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1. (WO2019027428) MULTI-MINERAL SUPPLEMENT FOR IMPROVED BONE DENSITY
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CLAIMS

What is claimed is:

1. A mineral supplement for enhancing bone growth or density, comprising:

a source of magnesium;

a source of copper;

a source of zinc; and

a source of strontium,

wherein the mineral supplement is formulated to provide magnesium, strontium, copper, and zinc to a subject in a Mg:Sr:Cu:Zn molar ratio of 0.8-2.4:5.3-15.8: 1: 1.3-5, and

wherein the mineral supplement is formulated to provide an increase in bone density or bone volume relative to a mineral supplement comprising magnesium in the absence of copper, zinc, and strontium.

2. The mineral supplement of claim 1, wherein the mineral supplement does not include calcium.

3. The mineral supplement of claim 1 or claim 2, wherein the source of magnesium is not an organic magnesium salt, the source of copper is not an organic copper salt, the source of zinc is not an organic zinc salt, and the source of strontium is not an organic strontium salt.

4. The mineral supplement of one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the source of magnesium is selected from the group consisting of a magnesium salt, a magnesium complex, and a magnesium-containing compound.

5. The mineral supplement of claim 4, wherein the magnesium salt comprises an anion selected from the group consisting of chloride, fluoride, carbonate, bicarbonate, sulfate, phosphate, borate, and nitrate.

6. The mineral supplement of one of claims 1 to 5, wherein the source of copper is selected from the group consisting of a copper salt, a copper complex, and a copper-containing compound.

7. The mineral supplement of claim 6, wherein the copper salt comprises an anion selected from the group consisting of chloride, fluoride, carbonate, bicarbonate, sulfate, phosphate, borate, and nitrate.8. The mineral supplement of one of claims 1 to 7, wherein the source of zinc is selected from the group consisting of a zinc salt, a zinc complex, and a zinc-containing compound.

9. The mineral supplement of claim 8, wherein the zinc salt comprises an anion selected from the group consisting of chloride, fluoride, carbonate, bicarbonate, sulfate, phosphate, borate, and nitrate.

10. The mineral supplement of one of claims 1 to 9, wherein the source of strontium is selected from the group consisting of a strontium salt, a strontium complex, and a strontium-containing compound.

11. The mineral supplement of claim 10, wherein the strontium salt comprises an anion selected from the group consisting of chloride, fluoride, carbonate, bicarbonate, sulfate, phosphate, borate, and nitrate.

12. The mineral supplement of one of claims 1 to 11, wherein the mineral supplement is formulated as an injectable.

13. The mineral supplement of one of claims 1 to 11, wherein the mineral supplement is formulated for oral administration.

14. The mineral supplement of claim 13, wherein the content of at least one of the source of magnesium, the source of copper, the source of zinc, and the source of strontium is adjusted by one or more oral absorption factor to provide an absorbed Mg:Sr:Cu:Zn molar ratio of 0.8-2.4:5.3-15.8: 1: 1.3-5.

15. The mineral supplement of one of claims 1 to 11, wherein the application is formulated for topical application.

16. The mineral supplement of claim 15, wherein the content of at least one of the source of magnesium, the source of copper, the source of zinc and the source of strontium is adjusted by one or more topical absorption factor to provide an absorbed Mg:Sr:Cu:Zn molar ratio of 0.8-2.4:5.3-15.8: 1: 1.3-5.

17. The mineral supplement of one of claims 1 to 11, wherein the composition is formulated as a surgical implant.

18. The mineral supplement of claim 17, wherein the content of at least one of the source of magnesium, the source of copper, the source of zinc and the source of strontium is adjusted by one or more implant absorption factor to provide an absorbed Mg:Sr:Cu:Zn molar ratio of 0.8-2.4:5.3-15.8: 1: 1.3-5.

19. The mineral supplement of claim 18, wherein the Mg:Cu:Zn:Sr molar ratio is 1.2:7.2-7.9: 1:2.5.

20. The mineral supplement of claim 18, wherein the surgical implant further comprises an absorbable carrier.

21. The mineral supplement of one of claims 1 to 20, further comprising an element selected from the group consisting of barium, boron, calcium, potassium, and vanadium.

22. A method of increasing bone density or improving osteogenesis, comprising:

providing a mineral supplement comprising a source of magnesium, a source of copper, a source of zinc, and a source of strontium; and

applying the mineral supplement to an individual in need of increased bone density or improved osteogenesis,

wherein the mineral supplement is formulated to provide magnesium, copper, zinc, and strontium to the individual at a Mg:Sr:Cu:Zn molar ratio of 0.8-2.4:5.3- 15.8: 1: 1.3-5, and

wherein the mineral supplement is formulated to provide an increase in bone density or bone volume relative to a mineral supplement comprising magnesium in the absence of copper, zinc, and strontium.

23. The method of claim 22, wherein the mineral supplement does not include calcium.

24. The method of claim 22 or claim 23, wherein the source of magnesium is not an organic magnesium salt, the source of copper is not an organic copper salt, the source of zinc is not an organic zinc salt, and the source of strontium is not an organic strontium salt.

25. The method of one of claims 22 to 24, wherein the mineral supplement is applied by injection or infusion of a solution comprising the mineral supplement.

26. The method of one of claims 22 to 24, wherein the mineral supplement is applied by topical application of a lotion, gel, suspension, or solution comprising the mineral supplement.

27. The method of one of claims 22 to 24, wherein the mineral supplement is applied by oral administration of a pill, tablet, capsule, solution, or suspension comprising the mineral supplement.

28. The method of one of claims 22 to 24, wherein the mineral supplement is applied as a surgical implant, wherein at least a portion of the surgical implant comprises the mineral supplement.

29. The method of one of claims 22 to 28, wherein the mineral supplement further comprises an element selected from the group consisting of barium, boron, calcium, potassium, and vanadium.

30. The method of one of claims 22 to 28, further comprising the step of coadministering a supplementary formulation comprising an element selected from the group consisting of barium, boron, calcium, potassium, and vanadium.

31. The method of claim 30, wherein barium is provided as a barium salt comprising an anion selected from the group consisting of chloride, fluoride, carbonate, bicarbonate, sulfate, phosphate, borate, and nitrate.

32. The method of claim 30 or 31, wherein calcium is provided as a calcium salt comprising an anion selected from the group consisting of chloride, fluoride, carbonate, bicarbonate, sulfate, phosphate, borate, and nitrate.

33. The method of one of claims 30 to 32, wherein calcium is provided as a calcium salt comprising an anion selected from the group consisting of chloride, fluoride, carbonate, bicarbonate, sulfate, phosphate, borate, and nitrate.

34. The method of one of claims 30 to 33, wherein potassium is provided as a potassium salt comprising an anion selected from the group consisting of chloride, fluoride, carbonate, bicarbonate, sulfate, phosphate, borate, and nitrate.

35. The method of one of claims 30 to 34, wherein vanadium is provided as a vanadium salt comprising an anion selected from the group consisting of chloride, fluoride, carbonate, bicarbonate, sulfate, phosphate, borate, and nitrate.

36. The method of one of claims 30 to 35, wherein boron is provided as a borate salt or a boron arbohydrate complex.