields the sensitivit preserved or or more embodiments of the the lattices 706 used to exchange the primary polarization of the outgoin fields In embodiments of the the lattices 712 transform polarization to shear polarization or the shear polarization to A transformation to shear polarization possible when the exterior media 701 are standard elastic in other of the lattices 706 and are used the primary polarization of the incoming such of l ve the exterior media are standard fluids or standard elastic Although particular of the disclosure may have been illustrated described with respect one several such feature may be one or other features o f the o ther implementations as may be des ired and advantageous for any given or particular to the extent that the terms or variants thereof are used in the detailed description in ihe such terms are intended to be a manner similar to the term This written sets the best mode of the invention and provides examples to describe the invention and to enable a person of ordinary skill i the art to make use the in This written description does not limit the invention to the precise tenns while the invention has been described in detail with reference to the examples forth those of ordinary skill in the art may alterati modifications and variation s to the examples without departin the scope of the These and other implementations are within the scope of the following insufficientOCRQuality