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1. (WO2019025391) ANTIBODIES WITH FUNCTIONAL DOMAINS IN THE ELBOW REGION BETWEEN VARIABLE ADN CONSTANT DOMAIN
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ANTIBODIES WITH FUNCTIONAL DOMAINS IN THE ELBOW REGION BETWEEN VARIABLE ADN CONSTANT DOMAIN

The present invention relates to the field of engineered antibodies with an additional functional domain, such as multispecific antibody formats. In particular, the present invention relates to engineered antibodies, in which an additional functional domain is inserted into the elbow region of the antibody. Accordingly, for example a multispecific antibody format is provided, in which an additional binding site (specificity) is inserted into the elbow region of an antibody.

In the recent years a variety of multispecific antibody formats emerged, based on molecular engineering of classical naturally occurring antibodies, such as IgC, which bind specifically to one antigen type. In contrast to classical naturally occurring antibodies, such as IgG, multispecific antibodies are able to bind to two or more distinct targets, thereby offering a large spectrum of applications.

Classical naturally occurring antibodies are Y-shaped molecules comprising four polypeptide chains: two heavy chains and two light chains (Fig. 1 A). Each light chain consists of two domains, the N-terminal domain being known as the variable or VL domain and the C-terminal domain being known as the constant domain or CL. Each heavy chain consists of four or five domains, depending on the class of the antibody. The N-terminal domain of the heavy chain is known as the variable or VH domain. The next domain in N-C-terminal direction is known as the first constant or CHI domain. The next part of the heavy chain is known as the hinge region, which is typically followed by the second, third and, in some cases, fourth constant or CH2, CH3 and CH4 domains respectively. The constant region, which comprises the constant domains, is identical in all antibodies of the same isotype, but differs in antibodies of different isotypes. Heavy chains γ, a and δ have a constant region composed of three tandem (in a line) Ig domains, and a hinge region for added flexibility; heavy chai ns μ and ε have a constant region composed of four immunoglobul in domains.

In addition to the hinge region, also the elbow region is known to provide flexibi lity for antigen binding. The elbow region is the junction between the variable domains and the constant domains i n the heavy and light chains of the antibody. Typical ly, the C-terminus of the variable domain (VH or VL) is directly linked to the N-terminus of the most N-terminal constant domain (typical ly CH 1 or CL), and the junction between the C-terminus of the variable domain (VH or VL) and the N-terminus of the most N-terminal constant domai n (typical ly CH 1 or CL) is referred to as "elbow" or "elbow region". The elbow region allows for bendi ng and rotation of the variable domains relative to the constant domains. The elbow region is also referred to as "molecular bal l-and-socket joint" based on the range of motion provided by the elbow region (Lesk AM, Chothia C. Elbow motion in the immunoglobulins involves a molecular ball-and-socket joi nt. Nature. 1 988 Sep 8;335(61 86): 1 88-90).

In an assembled antibody, the VL and VH domains associate together to form an antigen binding site. Also, the CL and CH 1 domains associate together to keep one heavy chai n associated with one light chain. Each heavy chain hi nge region includes at least one, and often several, cysteine residues. In the assembled antibody, the cysteine residues in the heavy chains are aligned so that disulfide bonds can be formed between the cysteine residues in the hinge regions covalently bondi ng the two heavy-light chain heterodimers together. Thus, fully assembled antibodies are monospecific in that they bind one antigen type and bivalent in that they have two i ndependent antigen binding sites.

Based on the structure of such monospecific bivalent classical natural ly occurring antibodies, a variety of multispecific antibody formats was designed (for review see Spiess C, Zhai Q, Carter PJ . Alternative molecular formats and therapeutic applications for bispecific antibodies. Mol Immunol . 201 5 Oct;67(2 Pt A):95-1 06 and Weidle UH, Tiefenthaler G, Weiss EH, Georges G, Brinkmann U. The intriguing options of multispecific antibody formats for treatment of cancer. Cancer Genomics Proteomics. 201 3 Jan-Feb;1 0(1 ):1 -1 8). In general, prior art multispecific antibody formats can be classified into five disti nct structural groups: (i) multispecific IgG, (i i) appended IgG, (i i i) multispecific antibody fragments, (iv) multispecific fusion proteins and (v) multispecific antibody conjugates (Spiess C, Zhai Q, Carter PJ . Alternative molecular formats and therapeutic applications for bispecific antibodies. Mol Immunol. 201 5 Oct;67(2 Pt A):95-1 06).

Multispecific IgG antibody formats are typical ly monovalent for each specificity (antigen). Initial attempts to couple the bi ndi ng specificities of two whole antibodies against different target antigens for therapeutic purposes utilized chemically fused heteroconjugate molecules (Staerz et al .(1 985), Nature 31 4: 628-631 ). Bispecific antibodies were produced from hybrid hybridomas by heterohybridoma techniques (Mi lstein & Cuello (1 983) Nature 305 :537-540). Multispecific IgG antibody formats i nclude CrossMab, DAF (two-in-one), DAF (four-in-one), DutaMab, DT-lgG, Knobs-i n-holes common LC, Knobs-in-hoies assembly, Charge pair, Fab-arm exchange, SEEDbody, Triomab, LUZ-Y, Fcab, κλ-body and orthogonal Fab, for example as described i n Spiess C, Zhai Q, Carter Pj. Alternative molecular formats and therapeutic applications for bispecific antibodies. Mol Immunol . 201 5 Oct;67(2 Pt A):95-1 06.

I n appended IgG antibody formats, classical monospecific IgG is engi neered by appending additional antigen-binding moieties to the N- and/or C-terminus of the heavy and/or light chain. Examples of such additional antigen-binding moieties include si ngle domai n antibodies (unpaired VH or VL), paired antibody variable domains, such as Fv or scFv, or engineered protein scaffolds. Appended IgG antibody formats include DVD-igG, lgG(H)-scFv, scFv-(H)lgG, lgG(L)-scFv, scFv-(L)lgG, lgG(L,H)-Fv, lgG(H)-V, V(H)-lgG, lgC(L)-V, V(L)-lgG, KI H IgG-scFab, 2scFv-lgG, lgG-2scFv, scFv4-lg, and Zybody, for example as described in Spiess C, Zhai Q, Carter PJ. Alternative molecular formats and therapeutic applications for bispecific antibodies. Mol Immunol . 201 5 Oct;67(2 Pt A):95-1 06. DVI-lgG (four i n one) is an appended IgG antibody format combi ned with a mu ltispecific IgG antibody format, as described above. One potential advantage of appended multispecific IgG formats is that they can enable the simultaneous bindi ng of antigen to al l variable domai ns and hence provide a higher specific bi nding capacity.

Multispecific antibody fragments typically lack one or more constant domains in comparison to natural ly occurring antibodies. Multispecific antibody fragments include nanobodies; nanobody-HAS; BiTEs; diabodies; DART; TandAb; scDiaboclies; sc-Diabody-CH3; Diabody-

CH3; Triple Bodies; Mi niantibodies; Minibodies; Tri B i minibodies; scFv-CH3 KIH; Fab-scFv; scFv-CH-CL-scFv; F(ab')2; F(ab')2-scFv2; scFv-K!H; Fab-scFv-Fc; Tetravalent HCAb; scDiabody-Fc; Diabody-Fc; Tandem scFv-Fc; and intrabodies, as described, for example, i n Spiess C, Zhai Q, Carter PJ. Alternative molecular formats and therapeutic applications for bispecific antibodies. Mol Immunol. 201 5 Oct;67(2 Pt A):95-1 06. Multispecific fusion proteins i nclude Dock and Lock; ImmTAC; HSAbody; scDiabody-HAS; and Tandem scFv-Toxin, as described for example in Spiess C, Zhai Q. and Carter P.J . (201 5) Molecular Immunology 67: 95-1 06, i n particular Fig. 1 and corresponding description, e.g. p. 95 - 101 . Multispecific antibody conjugates include IgG-lgG; Cov-X-Body; and scFv1 -PEG-scFv2, as described for example in Spiess C, Zhai Q. and Carter P.J. (201 5) Molecular Immunology 67: 95-1 06, in particular Fig. 1 and correspondi ng description, e.g. p. 95 - 1 01 .

Typical ly, the antibody format is chosen depending on the envisaged application. For example, a long pharmacological half-life is desirable for many appl ications. It is commonly accomplished by including an Fc region - whereas for other applications a short half-life (and, thus, no Fc region) may be advantageous. Moreover, production yields may play a role, in particular since production of multispecific IgG antibody formats by co-expression of the two disti nct light and heavy chains in a single host cel l is known to be highly chal lengi ng and may result in mispaired antibodies, which may be difficult to remove. In addition, many antibody formats, such as appended IgG antibody formats, typically require linkers in order to provide sufficient flexibi l ity for simultaneous binding of distinct antigens - but the flexible nature of linkers may make them more prone to proteolytic cleavage, potential ly leading to poor antibody stabi lity, aggregation and increased immunogenicity. Of note, for certain appl ications, antibody stabi lity may be more important than binding capacity or vice versa, depending on the appl ication. In addition, the antibody format may be chosen depending on the specificity, i.e. certain antigen bi nding sites achieve better production yields, stabi lity and/or bi ndi ng values i n a certai n antibody format - whereas other specificities achieve better characteristics in other antibody formats (e.g., clue to the size/structure/nature of the targeted antigen).

Accordingly, there is a need for further antibody formats providi ng distinct characteristics. I n view thereof, it is the object of the present i nvention to provide a novel antibody format with additional functionalities, for example multispecific antibodies or antibodies engineered to provide a further functionality, such as a reporter functionality, a translocation functionality, or a carrier functionality. The novel antibody format may optionally be combined with known antibody formats, for example to obtai n antibodies with multiple binding sites or bispecific antibodies with additional functionalities. These objects are achieved by means of the subject-matter set out below and in the appended claims.

Although the present invention is described in detail below, it is to be understood that this invention is not limited to the particular methodologies, protocols and reagents described herein as these may vary. It is also to be understood that the terminology used herein is not intended to limit the scope of the present invention which will be limited only by the appended claims. Unless defined otherwise, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meanings as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art.

In the following, the elements of the present invention will be described. These elements are listed with specific embodiments, however, it should be understood that they may be combined in any manner and in any number to create additional embodiments. The variously described examples and preferred embodiments should not be construed to limit the present invention to only the explicitly described embodiments. This description should be understood to support and encompass embodiments which combine the explicitly described embodiments with any number of the disclosed and/or preferred elements. Furthermore, any permutations and combinations of all described elements in this application should be considered disclosed by the description of the present application unless the context indicates otherwise.

Throughout this specification and the claims which follow, unless the context requires otherwise, the term "comprise", and variations such as "comprises" and "comprising", will be understood to imply the inclusion of a stated member, integer or step but not the exclusion of any other non-stated member, integer or step. The term "consist of" is a particular embodiment of the term "comprise", wherein any other non-stated member, integer or step is excluded. In the context of the present invention, the term "comprise" encompasses the term "consist of". The term "comprising" thus encompasses "including" as well as "consisting" e.g., a composition "comprising" X may consist exclusively of X or may include something additional e.g., X + Y.

The terms "a" and "an" and "the" and simi lar reference used in the context of describing the invention (especial ly in the context of the claims) are to be construed to cover both the si ngular and the plural, unless otherwise indicated herein or clearly contradicted by context. Recitation of ranges of values herein is merely intended to serve as a shorthand method of referring i ndividual ly to each separate value fall ing within the range. Unless otherwise i ndicated herei n, each individual value is incorporated into the specification as if it were individually recited herein. No language in the specification should be construed as indicating any non-claimed element essential to the practice of the i nvention.

The word "substantial ly" does not exclude "completely" e.g., a composition which i s "substantially free" from Y may be completely free from Y. Where necessary, the word "substantially" may be omitted from the defi nition of the invention.

The term "about" i n relation to a numerical va lue x means x ± 1 0%.

As used herei n, the terms "peptide", "polypeptide", "protein" refer to peptides, oligopeptides, or proteins including fusion proteins, respectively, comprising at least two amino acids joined to each other, preferably by a normal peptide bond, or, alternatively, by a modified peptide bond, such as for example i n the cases of isosteric peptides, in particu lar, the terms "peptide", "polypeptide", "protei n" also include "peptidomimetics" which are defi ned as peptide analogs containing non-peptidic structural elements, which peptides are capable of mimicki ng or antagonizi ng the biological action(s) of a natural parent peptide. A peptidomimetic lacks classical peptide characteristics such as enzymatical ly scissi le peptide bonds. A peptide, polypeptide or protei n may be composed of any of the 20 ami no acids defi ned by the genetic code. Moreover, a peptide, polypeptide or protein may also comprise amino acids other than the 20 amino acids defi ned by the genetic code i n addition to these ami no acids, or it can be composed of amino acids other than the 20 ami no acids defi ned by the genetic code. I n particular, a peptide, polypeptide or protein in the context of the present invention can equally be composed of ami no acids modified by natural processes, such as

post-translational maturation processes or by chemical processes, which are well known to a person skilled in the art. Such modifications are fully detailed in the literature. These modifications can appear anywhere in the polypeptide: in the peptide skeleton, in the amino acid chain or even at the carboxy- or amino-terminal ends. In particular, a peptide or polypeptide can be branched following an ubiquitination or be cyclic with or without branching. This type of modification can be the result of natural or synthetic post-translational processes that are well known to a person skilled in the art. The terms "peptide", "polypeptide", "protein" in the context of the present invention in particular also include modified peptides, polypeptides and proteins. For example, peptide, polypeptide or protein modifications can include acetylation, acylation, ADP-ribosylation, amidation, covalent fixation of a nucleotide or of a nucleotide derivative, covalent fixation of a lipid or of a lipidic derivative, the covalent fixation of a phosphatidylinositol, covalent or non-covalent cross-linking, cyclization, disulfide bond formation, demethylation, glycosylation including pegylation, hydroxylation, iodization, methylation, myristoylation, oxidation, proteolytic processes, phosphorylation, prenylation, racemization, seneloylation, suifatation, amino acid addition such as arginylation or ubiquitination. Such modifications are fully detailed in the literature (Proteins Structure and Molecular Properties (1993) 2nd Ed., T. E. Creighton, New York ; Post-translational Covalent Modifications of Proteins (1983) B. C. Johnson, Ed., Academic Press, New York ; Seifter et al. (1990) Analysis for protein modifications and nonprotein cofactors, Meth. Enzymol. 182: 626-646 and Rattan et al., (1992) Protein Synthesis: Post-translational Modifications and Aging, Ann NY Acad Sci, 663: 48-62). Accordingly, the terms "peptide", "polypeptide", "protein" preferably include for example lipopeptides, lipoproteins, glycopeptides, glycoproteins and the like.

Preferably, however, a protein, polypeptide or peptide is a "classical" peptide, polypeptide or protein, whereby a "classical" peptide, polypeptide or protein is typically composed of amino acids selected from the 20 amino acids defined by the genetic code, linked to each other by a normal peptide bond.

The term "first polypeptide chain" as used herein refers to a polypeptide which is to be associated with a second polypeptide (the "second polypeptide chain"). In particular, the first and second polypeptide chains are associated through a disulfide bond. The first polypeptide

chai n may comprise one, two, three antibody heavy constant domai ns. In a preferred embodiment, it comprises three antibody heavy constant domains: CH I , CH2 and CH3, and a hi nge region between CH1 and CH2. Said heavy chai n constant domains may be derived from an antibody which is murine, chimeric, synthetic, humanized or human, and monoclonal or polyclonal. The first polypeptide chain may comprise one or more variable domains, preferably variable domains of an antibody heavy chai n.

The term "second polypeptide chain" as used herein refers to a polypeptide which is to be associated with the first polypeptide (the "first polypeptide chai n"). In particular, the first and second polypeptide chai ns are associated through a disulfide bond. The second polypeptide chai n may comprise an antibody light chai n constant region CL. Said l ight chai n constant region may be derived from an antibody which is murine, chimeric, synthetic, humanized or human, and monoclonal or polyclonal. The second polypeptide chain may comprise one or more variable domai ns, preferably variable domains of an antibody light chain.

In general, an "antibody" is a protei n that binds specifically to an antigen. Typically, an antibody comprises a unique structure that enables it to bi nd specifically to its corresponding antigen, but - i n general - antibodies have a simi lar structure and are, in particu lar, also known as immunoglobul ins (Ig). As used herein, the term "antibody" encompasses various forms of antibodies including, without being limited to, whole antibodies, antibody fragments, in particular antigen binding fragments, human antibodies, chimeric antibodies, humanized antibodies, recombinant antibodies and genetical ly engineered antibodies (variant or mutant antibodies) as long as the characteristic properties according to the invention are retained. Although the specification, including the claims, may, in some places, refer expl icitly to antigen bi ndi ng fragment(s), antibody fragment(s), variant(s) and/or derivative(s) of antibodies, it is understood that the term "antibody" includes al l categories of antibodies, namely, antigen bi ndi ng fragment(s), antibody fragment(s), variant(s) and derivative(s) of antibodies.

As used herein, the terms "antigen binding fragment," "fragment," and "antibody fragment" are used i nterchangeably to refer to any fragment of an antibody of the i nvention that retains (i) the antigen-bi nding activity of the antibody as well as (i i) the additional functionality provided by the (additional) functional domain, for example a binding activity provided by an (independent) binding site. In antigen binding fragments according to the present invention the characteristic properties according to the invention are retained. In general, examples of antibody fragments include, but are not limited to, a single chain antibody, Fab, Fab' or F(ab Fragments of the antibodies can be obtained from antibodies by methods that include digestion with enzymes, such as pepsin or papain, and/or by cleavage of disulfide bonds by chemical reduction. Alternatively, fragments of the antibodies can be obtained by cloning and expression of part of the sequences of the heavy or light chains. Further, the term "antibody" as used herein includes both antibodies and antigen binding fragments thereof.

The term "human antibody", as used herein, is intended to include antibodies having variable and constant regions derived from human immunoglobulin sequences. Human antibodies are well-known in the state of the art (van Dijk, M. A., and van de Winke!, J. G., Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 5 (2001 ) 368-374). Human antibodies can also be produced in transgenic animals (e.g., mice) that are capable, upon immunization, of producing a full repertoire or a selection of human antibodies in the absence of endogenous immunoglobulin production. Transfer of the human germ-line immunoglobulin gene array in such germ-line mutant mice will result in the production of human antibodies upon antigen challenge (see, e.g., Jakobovits, A., et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90 (1993) 2551 -2555; Jakobovits, A., et al., Nature 362 (1 993) 255-258; Bruggemann, M., et al., Year Immunol. 7 (1993) 3340). Human antibodies can also be produced in phage display libraries (Hoogenboom, H. R., and Winter, C, Mol. Biol. 227 (1992) 381 -388; Marks, J. D., et al., / Mol. Biol. 222 (1991 ) 581 -597). The techniques of Cole et al. and Boerner et al. are also available for the preparation of human monoclonal antibodies (Cole et al., Monoclonal Antibodies and Cancer Therapy, Alan R. Liss, p. 77 (1985); and Boerner, P., et al., J. Immunol. λ Α7 (1991 ) 86-95). Preferably, human monoclonal antibodies are prepared by using improved EBV-B cell immortalization as described in Traggiai E, Becker S, Subbarao , Kolesnikova L, Uematsu Y, Gismonclo MR, Murphy BR, Rappuoli R, Lanzavecchia A. (2004): An efficient method to make human monoclonal antibodies from memory B cells: potent neutralization of SARS coronavirus. Nat Med. 10(8):871 -5. The term "human antibody" as used herein also comprises such antibodies which are modified to generate the properties according to the invention as described herein.

Antibodies according to the present invention may be provided in purified form. Accordingly, the antibody according to the present invention, or the antigen binding fragment thereof, may be a purified antibody or antigen-binding fragment. Typically, the antibody will be present in a composition that is substantially free of other polypeptides e.g., where less than 90% (by weight), usually less than 60% and more usually less than 50% of the composition is made up of other polypeptides.

As used herein, the term "variable domain" (also referred to as "variable region"; variable domain of a light chain (VL), variable domain of a heavy chain (VH)) refers to the domain of an antibody, or antigen-binding fragment thereof, which is the N-terminal domain in classical naturally occurring antibodies, typically the domain providing the highest variability in classical naturally occurring antibodies, and which is involved directly in the binding of the antibody to the antigen. Typically, the domains of variable human light and heavy chains have the same general structure and each domain comprises framework (FR) regions whose sequences are widely conserved (in particular four framework (FR) regions) and three "hypervariable regions" or complementarity determining regions, CDRs (in particular three "hypervariable regions'VCDRs). The framework regions typically adopt a β-sheet conformation and the CDRs may form loops connecting the β-sheet structure. The CDRs in each chain are usually held in their three-dimensional structure by the framework regions and form together with the CDRs from the other chain the antigen binding site.

As used herein, the term "hypervariable region" refers to the amino acid residues of an antibody which are responsible for antigen-binding. The hypervariable region comprises the "complementarity determining regions" or "CDRs". "Framework" or "FR" regions are those variable domain regions other than the hypervariable region residues as herein defined. CDR and FR regions may be determined according to the standard definition of Kabat et al., Sequences of Proteins of Immunological Interest, 5th ed., Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md. (1 991 ). Typically, in particular in native monospecific IgG antibodies, the three CDRs (CDRI , CDR2, and CDR3) are arranged non-consecutively in the variable domain. In other words, the CDRs on the heavy and/or light chain may be separated for example by framework regions, whereby a framework region (FR) is a region in the variable domain which is less "variable" than the CDR. For example, in an antibody a variable domain (or each variable domai n, respectively) may preferably comprise four framework regions, separated by three CDRs. In particu lar, a variable domain of an antibody (light or heavy chain variable domai n VH or VL) comprises from N- to C-termi nus the domains FR1 , CDR1 , FR2, CDR2, FR3, CDR3, and FR4. CDRs on each chain are separated by such framework ami no acids. Usual ly, the three CDRs of a heavy chain and the three CDRs of the connected l ight chain form together the antigen bindi ng site (paratope). In other words, since in particular in native monospecific IgG antibodies antigen binding sites are typically composed of two variable domai ns, there are six CDRs for each antigen binding site (heavy chain: CDRH 1 , CDRH2, and CDRH3; light chai n: CDRL1 , CDRL2, and CDRL3). A single antibody, in particular a single native monospecific IgG antibody, usually has two (identical) antigen bi ndi ng sites and therefore contai ns twelve CDRs (i .e. 2 x six CDRs).

Due to their "mu ltispecificity", i .e. the different antigen bindi ng sites, the heavy chain and/or the light chain of multispecific antibodies, or antigen bi nding fragments thereof, may (each) comprise more than three CDRs, in particular more than three different CDRs. For example, a multispecific antibody, or antigen bindi ng fragments thereof, may comprise at least two different variable domai ns, wherein each of said at least two different variable domains is derived from a different monospecific antibody, e.g. of the IgG-type. Since such a monospecific antibody typically comprises three CDRs i n the heavy chain and three CDRs in the light chain forming the antigen binding site, a multispecific antibody according to the present i nvention may i n particular comprise three CDRs of a heavy chai n of a first antibody and three CDRs of a light chain of a first antibody, three CDRs of a heavy chai n of a second antibody and three CDRs of a light chain of a second antibody, optional ly three CDRs of a heavy chain of a third antibody and three CDRs of a light chain of a third antibody etc.. Thus, the number of CDRs comprised by a heavy chain and/or a l ight chain of a multispecific antibody is preferably a multiple of three, for example three, six, ni ne, twelve, etc.. It is thereby also preferred that the sum of the CDRs comprised by both, heavy chain and light chain of a mu ltispecific antibody is a multiple of six, for example six, twelve, eighteen etc.. Since an "antigen binding site" is typically characterized by the CDRs, i .e. CDRH l , CDRH2, and CDRH3 as well as CDRL1 , CDRL2, and CDRL3, it is preferred in the multispecific antibodies according to the present invention that the CDRs are arranged such, that the order (e.g. CDRH l , CDRH2, and CDRH3 and/or CDRL1 , CDRL2, and CDRL3 derived from the

same monospecific antibody) is maintai ned to preserve the antigen bi nding site, i.e. to preserve to ability to specifical ly bind to a certain site in the antigen. This means that for example the order of CDRH 1 , CDRH2, and CDRH3 derived from a first monospecific antibody in an ami no acid stretch is preferably not interrupted by any CDR derived from a second monospecific antibody. Importantly, if the multipecific antibody comprises antigen bindi ng sites derived from at least two different monospecific antibodies, the CDRs or variable domains of these monospecific antibodies are arranged in the multipecific antibody accordi ng to the present invention such that the "antigen receptor" of each monospecific antibody from which the CDRs (or variable regions) are derived, is preserved, i.e. its ability to specifically bi nd to a certain site in the antigen, is preserved.

In the context of the present invention, a variable domain may be any variable domain (in particular, VH and/or VL) of a natural ly occurring antibody or a variable domain may be a modified/engineered variable domai n. Modified/engineered variable domains are known in the art. Typically, variable domains are modified/engineered to delete or add one or more functions, e.g., by "germli ning" somatic mutations ("removing" somatic mutations) or by humanizing.

As used herein, the term "constant domains" refers to domains of an antibody which are not involved directly in binding an antibody to an antigen, but exhibit various effector functions. Typically, a heavy chain comprises three or four constant domains, depending on the immunoglobul i n class: CH 1 , CH2, CH3, and, optionally, CH4 (in N-C-termi nal di rection). Accordingly, the constant region of a heavy chai n is typical ly formed (in N- to C-terminal direction) by: CH 1 - hinge (flexible polypeptide comprising the amino acids between the first and second constant domains of the heavy chain) - CH2 - CH3 (- CH4). A light chain typically comprises only one si ngle constant domai n, referred to as CL, which typical ly also forms the constant region of the light chain. I n the context of the present invention, a constant domain may be any constant domai n (i n particu lar, CL, CH I , CH2, CH3 and/or CH4) of a natural ly occurri ng antibody or a constant domain may be a modified/engineered constant domain. Modified/engi neered constant doma ins are known i n the art. Typically, constant domains are modified/engi neered to delete or add one or more functions, e.g., i n the context of the functional ity of the Fc region. Depending on the ami no acid sequence of the constant region of their heavy chains, antibodies or immunoglobuli ns are divided in the classes: IgA, IgD, lgE, IgG and IgM, and several of these may be further divided into subclasses, e.g. IgGI , lgG2, lgG3, and lgG4, IgAI and lgA2. The heavy chai n constant regions that correspond to the different classes of immunoglobuli ns are called α, ε, γ, and μ, respectively. The antibodies according to the i nvention are preferably of IgG type.

In general, antibodies can be of any isotype (e.g., !gA, IgG, IgM i .e. an , γ or μ heavy chain), but wi l l preferably be IgG. Within the IgG isotype, antibodies may be IgGI , lgG2, lgG3 or lgG4 subclass, whereby IgGI is preferred. Antibodies may have a or a λ l ight chain.

As used herein, the term "recombinant antibody" is intended to i nclude all antibodies, which do not occur in nature, for example antibodies expressed using a recombinant expression vector (e.g. providi ng one or more constant domains) transfected into a host cel l.

As used herein, the term "multispecific" in the context of an antibody, or an antigen binding fragment thereof, refers to the abi lity of the antibody or the antigen binding fragment to bind to at least two different epitopes, e.g. on different antigens or on the same antigen. Thus, terms l ike "bispecific", trispecific", "tetraspecific" etc. refer to the number of different epitopes to which the antibody can bind to. For example, conventional monospecific IgG-type antibodies have two identical antigen binding sites (paratopes) and can, thus, only bind to identical epitopes (but not to different epitopes). A multispecific antibody, i n contrast, has at least two different types of paratopes/bindi ng sites and can, thus, bi nd to at least two different epitopes. As used herein, "paratope" refers to an antigen bindi ng site of the antibody. Moreover, a si ngle "specificity" may refer to one, two, three or more identical paratopes in a single antibody (the actual number of paratopes/bindi ng sites in one si ngle antibody molecule is referred to as "valency"). For example, a si ngle native IgG antibody is monospecific and biva lent, since it has two identical paratopes. Accordingly, a multispecific antibody comprises at least two (distinct) paratopes/binding sites. Thus, the term "multispecific antibodies" refers to antibodies havi ng more than one paratope and the ability to bind to two or more different epitopes. The term "mu ltispecific antibodies" comprises in particular bispecific antibodies as defined above, but typical ly also protei n, e.g. antibody, scaffolds, which bind i n particular to three or more disti nct epitopes, i.e. antibodies with three or more paratopes/bi nding sites.

In particular, the multispecific antibody, or the antigen binding fragment thereof, may comprise two or more paratopes/binding sites, wherein some paratopes/binding sites may be identical so that all paratopes/binding sites of the antibody belong to at least two different types of paratopes/binding sites and, hence, the antibody has at least two specificities. For example, the multispecific antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof may comprise four paratopes/binding sites, wherein each two paratopes/binding sites are identical (i.e. have the same specificity) and, thus, the antibody or fragment thereof is bispecific and tetravalent (two identical paratopes/binding sites for each of the two specificities). Thus, "one specificity" refers in particular to one or more paratopes/binding sites exhibiting the same specificity (which typically means that such one or more paratopes/binding sites are identical) and, thus, "two specificities" may be realized by two, three, four five, six or more paratopes/binding sites as long as they refer to only two specificities. Alternatively, a multispecific antibody may comprise one single paratope/binding site for each (of the at least two) specificity, i.e. the multispecific antibody comprises in total at least two paratopes/binding sites. For example, a bispecific antibody comprises one single paratope/binding site for each of the two specificities, i.e. the antibody comprises in total two paratopes/binding sites. It is also preferred that the antibody comprises two (identical) paratopes/binding sites for each of the two specificities, i.e. the antibody comprises in total four paratopes/binding sites. Preferably the antibody comprises three (identical) paratopes/binding sites for each of the two specificities, i.e. the antibody comprises in total six paratopes/binding sites.

As used herein, the term "antigen" refers to any structural substance which serves as a target for the receptors of an adaptive immune response, in particular as a target for antibodies, T cell receptors, and/or B cell receptors. An "epitope", also known as "antigenic determinant", is the part (or fragment) of an antigen that is recognized by the immune system, in particular by antibodies, T cell receptors, and/or B cell receptors. Thus, one antigen has at least one epitope, i.e. a single antigen has one or more epitopes. An antigen may be (i) a peptide, a polypeptide, or a protein, (ii) a polysaccharide, (iii) a lipid, (iv) a lipoprotein or a lipopeptide, (v) a glycolipid, (vi) a nucleic acid, or (vii) a small molecule drug or a toxin. Thus, an antigen may be a peptide, a protein, a polysaccharide, a lipid, a combination thereof including lipoproteins and glycolipids, a nucleic acid (e.g. DNA, siRNA, shRNA, antisense

oligonucleotides, decoy DNA, plasmid), or a small molecule drug (e.g. cyclosporine A, paclitaxel, doxorubicin, methotrexate, 5-aminolevulinic acid), or any combination thereof. Preferably, the antigen is selected from (i) a peptide, a polypeptide, or a protein, (ii) a polysaccharide, (iii) a lipid, (iv) a lipoprotein or a lipopeptide and (v) a glycolipid; more preferably, the antigen is a peptide, a polypeptide, or a protein.

The term "antigen binding site" as used herein refers to the part of the antibody which comprises the area which specifically binds to and is complementary to part or all of an antigen. Where an antigen is large, an antibody may only bind to a particular part of the antigen, which part is termed "epitope". Typically, two variable domains, in particular a heavy chain variable domain VH and a light chain variable domain VL, associate to form one an antigen binding site. In particular, the antigen binding site is formed by the three CDRs of the heavy chain variable domain and by the three CDRs of the light chain variable domain together, i.e. by six CDRs, as described above.

The term "specifically binding" and similar reference does not encompass non-specific sticking.

The term "linker" (also referred to as "spacer"), as used herein, refers to a peptide adapted to connect distinct domains of a polypeptide or protein, such as an antibody or an antigen-binding fragment thereof. Linkers are known in the art and described in detail, e.g. in Reddy Chichili VP, Kumar V, Sivaraman J. Linkers in the structural biology of protein-protein interactions. Protein Science : A Publication of the Protein Society. 2013;22(2):153-167). Typically, linkers are designed such that they do not affect functionality. In particular, a linker does not specifically bind to a target. A linker may contain any amino acids, the amino acids glycine (G) and serine (S) may be preferred. Preferably, the linker is composed of the amino acids glycine (G) and serine (S) ("GS-linker"). If two or more linkers occur in one polypeptide or protein, the linkers may be equal or differ from each other. Furthermore, the linker may have a length of 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 1 1 , 12, 13, 14, 15, 1 6, 1 7, 18, 19 or 20 amino acids.

As used herein, the term "nucleic acid or nucleic acid molecule" is intended to include DNA molecules and RNA molecules. A nucleic acid molecule may be single-stranded or double-stranded.

As used herein, the terms "cell," "cell line," and "cell culture" are used interchangeably and all such designations include progeny. Thus, the words "transformants" and "transformed cells" include the primary subject cell and cultures derived therefrom without regard for the number of transfers. It is also understood that all progeny may not be precisely identical in DNA content, due to deliberate or inadvertent mutations. Variant progeny that have the same function or biological activity as screened for in the originally transformed cell are included. Where distinct designations are intended, it will be clear from the context.

As used herein, "sequence variant" (also referred to as "variant") refers to any alteration in a reference sequence, whereby a reference sequence is any of the sequences listed in the "Tables of Sequences and SEQ ID Numbers" (sequence listing), i.e. SEQ ID NO: 1 to SEQ ID NO: 133. Thus, the term "sequence variant" includes nucleotide sequence variants and amino acid sequence variants. Of note, the sequence variants referred to herein are in particular functional sequence variants, i.e. sequence variants maintaining the biological function of, for example, the antibody. Preferred maintained biological functions in the context of the present invention include (i) the binding of the antibody to its antigens and (ii) the function provided by the (additional) functional domain, for example, the binding of an (independent) binding site to its target. Preferred sequence variants are thus functional sequence variants having at least 70%, at least 75%, at least 80%, at least 85%, at least 88%, at least 90%, at least 92%, at least 95%, at least 96%, at least 97%, at least 98% or at least 99% sequence identity to a reference sequence. The phrase ''functional sequence variant thereof having at least 70%, at least 75%, at least 80%, at least 85%, at least 88%, at least 90%, at least 92%, at least 95%, at least 96%, at least 97%, at least 98% or at least 99% sequence identity", as used herein, means (i) that the sequence variant is functional as described herein and (ii) the higher the % sequence identity, the more preferred the sequence variant. In other words, the phrase ''functional sequence variant thereof having at least 70%, at least 75%, at least 80%, at least 85%, at least 88%, at least 90%, at least 92%, at least 95%o, at least 96%, at least 97%, at least 98% or at least 99% sequence identity", means in particu lar that the functional sequence variant has at least 70% sequence identity, preferably at least 75% sequence identity, preferably at least 80% sequence identity, more preferably at least 85% sequence identity, more preferably at least 88% sequence identity, even more preferably at least 90% sequence identity, even more preferably at least 92% sequence identity, sti l l more preferably at least 95% sequence identity, stil l more preferably at least 96% sequence identity, particularly preferably at least 97% sequence identity, particularly preferably at least 98% sequence identity and most preferably at least 99% sequence identity to the respective reference sequence.

The term "sequence variant" includes in particular such variants that comprise mutations and/or substitutions i n comparison to the reference sequence. Exemplary variants of an Fc moiety sequence i nclude, but are not limited to, those that have an L to A substitution at position CH2 4, CH2 5, or both.

Sequence identity is usually calculated with regard to the ful l length of the reference sequence (i.e. the sequence recited i n the application). Percentage identity, as referred to herein, can be determined, for example, using BLAST using the default parameters specified by the NCBI (the National Center tor Biotechnology Information; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/) [Blosum 62 matrix; gap open penalty^l 1 and gap extension penalty=1 ] .

As used herein, a "nucleotide sequence variant" has an altered sequence in which one or more of the nucleotides in the reference sequence is deleted, or substituted, or one or more nucleotides are inserted into the sequence of the reference nucleotide sequence. Nucleotides are referred to herei n by the standard one-letter designation (A, C, G, or T). Due to the degeneracy of the genetic code, a "nucleotide sequence variant" can either result i n a change in the respective reference amino acid sequence, i .e. in an "amino acid sequence variant" or not. Preferred sequence variants are such nucleotide sequence variants, which do not resu lt in amino acid sequence variants (si lent mutations), but other non-si lent mutations are withi n the scope as well, in particular mutant nucleotide sequences, which result in an ami no acid sequence, which is at least 80%, preferably at least 90%, more preferably at least 95% sequence identical to the reference sequence.

An "amino acid sequence variant" has an altered sequence in which one or more of the amino acids in the reference sequence is deleted or substituted, or one or more amino acids are inserted into the sequence of the reference amino acid sequence. As a result of the alterations, the amino acid sequence variant has an amino acid sequence which is at least 80% identical to the reference sequence, preferably, at least 90% identical, more preferably at least 95% identical, most preferably at least 99% identical to the reference sequence. Variant sequences which are at least 90% identical have no more than 10 alterations, i.e. any combination of deletions, insertions or substitutions, per 100 amino acids of the reference sequence.

While it is possible to have non-conservative amino acid substitutions, it is preferred that the substitutions be conservative amino acid substitutions, in which the substituted amino acid has similar structural or chemical properties with the corresponding amino acid in the reference sequence. By way of example, conservative amino acid substitutions involve substitution of one aliphatic or hydrophobic amino acids, e.g. alanine, valine, leucine and isoleucine, with another; substitution of one hydoxyl-containing amino acid, e.g. serine and threonine, with another; substitution of one acidic residue, e.g. glutamic acid or aspartic acid, with another; replacement of one amide-containing residue, e.g. asparagine and glutamine, with another; replacement of one aromatic residue, e.g. phenylalanine and tyrosine, with another; replacement of one basic residue, e.g. lysine, arginine and histidine, with another; and replacement of one small amino acid, e.g., alanine, serine, threonine, methionine, and glycine, with another.

Amino acid sequence insertions include amino- and/or carboxyl-terminal fusions ranging in length from one residue to polypeptides containing a hundred or more residues, as well as intrasequence insertions of single or multiple amino acid residues. Examples of terminal insertions include the fusion to the N- or C-terminus of an amino acid sequence to a reporter molecule or an enzyme.

Importantly, the alterations in the sequence variants do not abolish the functionality of the respective reference sequence, in the present case, e.g., the functionality of a sequence of an antibody, or antigen binding fragment thereof, to bind to its antigens and/or the additional functionality provided by the functional domain, for example to bind to a target of an (independent) binding site. Guidance in determining which nucleotides and amino acid residues, respectively, may be substituted, inserted or deleted without abolishing such functionality are found by using computer programs well known in the art.

As used herein, a nucleic acid sequence or an amino acid sequence "derived from" a designated nucleic acid, peptide, polypeptide or protein refers to the origin of the nucleic acid, peptide, polypeptide or protein. Preferably, the nucleic acid sequence or amino acid sequence which is derived from a particular sequence has an amino acid sequence that is essentially identical to that sequence or a portion thereof, from which it is derived, whereby "essentially identical" includes sequence variants as defined above. Preferably, the nucleic acid sequence or amino acid sequence which is derived from a particular peptide or protein, is derived from the corresponding domain in the particular peptide or protein. Thereby, "corresponding" refers in particular to the same functionality. For example, an "extracellular domain" corresponds to another "extracellular domain" (of another protein), or a "transmembrane domain" corresponds to another "transmembrane domain" (of another protein). "Corresponding" parts of peptides, proteins and nucleic acids are thus easily identifiable to one of ordinary skill in the art. Likewise, sequences "derived from" other sequence are usually easily identifiable to one of ordinary skill in the art as having its origin in the sequence.

Preferably, a nucleic acid sequence or an amino acid sequence derived from another nucleic acid, peptide, polypeptide or protein may be identical to the starting nucleic acid, peptide, polypeptide or protein (from which it is derived). However, a nucleic acid sequence or an amino acid sequence derived from another nucleic acid, peptide, polypeptide or protein may also have one or more mutations relative to the starting nucleic acid, peptide, polypeptide or protein (from which it is derived), in particular a nucleic acid sequence or an amino acid sequence derived from another nucleic acid, peptide, polypeptide or protein may be a functional sequence variant as described above of the starting nucleic acid, peptide, polypeptide or protein (from which it is derived). For example, in a peptide/protein one or more amino acid residues may be substituted with other amino acid residues or one or more amino acid residues may be inserted or deleted.

As used herei n, the term "mutation" relates to a change i n the nucleic acid sequence and/or in the amino acid sequence in comparison to a reference sequence, e.g. a corresponding genomic sequence. A mutation, e.g. in comparison to a genomic sequence, may be, for example, a (naturally occurri ng) somatic mutation, a spontaneous mutation, an induced mutation, e.g. induced by enzymes, chemicals or radiation, or a mutation obtai ned by site-directed mutagenesis (molecular biology methods for making specific and intentional changes in the nucleic acid sequence and/or in the amino acid sequence). Thus, the terms "mutation" or "mutating" shall be understood to also include physical ly making a mutation, e.g. i n a nucleic acid sequence or in an ami no acid sequence. A mutation i ncludes substitution, deletion and i nsertion of one or more nucleotides or amino acids as well as inversion of several (two or more) successive nucleotides or amino acids. To achieve a mutation in an amino acid sequence, preferably a mutation may be introduced into the nucleotide sequence encodi ng said amino acid sequence i n order to express a (recombinant) mutated polypeptide. A mutation may be achieved e.g., by alteri ng, e.g., by site-directed mutagenesis, a codon of a nucleic acid molecule encoding one amino acid to result in a codon encodi ng a different amino acid, or by synthesizi ng a sequence variant, e.g., by knowing the nucleotide sequence of a nucleic acid molecule encoding a polypeptide and by designi ng the synthesis of a nucleic acid molecule comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding a variant of the polypeptide without the need for mutating one or more nucleotides of a nucleic acid molecule.

The term "disease" as used in the context of the present invention is intended to be general ly synonymous, and is used i nterchangeably with, the terms "disorder" and "condition" (as in medical condition), in that all reflect an abnormal condition of the human or animal body or of one of its parts that impairs normal functioning, is typically manifested by distinguishing signs and symptoms, and causes the human or animal to have a reduced duration or quality of life.

Several documents are cited throughout the text of this specification. Each of the documents cited herei n (i ncludi ng al l patents, patent applications, scientific publications, manufacturer's specifications, instructions, etc.), whether supra or infra, are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety. Nothing herein is to be construed as an admission that the invention is not entitled to antedate such disclosure by virtue of prior invention.

It is to be understood that this invention is not limited to the particular methodology, protocols and reagents described herein as these may vary. It is also to be understood that the terminology used herein is for the purpose of describing particular embodiments only, and is not intended to limit the scope of the present invention which will be limited only by the appended claims. Unless defined otherwise, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meanings as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art.

Antibodies and antigen binding fragments with functional domains in elbow

In a first aspect the present invention provides an antibody, or an antigen binding fragment thereof, comprising a first polypeptide chain and a second polypeptide chain,

wherein said first polypeptide chain comprises in N- to C-terminai direction

(i) one or more variable domains;

(ii) a (additional) functional domain; and

(iii) one or more constant domains; and

wherein said second polypeptide chain comprises in N- to C-terminal direction

(iv) one or more variable domains forming antigen binding sites with the one or more variable domains (i) of the first polypeptide chain;

(v) optionally, a (additional) functional domain; and

(vi) one or more constant domains,

characterized in that said (additional) functional domain (ii) of the first polypeptide chain does not comprise a fragment of the second polypeptide chain and said optional (additional) functional domain (v) of the second polypeptide chain does not comprise a fragment of the first polypeptide chain.

The present invention is based on the surprising finding, that an (additional) functional domain can be inserted into the elbow region of an antibody, i.e. between the variable

domain and the most N-terminal constant domain, in particular CHI or CL. Fig. 1 A shows a classical naturally occurring antibody with elbow region indicated by arrows. The present inventors have surprisingly found that antibodies engineered in the elbow region to contain such an additional functional domain can, for example, simultaneously bind (1 ) to the antigen targeted by their variable domains and (2) to an additional target targeted by a binding site introduced into the antibody's elbow region - as shown by the Examples described herein. In contrast to prior art multispecific antibody formats, in which the additional binding sites are obtained either by replacing a heavy/light chain pair with another heavy/light chain pair with distinct specificity (as in multispecific IgG antibody formats described above, which are often monovalent for each specificity) or by appending additional binding sites to the N- or C-termini of the heavy or light chains (as in appended IgG antibody formats described above), in the antibodies of the present invention the additional functional domain, e.g. the additional binding site (specificity) is inserted into the heavy and/or light chain, namely, into the elbow region. Surprisingly, the variable domain (e.g., VH) N-terminal of the inserted functional domain, such as a binding site, still forms a fully functional antigen binding site with the corresponding variable domain of the other polypeptide chain (e.g., VL) - even if the other polypeptide chain is unmodified in the elbow. The same applies for multispecific antibodies: despite the inserted functional domain, the variable domain(s) N-terminal of the inserted functional domain still associate with the corresponding variable domains in the other polypeptide chain to form functional antigen binding sites (e.g., VH1 - VH2 on one polypeptide chain with VL1 - VL2 on the other polypeptide chain, etc.).

Accordingly, the antibodies, and antigen binding fragments thereof, according to the present invention are referred to as "In-Elbow-lnsert" Ig molecules ("ΙΕΙ-lg"). The significance of the present inventors' findings is reflected by the fact, that it gives rise to a variety of new antibody formats, as exemplified in Figure 1. 1 El -Ig antibodies, and antigen binding fragments thereof, according to the present invention can be either based on classical naturally occurring antibodies, as exemplified in Figure I B, or they may be combined with other (multispecific) antibody formats to obtain new antibody formats with even more specificities, as exemplified in Figure 1 C

For example, to obtain an antibody accordi ng to the present invention, a classical monospecific antibody, preferably a human monoclonal antibody, may serve as "scaffold" antibody and an additional functional domain, such as a binding site, is inserted into the elbow region (i .e., between the variable and the most N-terminal constant domain, in particular C-terminal of the variable domain and N-terminal of CH I and/or CL, respectively) of the heavy chai n and/or the light chai n of the scaffold antibody. In other examples, fragments of a classical monospecific antibody, preferably fragments of a human monoclonal antibody, which comprise (i) at least two polypeptide chains, such as a heavy and a light chain, and (i i) in each polypeptide chai n at least a variable domain and a constant domain, may serve as "scaffold antibody", and a functional domai n, such as a binding site, is inserted i nto the elbow region of the first and/or the second polypeptide chain of the scaffold antibody fragment. Preferred examples of such antibody fragments, which may be used as scaffold to obtain an antibody according to the present invention by insertion of a functional domain, such as a binding site, into the elbow region, i nclude Fab, Fab', and Ffab'b- Moreover, any recombinant antibody or fragment thereof, such as a multispecific, i n particular a bispecfic, antibody or fragment thereof, which comprises (i) at least two polypeptide chains, such as a heavy and a light chain, and (ii) in each polypeptide chain at least a variable domai n and a constant domai n, may also serve as "scaffold" antibody, and a functional domain, such as a binding site, is inserted into the elbow region of the first and/or the second polypeptide chain of the recombinant scaffold antibody (fragment) .

Preferred examples of antibodies, which may serve as scaffold antibodies include antibodies GCE536 (VH: SEQ I D NO: 1 , VL: SEQ I D NO: 2, heavy chain constant region: SEQ I D NO: 3, l ight chain constant region: SEQ ID NO: 4; Piccoli, L, et al. Neutralization and clearance of GM-CSF by autoantibodies i n pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Nature communications 6, 7375 (201 5)); "CI " (see Example 1 ; VH: SEQ ID NO: 5, VL: SEQ ID NO: 6, heavy chai n constant region: SEQ I D NO: 3, light chain constant region: SEQ ID NO: 7); "Cl b" (VH: SEQ I D NO: 8, VL: SEQ ID NO: 9, heavy chai n constant region: SEQ ID NO: 3, light chain constant region: SEQ ID NO: 4) and FH 74 (VH : SEQ I D NO: 1 0, VL: SEQ I D NO: 1 1 , heavy chain constant region: SEQ ID NO: 3, l ight chain constant region: SEQ ID NO: 4; Pappas, L., et a l . Rapid development of broadly influenza neutralizi ng antibodies through redundant mutations. Nature 51 6, 41 8-422 (201 4)).

The antibody according to the present invention or the antigen-binding fragment thereof, may also be obtained by cloning techniques, e.g. by commercially available IgG-vectors or vector sets, which comprise constant domains/regions, e.g. of the heavy and/or light chain. For example, the corresponding variable domains, such as a heavy and a light chain variable domain VH and VL, of a first antibody may be cloned into the respective polypeptide chains as provided by the vector; and, additionally, the additional functional domain may be cloned into the first and/or second polypeptide chain, such that it is located between the (most C-terminal) variable domain and the (most N-terminal) constant domain, i.e. in the elbow region.

The first and/or the second polypeptide chain of the antibody, or the antigen binding fragment thereof, according to the present invention comprises an (additional) functional domain. In particular, the "functional domain" is a peptide or polypeptide, which is linked to the adjacent domains of the polypeptide chain of the antibody or antigen binding fragment by a (usual) peptide bond. In particular, the N-terminus of the (additional) functional domain is linked to the C-terminus of the (most C-terminal) variable domain and the C-terminus of the (additional) functional domain is linked to the N-terminus of the (most N-terminal) constant domain by a peptide bond.

In general, the term "functional domain" refers to a functional unit, e.g. of the antibody or the antigen binding fragment. Typically, a functional domain provides the protein, e.g. the antibody or the antigen binding fragment, with an (additional) functionality. Accordingly, the (additional) functional domain usually contains all amino acids/sequences required to provide the (additional) function. In particular, the (additional) functional domain (ii) of the first polypeptide chain does not comprise a fragment of the second polypeptide chain and the optional (additional) functional domain (v) of the second polypeptide chain does not comprise a fragment of the first polypeptide chain. In other words, the second polypeptide chain (in particular any fragment, such as even a single amino acid, thereof) is neither required for nor involved in the (functionality of the) (additional) functional domain of the first polypeptide chain. Moreover, if the second polypeptide chain also comprises an (additional) functional domain, the first polypeptide chain (in particular any fragment, such as even a single amino acid, thereof) is neither requi red for nor involved i n the (functional ity of the) (additional) functional domai n of the second polypeptide chain. Rather all amino acids (amino acid sequences) required for or i nvolved in the functionality of the (additional) functional domain of the first and/or second polypeptide chain are contained in the (additional) functional domain of that polypeptide chain itself - no fragments or ami no acids of the other polypeptide chai n are requi red/involved. Accordingly, the (additional) functional domain differs, for example, from an antigen binding site formed by the variable domain of the first polypeptide chain together with the variable domai n of the second polypeptide chain. I n other words, the (additional) functional domain differs, for example, from an antigen bindi ng site formed by variable domains of two different polypeptide chains (however, the (additional) functional domai n may sti l l comprise an antigen bi nding site - if the involved variable domains are located on a single polypeptide chain, as described i n more detai l below).

Particularly preferably, the (additional) functional domain of the first and/or the second polypeptide chai n comprises or consists of an Ig-like domain; for example an lg-like domain of a protei n or (poly)peptide, e.g., as exempl ified below. The basic structure of immunoglobulin (Ig) molecules is a tetramer of two light chains and two heavy chains linked by clisulphide bonds. There are two types of l ight chai ns: kappa and lambda, each composed of a constant domain (CL) and a variable domai n (VL). There are five types of heavy chains: alpha, delta, epsilon, gamma and mu, all consisting of a variable domain (VH) and three (in alpha, delta and gamma) or four (i n epsi lon and mu) constant domains (CHI to CH4). Ig molecules are highly modular protei ns, i n which the variable and constant domains have clear, conserved sequence patterns. The domai ns in Ig and Ig-like molecules are grouped into four types: V-set (variable), C1 -set (constant-1 ), C2-set (constant-2) and l-set (intermediate). Structural studies have shown that these domains share a common core Greek-key beta-sandwich structure, with the types differing i n the number of strands in the beta-sheets as wel l as i n their sequence patterns. Immunoglobu li n-like domains that are related in both sequence and structure can be found i n several diverse protein families. Ig-l i ke domai ns are involved i n a variety of functions, including cell-cell recognition, cel l-surface receptors, muscle structure and the immune system.

Preferred examples of Ig-like domains include the Ig-like domains of any one or the following proteins or (poly)peptides: A1 BG (alpha-1 -B glycoprotein), ACAM, ADAMTSL1 (ADA TS like 1 ), ADAMTSL3 (ADAMTS like 3), AGER (advanced glycosylation end-product specific receptor), ALCAM (activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule), ALPK3 (alpha kinase 3), AMIG01 (adhesion molecule with Ig like domain 1 ), AMIG02 (adhesion molecule with Ig like domain 2), AMIG03 (adhesion molecule with Ig like domain 3), AXL (AXL receptor tyrosine kinase), BCAM (basal cell adhesion molecule (Lutheran blood group)), BOC (BOC cell adhesion associated, oncogene regulated), BSG (basigin (Ok blood group)), BTLA (B and T lymphocyte associated), C1 0orf72, C20orf102, CADM1 (cell adhesion molecule 1 ), CADM3 (cell adhesion molecule 3), CADM4 (cell adhesion molecule 4), CCDC141 (coiled-coil domain containing 141 ), CD2, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD1 9, CD22, CD33, CD47, CD48, CD80, CD84, CD86, CD96, CD! 01 , CD1 60, CD200, CD244, CD276, CDON (cell adhesion associated, oncogene regulated), CEACAM1 (carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule 1 ), CEACAM5 (carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule 5), CEACAM6 (carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule 6), CEACAM7 (carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule 7), CEACAM8 (carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule 8), CEACAM 6 (carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule 1 6), CEACAM1 8 (carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule 1 8), CEACAM20 (carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule 20), CEACAM21 (carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule 21 ), CHL1 (cell adhesion molecule LI like), CILP (cartilage intermediate layer protein), CILP2 (cartilage intermediate layer protein 2), CLMP (CXADR like membrane protein), CNTFR (ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor), CNTN1 (contactin 1 ), CNTN2 (contactin 2), CNTN3 (contactin 3, CNTN4 (contactin 4), CNTN5 (contactin 5), CNTN6 (contactin 6), CSF1 R (colony stimulating factor 1 receptor), CXADR (CXADR, Ig-like cell adhesion molecule), DSCAM (DS cell adhesion molecule), DSCAML1 (DS cell adhesion molecule like 1 ), EMB (embigin), ESAM (endothelial cell adhesion molecule), F1 1 R (F1 1 receptor), FA1M3, FCMR (Fc fragment of IgM receptor), HMCN1 (hemicentin 1 ), HMCN2 (hemicentin 2), FCAR (Fc fragment of IgA receptor), FCER1 A (Fc fragment of IgE receptor la), FCGR1 A (Fc fragment of IgG receptor la), FCGR1 B (Fc fragment of IgG receptor lb), FCGR1 CP (Fc fragment of IgG receptor lc, pseudogene), FCGR2A (Fc fragment of IgG receptor lla), FCGR2B (Fc fragment of IgG receptor lib), FCGR2C (Fc fragment of IgG receptor lie), FCGR3A (Fc fragment of IgG receptor Ilia), FCGR3B (Fc fragment of IgG receptor lllb), FCRH1, FCRH3, FCRH4, FCRL1 (Fc receptor like 1), FCRL2 (Fc receptor like 2), FCRL3 (Fc receptor like 3), FCRL4 (Fc receptor like 4), FCRL5 (Fc receptor like 5), FCRL6 (Fc receptor like 6), FCRLA (Fc receptor like A), FCRLB (Fc receptor like B), FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3, FGFR4, FGFRL1, FLT1 (fms related tyrosine kinase 1), FLT3 (fms related tyrosine kinase 3), FLT4 (fms related tyrosine kinase 4), FSTL4 (follistatin like 4), FSTL5 (follistatin like 5), GP6 (glycoprotein VI platelet), GPA33 (glycoprotein A33, GPR116, GPR125, ADGRF5 (adhesion G protein-coupled receptor F5), ADGRA2 (adhesion G protein-coupled receptor A2), hEMMPRIN, HEPACAM (hepatic and glial cell adhesion molecule), HEPACAM2 (HEPACAM family member 2), H LA-DMA, HLA-DMB, HLA-DQB, HLA-DQB1, HNT, HSPG2 (heparan sulfate proteoglycan 2), HYST2477, ICAM1 (intercellular adhesion molecule 1), ICAM2 (intercellular adhesion molecule 2), 1CAM3 (intercellular adhesion molecule 3), ICAM4 (intercellular adhesion molecule 4 (Landsteiner-Wiener blood group)), ICAM5 (intercellular adhesion molecule 5), DCC (DCC netrin 1 receptor), ΝΕΟΊ (neogenin 1), IGHA1, IGHD, IGHE, IGDCC4 (immunoglobulin superfamily DCC subclass member 4), IGLON5 (IgLON family member 5), IGSF1 (immunoglobulin superfamily member 1), ICSF2 (immunoglobulin superfamily member 2), IGSF3 (immunoglobulin superfamily member 3), IGSF5 (immunoglobulin superfamily member 5), IGSF9 (immunoglobulin superfamily member 9), IGSF9B (immunoglobulin superfamily member 9B), IGSF10 (immunoglobulin superfamily member 10), IGSF11 (immunoglobulin superfamily member 11), IGSF21 (immunoglobin superfamily member 21), IGSF23 (immunoglobulin superfamily member 23), IL1 R1 (interleukin 1 receptor type 1), IL1 R2 (interleukin 1 receptor type 2), IL1 RAP (interleukin 1 receptor accessory protein), IL1RAPL1 (interleukin 1 receptor accessory protein like 1), 1L1RAPL2 (interleukin 1 receptor accessory protein like 2), IL1 L1 (interleukin 1 receptor like 1), 1L1 RL2 (interleukin 1 receptor like 2), IL6R (interleukin 6 receptor), IL11 RA (interleukin 11 receptor subunit alpha), IL12B (interleukin 12B), IL18BP (interleukin 18 binding protein), IL18R1 (interleukin 18 receptor 1 ), IL18RAP (interleukin 18 receptor accessory protein), ISLR2 (immunoglobulin superfamily containing leucine rich repeat 2), JAM2 (junctional adhesion molecule 2), JAM3 (junctional adhesion molecule 3), KDR (kinase insert domain receptor), KIR-123FM, KIR2DL1 (killer cell immunoglobulin like receptor, two Ig domains and long cytoplasmic tail 1), KIR2DL2 (killer cell immunoglobulin like receptor, two Ig domains and long cytoplasmic tail 2), KIR2DL3 (killer cell immunoglobulin like receptor, two Ig domains and long cytoplasmic tail 3), KIR2DL4 (killer cell immunoglobulin like receptor, two Ig

domains and long cytoplasmic tail 4), KIR2DL5A (killer cell immunoglobulin like receptor, two Ig domains and long cytoplasmic tail 5A), KIR2DL5B (killer cell immunoglobulin like receptor, two Ig domains and long cytoplasmic tail 5B), KIR2DLX, KIR2DS1 (killer cell immunoglobulin like receptor, two Ig domains and short cytoplasmic tail 1 ), KIR2DS2 (killer cell immunoglobulin like receptor, two Ig domains and short cytoplasmic tail 2), KIR2DS3 (killer cell immunoglobulin like receptor, two Ig domains and short cytoplasmic tail 3), 1R2DS4 (killer cell immunoglobulin like receptor, two Ig domains and short cytoplasmic tail 4), 1R2DS5 (killer cell immunoglobulin like receptor, two Ig domains and short cytoplasmic tail 5), kir3cl, K1R3DL1 (killer cell immunoglobulin like receptor, three Ig domains and long cytoplasmic tail 1 ), KIR3DL2 (killer cell immunoglobulin like receptor, three Ig domains and long cytoplasmic tail 2), KIR3DL3 (killer cell immunoglobulin like receptor, three Ig domains and long cytoplasmic tail 3), K1R3DP1 (killer cell immunoglobulin like receptor, three Ig domains pseudogene 1 , KIR3DS1 (killer cell immunoglobulin like receptor, three Ig domains and short cytoplasmic tail 1 ), KIR3DX1 (killer cell immunoglobulin like receptor, three Ig domains X1 ), K!RRELI (kirre like nephrin family adhesion molecule 1 ), KIRREL2 (kirre like nephrin family adhesion molecule 2), KIRREL3 (kirre like nephrin family adhesion molecule 3), KIT (KIT proto-oncogene receptor tyrosine kinase), L1 CAM, LAG3 (lymphocyte activating 3), LAIR1 (leukocyte associated immunoglobulin like receptor 1 ), LA1R2 (leukocyte associated immunoglobulin like receptor 2), LEPR (leptin receptor), LILRA1 (leukocyte immunoglobulin like receptor A1 ), L1LRA2 (leukocyte immunoglobulin like receptor A2), LILRA3 (leukocyte immunoglobulin like receptor A3, L1LRA4 (leukocyte immunoglobulin like receptor A4), LILRA5 (leukocyte immunoglobulin like receptor A5), LILRA6 (leukocyte immunoglobulin like receptor A6), L1LRB1 (leukocyte immunoglobulin like receptor B1 ), LILRB2 (leukocyte immunoglobulin like receptor B2), LILRB3 (leukocyte immunoglobulin like receptor B3), LILRB4 (leukocyte immunoglobulin like receptor B4), L1LRB5 (leukocyte immunoglobulin like receptor B5), LILRP2, LRIG1 , LRIG2, LRIG3, LRIT1 , LRRC4, LSAMP, LSR (lipolysis stimulated lipoprotein receptor), LY9 (lymphocyte antigen 9), MADCAM1 (mucosal vascular addressin cell adhesion molecule 1 ), MAG (myelin associated glycoprotein), MALT1 (MALT1 paracaspase), MCAM (melanoma cell adhesion molecule), MDGA1 (MAM domain containing glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor 1 ), MDGA2 (MAM domain containing glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor 2), MERTK (MER proto-oncogene, tyrosine kinase), MFAP3, MIR, MILR1 (mast cell immunoglobulin like receptor 1 ), MMP23A (matrix

metallopeptidase 23A (pseuclogene)), MMP23B (matrix metallopeptidase 23B), MUSK (muscle associated receptor tyrosine kinase), MXRA5 (matrix remodeling associated 5), MYBPC3, MYOM1 (myomesin 1 ), MYOM2 (myomesin 2), MYOM3 (myomesin 3), NCA, NCAM1 , NCAM2, NCR1 (natural cytotoxicity triggering receptor 1 ), NEGRI , NE01 , NFASQ NOPE, NPHS1 (NPHS1 , nephrin), NPTN (neuroplastin), NRCAM (neuronal cell adhesion molecule), NTRK1 (neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase 1 ), NRG1 , NT, NTRK3, OBSCN, OBSL1 (obscurin like 1), OPCML, OSCAR (osteoclast associated, immunoglobulin-like receptor), PAPLN, PDCD1 LG2 (programmed cell death 1 ligancl 2), PDGFRA (platelet derived growth factor receptor alpha), PDGFRB (platelet derived growth factor receptor beta), PDGFRL (platelet derived growth factor receptor like), PECAM1 (platelet and endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 ), PRODH2, PSG1 (pregnancy specific beta-1 -glycoprotein 1 ), PSG2 (pregnancy specific beta-1 -glycoprotein 2), PSG3 (pregnancy specific beta-1 -glycoprotein 3), PSG4 (pregnancy specific beta-1 -glycoprotein 4), PSG5 (pregnancy specific beta-1 -glycoprotein 5), PSG6 (pregnancy specific beta-1 -glycoprotein 6), PSG7 (pregnancy specific beta-1 -glycoprotein 7 (gene/pseudogene)), PSG8 (pregnancy specific beta-1 -glycoprotein 8), PSG9 (pregnancy specific beta-1 -glycoprotein 9), PSG10 (pregnancy specific beta-1 -glycoprotein 10), PSG1 1 (pregnancy specific beta-1 -glycoprotein 1 1 ), PSGI I s' (pregnancy specific beta-1 -glycoprotein 1 1 s'), PTGFRN (prostaglandin F2 receptor inhibitor), PTK7 (protein tyrosine kinase 7 (inactive)), PTPRD (protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type D), PTPRK (protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type K), PTPRM (protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type M), PTPRS protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type S), PTPRT (protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type T), PTPsigma, PUNC, PVR (poliovirus receptor), PVRL1 , PVRL2, PVRL4, NECTIN 1 (nectin cell adhesion molecule 1 ), NECTIN2 (nectin cell adhesion molecule 2), NECTIN3 (nectin cell adhesion molecule 3), RAGE, ROB03 (roundabout guidance receptor 3), SCN1 B (sodium voltage-gated channel beta subunit 1 ), SDK1 (sidekick cell adhesion molecule 1 ), SDK2 (sidekick cell adhesion molecule 2), SEMA3A (semaphorin 3A), SEMA3B (semaphorin 3B), SEMA3E (semaphorin 3E), SEMA3F (semaphorin 3F), SEMA3G (semaphorin 3G), SEMA4C (semaphorin 4C), SEMA4D (semaphorin 4D), SEMA4G (semaphorin 4G), SEMA7A 8semaphorin 7A (John Milton Hagen blood group)), SIGIRR (single Ig and TIR domain containing), SIGLEC1 (sialic acid binding Ig like lectin 1 ), SIGLEC5 (sialic acid binding Ig like lectin 5), SIGLEC6 (sialic acid binding Ig like lectin 6), SIGLEC7 (sialic acid binding Ig like lectin 7), SIGLEC8 (sialic acid binding Ig like lectin 8), SIGLEC9 (sialic acid binding Ig like lectin 9), SIGLEC10 (sialic acid binding Ig like lectin 10), SIGLEC1 1 (sialic acid binding Ig like lectin 1 1 ), SIGLEC12 (sialic acid binding Ig like lectin 12 (gene/pseudogene)), SIGLEC14 (sialic acid binding Ig like lectin 14), SIGLEC1 5 (sialic acid binding Ig like lectin 1 5), SLAMF'I (signaling lymphocytic activation molecule family member 1 ), SLAMF6 (SLAM family member 6), SLAMF8 (SLAM family member 8), SIRPG; TARM1 (T-cell-interacting, activating receptor on myeloid cells 1 ), TEK (TEK receptor tyrosine kinase), THY1 Thy-1 cell surface antigen), T1E1 (tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin like and EGF like domains 1 ), TMEM81 (transmembrane protein 81 ), TMIGD1 (transmembrane and immunoglobulin domain containing 1 ), TMIGD2 (transmembrane and immunoglobulin domain containing 2), TTN (titin), TYR03 (TYR03 protein tyrosine kinase), UNC5D, VCAM1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 ), VSIG1 (V-set and immunoglobulin domain containing 1 ), VSIG2 (V-set and immunoglobulin domain containing 2), VSIG4 (V-set and immunoglobulin domain containing 4), VSIG10 (V-set and immunoglobulin domain containing 10), VSIG10L (V-set and immunoglobulin domain containing 10 like), VSTM1 (V-set and transmembrane domain containing 1 ), VTCN1 (V-set domain containing T-cell activation inhibitor 1 ), ZPBP (zona pellucicla binding protein), or ZPBP2 (zona pellucida binding protein 2).

More preferably, the Ig-like domain is an Ig-!ike domain of any one of the following proteins: CD2, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, CD22, CD33, CD80, CD86, in particular of CD4.

Further preferred examples of ig-like domains are described herein below.

It is also preferred that the (additional) functional domain of the first and/or the second polypeptide chain comprises or consists of an extra- and/or intracellular domain of a (known) protein. Moreover, the (additional) functional domain of the first and/or the second polypeptide chain may preferably comprise or consist of a domain of a (known) soluble globular protein. More preferably, the (additional) functional domain of the first and/or the second polypeptide chain comprises or consists of an extracellular domain of a (known) protein or a domain of a (known) soluble globular protein.

Preferably, the (additional) functional domain of the first and/or the second polypeptide chai n has a length of up to 1 000 amino acids, more preferably of up to 750 amino acids, even more preferably of up to 500 amino acids, still more preferably of up to 400 amino acids, particularly preferably of up to 300 amino acids and most preferably of up to 275 or 250 ami no acids. Moreover, it is preferred that the (additional) functional domain of the first and/or the second polypeptide chai n has a length of 5 to 1 000 amino acids, more preferably of 1 0 to 750 amino acids, even more preferably of 20 to 500 amino acids, still more preferably of 50 to 400 amino acids, particularly preferably of 70 to 300 amino acids and most preferably of 75 to 275 or of 1 00 to 250 amino acids.

It is also preferred that (additional) functional domain of the first and/or the second polypeptide chain has a size of up to 1 50 kDa, more preferably of up to 1 00 kDa, even more preferably of up to 80 kDa, sti l l more preferably of up to 70 kDa, particularly preferably of up to 50 kDa and most preferably of up to 30 or 25 kDa. Moreover, it is preferred that the (additional) functional domai n of the first and/or the second polypeptide chain has a size of 0.5 kDa to 1 50 kDa, more preferably of 1 kDa to 1 00 kDa, even more preferably of 2.5 kDa to 80 kDa, sti l l more preferably of 5 kDa to 70 kDa, particularly preferably of 7.5 kDa to 50 kDa and most preferably of 1 0 kDa to 30 or 25 kDa.

The (additional) functional domain of the first and/or the second polypeptide chain may comprise a monomeric domai n or multimeric domains. A monomeric domai n is a domain, which mediates its functionality without the involvement of any further (additional) domain. Multimeric domains, for example two domains formi ng a dimer or three domains forming a trimer, mediate their functionality together, in particular as multimer, e.g., as dimer or trimer. In case of multimeric domains, the (additional) functional domai n of the first and/or the second polypeptide chain may comprise linkers as described herein to provide sufficient flexibility to form the multimer, in particular a li nker may be located (directly) adjacent to one or more multimeric domai n(s), e.g. i n between two multimeric domains or on each side of al l multimeric domains. Preferably, the (additional) functional domai n of the first and/or the second polypeptide chain comprises or consists of one or more monomeric domai n(s).

In general, the (additional) functional domain of the first and/or the second polypeptide chain may comprise or consist of one single protein domain or of more than one protein domain. "More than one protein domain" may be multimeric domains as described above and/or one or more monomeric domains as described above. For example, the (additional) functional domain of the first and/or the second polypeptide chain may comprise or consist of two or three monomeric domains, which may mediate the same or distinct functionality and/or which may optionally be connected by a linker. For example, the (additional) functional domain of the first and/or the second polypeptide chain may comprise 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10 (distinct) protein domains.

Preferably, the (additional) functional domain is a human protein, peptide or polypeptide or a fragment (in particular a domain) or derivative thereof.

In particular, the (additional) functional domain is not a linker (peptide), such as a GS-!inker. Even though the (additional) functional domain may optionally comprise a linker (peptide), such as a GS-linker, it does preferably not consist of a linker (peptide), such as a GS-linker. In other words, even if the (additional) functional domain comprises a linker (peptide), such as a GS-linker, it preferably comprises an additional amino acid sequence mediating a function distinct from (purely) linking two peptides to each other. Accordingly, the (additional) functional domain is preferably distinct from a linker (peptide), such as a GS-linker. In particular, the (additional) functional domain may not comprise a linker (peptide), such as a GS-linker. In general, the functionality provided by the (additional) functional domain is preferably not a mere linkage of two (poly-)peptides. Even though the (additional) functional domain may "link" two (poly-)pepticles, such as the adjacent variable and constant domain, and, optionally, provide flexibility, the (additional) functional domain preferably provides for an (additional) function distinct from (poly-)pepticle linkage and flexibility.

Preferably, the second polypeptide chain comprises an (additional) functional domain (v). In this case, the first and the second polypeptide chains both comprise an (additional) functional domain, thereby resulting in an antibody, or antigen-binding fragment thereof, with two distinct (separate) (additional) functional domains. The (additional) functional domains of the first polypeptide chain and of the second polypeptide chain may be the same or distinct, i.e. the same or different functional domains. In other words, even if the (additional) functional domains of the first and second polypeptide chains have an identical amino acid sequence, those (additional) functional domains are "independent", i.e. they mediate their functions independently from each other. For example, the (additional) functional domains of the first and second polypeptide chain bind to separate targets (e.g., separate antigens or separate epitopes of the same antigen; separate molecules or separate parts of the same molecule) and neither of the independent binding sites requires or involves the other in order to bind to its target.

However, more preferably the second polypeptide chain comprises no (additional) functional domain (v) and that the C-terminus of the most C-terminal variable domain of the second polypeptide chain is preferably directly coupled to the N-terminus of the most N-terminal constant domain of the second polypeptide chain. For example, if the second polypeptide chain is a light chain, the C-terminus of the most C-terminal VL domain (or of the only VL domain) is preferably directly coupled to the N-terminus of the CL domain. For example, if the second polypeptide chain is a heavy chain, the C-terminus of the most C-terminal VH domain (or of the only VH domain) is preferably directly coupled to the N-terminus of the CHI domain.

Accordingly, the present invention also provides an antibody, or antigen binding fragment thereof, comprising a first polypeptide chain and a second polypeptide chain,

wherein said first polypeptide chain comprises in N- to C-terminal direction

(i) one or more variable domains;

(ii) an (additional) functional domain and

(iii) one or more constant domains; and

wherein said second polypeptide chain comprises in N- to C-terminal direction

(iv) one or more variable domains forming antigen binding sites with the one or more variable domains of the first polypeptide chain; and

(v) one or more constant domains,

characterized in that the C-terminus of the most C-terminal variable domain of the second polypeptide chain is directly coupled to the N-terminus of the most N-terminal constant domain of the second polypeptide chain.

Agai n, the term "functional domain" refers to a functional unit, e.g. of the antibody or the antigen binding fragment, as described above. Briefly, a functional domain typically provides the protein, e.g. the antibody or the antigen bi nding fragment, with an (additional) functionality as described above. Accordingly, the (additional) functional domain usual ly contains all amino acids/sequences required to provide the (additional) function. In particular, the (additional) functional domai n (ii) of the first polypeptide chain does not comprise a fragment of the second polypeptide chain, as described above in more detai l .

Particularly preferably, the (additional) functional domai n of the first polypeptide chain comprises or consists of an Ig-like domain as described above. Preferred examples of Ig-like domains i nclude those as described above and those as described herein below.

It is also preferred that the (additional) functional domain of the first polypeptide chain comprises or consists of an extra- and/or i ntracellular domai n of a (known) protein. Moreover, the (additional) functional domai n of the first polypeptide chain may preferably comprise or consist of a domai n of a (known) soluble globular protein. More preferably, the (additional) functional domai n of the first polypeptide chain comprises or consists of an extracellular domain of a (known) protei n or a domain of a (known) soluble globular protei n.

Preferably, the (additional) functional domai n of the first polypeptide chain has a length of up to 1 000 amino acids, more preferably of up to 750 amino acids, even more preferably of up to 500 amino acids, sti l l more preferably of up to 400 amino acids, particularly preferably of up to 300 amino acids and most preferably of up to 275 or 250 amino acids. Moreover, it is preferred that the (additiona l) functional domai n of the first polypeptide chain has a length of 5 to 1 000 amino acids, more preferably of 1 0 to 750 ami no acids, even more preferably of 20 to 500 amino acids, stil l more preferably of 50 to 400 ami no acids, particularly preferably of 70 to 300 amino acids and most preferably of 75 to 275 or of 1 00 to 250 amino acids.

It is also preferred that (additional) functiona l domain of the first polypeptide chain has a size of up to 1 50 kDa, more preferably of up to 1 00 kDa, even more preferably of up to 80 kDa, stil l more preferably of up to 70 kDa, particularly preferably of up to 50 kDa and most

preferably of up to 30 or 25 kDa. Moreover, it is preferred that the (additional) functional domai n of the first polypeptide chain has a size of 0.5 kDa to "1 50 kDa, more preferably of 1 kDa to 1 00 kDa, even more preferably of 2.5 kDa to 80 kDa, stil l more preferably of 5 kDa to 70 kDa, particu larly preferably of 7.5 kDa to 50 kDa and most preferably of 1 0 kDa to 30 or 25 kDa.

The (additional) functional domain of the first polypeptide chain may comprise a monomeric domain or multimeric domai ns as described above. Moreover, the (additional) functional domai n of the first polypeptide chain may comprise or consist of one single protei n domai n or of more than one protei n domain as described above.

Preferably, the (additional) functional domain is a human protei n, peptide or polypeptide or a fragment (in particular a domain) or derivative thereof.

In particular, the (additional) functional domain is not a li nker (peptide), such as a GS-linker as described above. Even though the (additional) functional domai n may optionally comprise a linker (peptide), such as a GS-linker, it does preferably not consist of a l inker (peptide), such as a GS-l inker. In other words, even if the (additional) functional domain comprises a linker (peptide), such as a GS-linker, it preferably comprises an additional amino acid sequence mediati ng a function distinct from (purely) linking two peptides to each other. Accordingly, the (additional) functional domain is preferably distinct from a linker (peptide), such as a GS-linker. In particu lar, the (additional) functional domain may not comprise a li nker (peptide), such as a GS-linker. In general, the functionality provided by the (additional) functional domain is preferably not a mere linkage of two (poly-)peptides. Even though the (additional) functional domain may "link" two (poly-)peptides, such as the adjacent variable and constant domain, and, optional ly, provide flexibi lity, the (additional) functional domain preferably provides for an (additional) function distinct from (poly-)pepticle linkage and flexibility.

Moreover, the C-termi nus of the most C-terminal variable domain of the second polypeptide chai n is preferably directly coupled to the N-terminus of the most N-terminal constant domai n of the second polypeptide chain. For example, if the second polypeptide chain is a light chain, the C-termi nus of the most C-terminal VL domain (or of the only VL domain) is preferably

directly coupled to the N-terminus of the CL domain. For example, if the second polypeptide chain is a heavy chain, the C-termi nus of the most C-termi nal VH domain (or of the only VH domai n) is preferably directly coupled to the N-terminus of the CH I domain.

In general, it is preferred in the antibody, or the antigen bi nding fragment thereof, according to the present invention that the one or more constant domains of the first polypeptide chai n is/are heavy chain constant domai ns, preferably comprising at least a CHI constant domai n and the constant domai n of the second polypeptide chain is a light chai n constant domai n CL. More preferably, the one or more constant domains of the first polypeptide chain is/are heavy chain constant domai ns, preferably comprisi ng at least a CH1 constant domain, the one or more variable domai ns of the first polypeptide chai n is/are heavy chain variable domai ns VH, the constant domain of the second polypeptide chain is a light chain constant domain CL and the one or more variable domai ns of the second polypeptide chain is/are light chai n variable domai ns VL. In other words, it is preferred that the first polypeptide chain is or is derived from a heavy chain and the second polypeptide chain is or is derived from a light chain. It is particularly preferred that the constant region of the first polypeptide chain comprises three constant domains, namely CH 1 , CH2 and CH3 (in particular, in N- to C-terminal direction CH 1 - CH2 - CH3), most preferably with a hinge region between CH 1 and CH2.

Alternatively, it is also preferred i n the antibody, or the antigen binding fragment thereof, accordi ng to the present invention that the constant domains of the first polypeptide chain is a l ight chai n constant domain CL and the one or more constant domains of the second polypeptide chain is/are heavy chain constant domains, preferably comprising at least a CHI constant domain. More preferably, the constant domains of the first polypeptide chain is a light chain constant domain CL, the one or more variable domai ns of the first polypeptide chain is/are light chain variable domai ns VL, the one or more constant domai ns of the second polypeptide chain is/are heavy chain constant domains, preferably comprising at least a CH I constant domain, and the one or more variable domai ns of the second polypeptide chai n is/are heavy chai n variable domains VH . In other words, it is preferred that the second polypeptide chain is or is derived from a heavy chai n and the first polypeptide chain is or is derived from a light chain. It is particularly preferred that the constant region of the second polypeptide chai n comprises three constant domains, namely CH I , CH2 and CH3 (i n particular, in N- to C-terminal direction CH I - CH2 - CH3), most preferably with a hinge region between CH 1 and CH2.

Moreover, it is preferred that i n the fi rst and/or second polypeptide chain, the constant domains directly adjacent to the (additional) functional domain (and/or the variable region, if the second polypeptide does not comprise an (additional) functional domain) do not contribute to the Fc region. I n native antibodies, the constant region next to the variable domai ns, CH 1 and CL, do typical ly not contribute to the Fc region. Accordi ngly, it is preferred that one polypeptide chain (the first or the second) comprises a CH I constant domain, whereas the other polypeptide chai n (the other of the first or the second) comprises a CL constant domain.

Preferably, the heavy chain constant domain, i n particular CH 1 or any other heavy chain constant domain, is selected from the fol lowi ng classes: γ, α, μ, ε and δ; preferably y, such as from IgGl , lgG2, lgG3 or lgG4.

Moreover, it is preferred that the light chain constant domain, in particular CL, is selected from the fol lowing classes: κ and λ.

Preferably, antibody, or the antigen binding fragment thereof, according to according to the present invention is a recombinant antibody or antigen binding fragment. As used herein, the term "recombinant" means that the recombinant antibody or antibody fragment does not occur in nature.

Preferably, the functional domain (ii) of the first polypeptide chain and/or the functional domain (v) of the second polypeptide chain of the antibody or the antigen binding fragment according to the present invention comprises or consists of a carrier domai n, a reporter domai n, a tag, a localization domain, an (independent) binding site, an enzyme or enzymatic domain, a receptor or a functional fragment thereof, or a ligand or a functional fragment thereof.

Preferably, the functional domain (ii) of the first polypeptide chain and/or the functional domain (v) of the second polypeptide chain the antibody, or the antigen binding fragment thereof, according to the present invention comprises or consists of an enzyme or an enzymatic domain thereof. An "enzyme" is a polypeptide or protein catalyst, i.e. an enzyme typically accelerates a chemical reaction. The molecules upon which enzymes may act are called substrates and the enzyme converts the substrates into different molecules known as products. Almost all metabolic processes in the cell need enzymes in order to occur at rates fast enough to sustain life. Preferred enzymes include oxidoreductases, transferases, hydrolases, lysases, isomerases and ligases. For enzymes, which form a dimer, the functional domain of the first and/or second polypeptide chain may comprise two identical domains connected by a linker. For example, enzymes may be useful to activate a pro-drug at a specific site, e.g. a tumor. Examples of preferred enzymes and uses of antibodies comprising such enzymes are described in Andrady C, Sharma SK, Chester KA; Antibody-enzyme fusion proteins for cancer therapy; Immunotherapy. 201 1 Feb;3(2):1 93-21 1 and in Boado RJ1 , Zhang Y, Zhang Y, Xia CF, Wang Y, Pardridge WM; Genetic engineering of a lysosomal enzyme fusion protein for targeted delivery across the human blood-brain barrier; Biotechnol Bioeng. 2008 Feb 1 ;99(2):475-84.

Preferred enzymes are selected from the group consisting of dehydrogenase, luciferase, D SO reductase, Alcohol dehydrogenase (NAD), Alcohol dehydrogenase (NADP), Homoserine dehydrogenase, Aminopropanol oxidoreductase, Diacetyl reductase, Glycerol dehydrogenase, Propanecliol-phosphate dehydrogenase, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NAD+), D-xylulose reductase, L-xylulose reductase, Lactate dehydrogenase, Malate dehydrogenase, Isocitrate dehydrogenase, HMG-CoA reductase, Glucose oxidase, L-gulonolactone oxidase, Thiamine oxidase, Xanthine oxidase, Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, Glyceralclehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, Pyruvate dehydrogenase, Oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, Biliverdin reductase, Monoamine oxidase, Dihydrofolate reductase, Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, Sarcosine oxidase, Dihydrobenzophenanthricline oxidase, NADH dehydrogenase, Urate oxidase, Nitrite reductase, Nitrate reductase, Glutathione reductase, Thioredoxin reductase, Sulfite oxidase, Cytochrome c oxidase, Coenzyme Q - cytochrome c reductase, Catechol oxidase, Laccase, Cytochrome c peroxidase, Catalase, Myeloperoxidase, Thyroid peroxidase, Glutathione peroxidase, 4-

hyclroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase, Reni l la-luciferin 2-monooxygenase, Cypridina-luciferin 2-monooxygenase, Firefly luciferase, Watasenia-luciferin 2-monooxygenase, Oplophorus-luciferin 2-monooxygenase, Aromatase, CYP2 D6, CYP2E1 , CYP3A4, Cytochrome P450 oxidase, Nitric oxide dioxygenase, Nitric oxide synthase, Aromatase, Phenylalanine hydroxylase, Tyrosi nase, Superoxide dismutase, Ceruloplasmin, Nitrogenase, Deiodinase, Glutathione S-transferase, Catechol-O-methyl transferase, DNA methyltransferase, Histone methyltransferase, ATCase, Ornithine transcarbamoylase, Aminolevuli nic acid synthase, Choline acetyltransferase, Factor XI II, Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase, Transglutami nase, Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase, Thiaminase, Alanine transaminase, Aspartate transaminase, Butyrate kinase, Nuclease, Endonuclease, Exonuclease, Acid hydrolase, Phosphol ipase A, Phospholipase C, Acetylcholi nesterase, Cholinesterase, Lipoprotein lipase, Ubiquitin carboxy-tertninal hydrolase L1 , Phosphatase, Alkali ne phosphatase, Fructose bisphosphatase, CGMP specific phosphodiesterase type 5, Phosphol ipase D, Restriction enzyme Type 1 , Restriction enzyme Type 2, Restriction enzyme Type 3, Restriction enzyme Type 4, Deoxyribonuciease I, RNase H, Ribonuclease, Amylase, Sucrase, Chiti nase, Lysozyme, Maltase, Lactase, Beta-galactosidase, Hyaluronidase, Adenosylmethionine hydrolase, S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase, Alkenylglycerophosphocholine hydrolase, Alkenylglycerophosphoethanolamine hydrolase, Cholesterol-5,6-oxide hydrolase, Hepoxi l i n-epoxide hydrolase, Isochorismatase, Leukotriene-A4 hydrolase, Li monene-1 ,2-epoxide hydrolase, Microsomal epoxide hydrolase, Trans-epoxysucci nate hydrolase, Alanine aminopeptidase, Angiotensin converting enzyme, Seri ne protease, Chymotrypsin, Trypsin, Thrombin, Factor X, Plasmin, Acrosin, Factor VII, Factor IX, Prolyl oligopeptidase, Factor XI, Elastase, Factor XII, Proteinase K, Tissue plasminogen activator, Protei n C, Separase, Pepsi n, Rennet, Reni n, Trypsi nogen, Plasmepsin, Matrix metalloprotei nase, Metal loendopeptidase, Urease, Beta-lactamase, Arginase, Adenosine deaminase, GTP cyclohydrolase I, N itri lase, Helicase, DnaB helicase, RecQ helicase, ATPase, NaKATPase, ATP synthase, Kynureninase, Haloacetate dehalogenase, Lyase, Ornithi ne decarboxylase, Uridine monophosphate synthetase, Aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase, RubisCO, Carbonic anhyclrase, Tryptophan synthase, Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, Cystathionine gamma-lyase, Cystathionine beta-lyase, Leukotriene C4 synthase, Dichloromethane dehalogenase, Ha lohyclrin dehalogenase, Adenylate cyclase, Guanylate cyclase, Amino-acid racemase: Phenylalani ne racemase, Serine raceinase,

Mandelate racemase, UDP-glucose 4-epimerase, Methylmalonyl CoA epimerase, FKBP: FKBP1 A, FKBP1 B, FKBP2, FKBP3, FKBP5, FKBP6, F BP8, F BP9, FKBP10, FKBP52, FKBPL, Cyclophilin, Parvulin, Prolyl isomerase, 2-chloro-4-carboxymethylenebut-2-en-1 ,4-olide isomerase, Beta-carotene isomerase, Farnesol 2-isomerase, Furylfuramide isomerase, Linoleate isomerase, Maleate isomerase, Maleylacetoacetate isomerase, Maleylpyruvate isomerase, Parvulin, Photoisomerase, Prolycopene isomerase, Prolyl isomerase, Retinal isomerase, Retinol isomerase, Zeta-carotene isomerase, Enoyl CoA isomerase, Protein disulfide isomerase, Phosphoglucomutase, Muconate cycloisomerase, 3-carboxy-cis,cis-muconate cycloisomerase, Tetrahydroxypteridine cycloisomerase, lnositol-3-phosphate synthase, Carboxy-cis,cis-muconate cyclase, Chalcone isomerase, Chloromuconate cycloisomerase, (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, Cycloeucalenol cycloisomerase, Alpha-pinene-oxide decyclase, Dichloromuconate cycloisomerase, Copalyl diphosphate synthase, Ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase, Syn-copalyl-diphosphate synthase, Terpentedienyl-cliphosphate synthase, Halimadienyl-diphosphate synthase, (S)-beta-macrocarpene synthase, Lycopene epsilon-cyclase, Lycopene beta-cyclase, Prosoianapyrone-lll cycloisomerase, D-ribose pyranase, Steroid Delta Isomerase, Topoisomerase, 6-carboxytetrahydropterin synthase, FARSB, Clutamine synthetase, CTP synthase, Argininosuccinate synthetase, Pyruvate carboxylase, Acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and DNA ligase.

More preferred enzymes may be selected from the group consisting of carboxypeptidase, β-lactamase, cytosine deaminase, β-glucuronidase, purine nucleoside phosphorylase, granzyme B, caspase and RNase, such as HPR (human pancreatic RNase, barnase, bovine seminal RNase, onconase, RapLRI , angiogenin, dicer, DIS3-like exonuclease 2, phosphodiesterase ELAC 2, RNase Hill, RNase T2, and tRNA splicing ribonuclease.

A functional fragment of an enzyme may be any fragment of an enzyme, which has the ability to mediate a functionality. Usually, such fragments are referred to as "domains". Accordingly, the functional fragment of an enzyme may be any domain of the enzyme. Preferred examples include functional fragments (e.g., domains) of the (exemplified) enzymes described above. Preferably, the functional fragment of the enzyme, which is comprised by the (additional) functional domain is a catalytic domain of an enzyme. The catalytic domain of an enzyme is the region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction. For example, the (additional) functional domain of the first polypeptide chain and/or of the second polypeptide chain may be a catalytic domain of any one of the following enzymes: carboxypepticlase, β-lactamase, cytosine deaminase, β-glucuronidase, purine nucleoside phosphorylase, granzyme B, caspase and RNase, such as HPR (human pancreatic RNase, barnase, bovine seminal RNase, onconase, RapLRI , angiogenin, dicer, DlS3-like exonuclease 2, phosphodiesterase ELAC 2, RNase Hill, RNase 12, and tRNA splicing ribonuclease.

Preferably, the functional domain (ii) of the first polypeptide chain and/or the functional domain (v) of the second polypeptide chain of the antibody or the antigen binding fragment according to the present invention comprises or consists of a carrier domain. As used herein, a "carrier domain" refers to an amino acid sequence, which provides for conjugation of the antibody to another molecule. In a preferred example, the carrier domain provides for conjugation of the antibody, or the antigen binding fragment thereof, for example to a drug, to an imaging agent, or to a nanoparticle. In general, preferred examples of conjugates, which may be useful in the context of the present invention, are described in Wu, A. M., and Senter, P. D. (2005) Arming antibodies: Prospects and challenges for immunoconjugates. Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 1 137-1 146.

For example, drugs, which may be conjugated to the antibody include anticancer drugs, such as those described in Thomas A, Teicher BA, Hassan R; Antibody-drug conjugates for cancer therapy; Lancet Oncol. 2016 Jun;1 7(6):e254-62. doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(16)30030-4. For example, imaging agents, which may be conjugated to the antibody, are described in Steve Knutson, Erum Raja, Ryan Bomgarden, Marie Nlend, Aoshuang Chen, Ramaswamy Kalyanasundaram, and Surbhi Desai; Development and Evaluation of a Fluorescent Antibody- Drug Conjugate for Molecular Imaging and Targeted Therapy of Pancreatic Cancer; PLoS One 201 6; 1 1 (6): e0157762. Such drugs are preferably cytotoxic agents. Preferred examples of drugs, which may be conjugated to the antibody or antigen binding fragment of the present invention, include doxorubicin, truncated Pseudomonas exotoxin A, maytansinoid DM1.

Examples of imaging agents, which may be conjugated to the antibody or antigen binding fragment of the present invention, include radioisotopes, such as those described in Schubert M, Bergmann R, Forster C, Sihver W, Vonhoff S, Klussmann S, Bethge L, Walther M,

Schlesinger J, Pietzsch J, Steinbach J, Pietzsch HJ; Novel Tumor Pretargeting System Based on Complementary l-Configured Oligonucleotides; Bioconj ug Chem. 201 7 Apr 1 9;28(4): 1 1 76-1 1 88 and in Bhusari P, Vatsa R, Si ngh G- Parmar M, Bal A, Dhawan D , Mittal BR, Shukia J; Development of Lu-1 77-trastuzumab for raclioimmunotherapy of HER2 expressing breast cancer and its feasibi lity assessment in breast cancer patients; Int J Cancer. 201 7 Feb 1 5;1 40(4):938-947. Preferred examples of radioisotopes i nclude 90Y, 131 i, and 177Lu.

Further examples of imaging agents, which may be conjugated to the antibody or antigen bi nding fragment of the present invention, include fluorescent dyes, quantum dots, and iron oxide. Examples of fluorescent dyes include those described below as reporter domains. An example of iron oxide nanoparticles is described in Hengyi Xu, Zoraida P. Agui lar, Li ly Yang, Min Kuang, Hongwei Duan, Yonghua Xiong, Hua Wei, and Andrew Wang: Antibody Conjugated Magnetic iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Cancer Cel l Separation in Fresh Whole Blood. Biomaterials. 201 1 Dec; 32(36): 9758-9765.

Antibody conjugates (i.e. antibodies conjugated to other molecules) are known in the art. In particular, the molecule conjugated to the antibody may be linked to the antibody by a cleavable or non-cleavable linker (e.g., as described in: Thomas H. Pillow. Novel linkers and connections for antibody-drug conjugates to treat cancer and infectious disease. Pharmaceutical Patent Analyst Vol. 6, No. 1 , February 3 rd, 201 7, https://doi .org/1 0.41 55/ppa-201 6-0032; or i n: Beck A, Goetsch L, Dumontet C, Corva'ia N. Strategies and chal lenges for the next generation of antibody-drug conjugates. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 201 7 May;1 6(5):31 5-337). Examples of such li nkers, which may be used to link the molecule to the antibody or antigen bi nding fragment, are described, for example in EP 2927227 and i n Thomas H. Pillow. Novel linkers and connections for antibody-drug conjugates to treat cancer and infectious disease. Pharmaceutical Patent Analyst Vol. 6, No. 1 , February 3 rd, 201 7, https://doi.org/1 0.41 55/ppa-201 6-0032. However, in the prior art the li nkers are attached directly to the Ig-domains of the antibody (namely, to the variable and/or constant domai ns of the antibody), which may interfere with the functionality of the Ig-domains of the antibody. I n view thereof, the (additional) functional domain of the antibody or the antigen bindi ng fragment according to the present invention may be used for attachment of a l i nker to the antibody. Preferred linkers differ from "classical" li nkers in that they are engineered to contain additional cysteines or lysines. Preferably, the carrier domain comprises one or more non-canonical amino acids useful for site-specific conjugation, e.g., as described in Link AJ, Mock ML, Tirrel l DA. Non-canonical amino acids in protein engineering. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2003 Dec; 14(6):603-9. Moreover, the carrier domai n may be designed such that it is recognized by specific enzymes (such as Formylglycin Generating Enzyme, Sortase and/or Transglutaminases), that modify specific amino acids that then can be used for conjugation as described in section 6 of Dennler P., Fischer E., Schibli R. Antibody conjugates: From heterogeneous populations to defined reagents. Antibodies. 201 5;4:1 97-224.

Further preferred carrier domains are domains for conjugation, such as genetically modified cross-reacting material (CRM) of diphtheria toxin, tetanus toxoid (T), meni ngococca l outer membrane protein complex (OMPC), diphtheria toxoid (D), and H. influenzae protein D (HiD), for example as described in Pichichero ME: Protein carriers of conjugate vaccines: characteristics, development, and clinical trials, Hum Vacci n Immunother. 201 3 Dec;9(12):2505-23.

Preferably, the functional domai n (ii) of the first polypeptide chain and/or the functional domai n (v) of the second polypeptide chain of the antibody or the antigen binding fragment according to the present i nvention comprises or consists of a reporter domain. A reporter domain is typically encoded by a reporter gene. Reporter domains are such domai ns, whose presence (e.g., i n a cel l, organism) can be easi ly observed. Reporter domai ns i nclude, for example, fluorescent protei ns, such as GFP/EGFP (green fluorescent protein/enhanced green fluorescent protein), YFP (yellow fluorescent protein), RFP (red fluorescent protei n), and CFP (cyan fluorescent protein), luciferases and enzymes such as beta-galactosidase and peroxidase. Reporter domai ns can be useful for in vivo and ex vivo approaches. For example, fluorescent protei ns cause a cel l to fluoresce when excited with light of a particular wavelength, luciferases cause a cell to catalyze a reaction that produces light, and enzymes such as beta-galactosidase convert a substrate to a colored product. There are several different ways to measure or quantify a reporter dependi ng on the particular reporter and what kind of characterization data is desired. In general, microscopy is useful for obtaining both spatial and temporal i nformation on reporter activity, particularly at the single cel l level. Flow cytometers are best suited for measuring the distribution in reporter activity across a large population of cells. Plate readers are generally best for taking population average measurements of many different samples over time. Enzyme, such as beta-galactosidase and peroxidase, which can react to a given substrate, may be useful, for example, for ex-vivo stainings of human samples, e.g. in tumor diagnosis.

Preferably, the reporter domain comprises or consists of an amino acid sequence coding for CFP/EGFP, YFP, FP, CFP, luciferase, beta-galactosidase, or peroxidase. In addition, fluorescent tags as described below are also useful as reporter domains.

Preferably, the functional domain (ii) of the first polypeptide chain and/or the functional domain (v) of the second polypeptide chain of the antibody or the antigen binding fragment according to the present invention comprises or consists of a localization domain. In general, a localization domain directs a protein to a certain target, e.g. on the level of an organism or a cell. A localization domain can direct the antibody or the antigen binding fragment according to the present invention to a particular physical location in the cell, such as the nucleus, the membrane, the periplasm, secretion outside of the cell, to a specific part of the body, or elsewhere.

For example, in order to direct the antibody or the antigen binding fragment according to the present invention into a cell, the (additional) functional domain may comprise or consist of a cell penetrating peptide. The term "cell penetrating peptides" ("CPPs", also referred to as "protein transduction domain'V'PTD") is generally used to designate short peptides that are able to transport different types of cargo molecules across plasma membrane, and, thus, facilitate cellular uptake of various molecular cargoes (from nanosize particles to small chemical molecules and large fragments of DNA). Cell penetrating peptides typically have an amino acid composition that either contains a high relative abundance of positively charged amino acids such as lysine or arginine or have a sequence that contains an alternating pattern of polar/charged amino acids and non-polar, hydrophobic amino acids. These two types of structures are referred to as polycationic or amphipathic, respectively. Typically, cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) are peptides of 8 to 50 residues that have the ability to cross the cell membrane and enter into most cell types. Alternatively, they are also called protein

transduction domain (PTDs) reflecting their origin as occurring in natural proteins. Frankel and Pabo simultaneously to Green and Lowenstein described the ability of the trans-activating transcriptional activator from the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-TAT) to penetrate into cells (Frankel, A. D. and CO. Pabo, Cellular uptake of the tat protein from human immunodeficiency virus. Cel l, 1 988. 55(6): p. 1 1 89-93). In 1 991 , transduction into neural cells of the Antennapedia homeodomain (DNA-binding domain) from Drosophila melanogaster was described (Joliot, A., et al., Antennapedia homeobox peptide regulates neural morphogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 1 991 . 88(5): p. 1 864-8). In 1 994, the first 1 6-mer peptide CPP called Penetratin was characterized from the third helix of the homeodomain of Antennapedia (Derossi, D., et al., The third helix of the Antennapedia homeodomain translocates through biological membranes. J Biol Chem, 1 994. 269(14): p. 1 0444-50), followed in 1 998 by the identification of the mi nimal domain of TAT, required for protein transduction (Vives, E., P. Brodin, and B. Lebleu, A truncated HIV-1 Tat protein basic domai n rapidly translocates through the plasma membrane and accumulates in the cel l nucleus. J Biol Chem, 1 997. 272(25): p. 1 601 0-7). Over the past two decades, dozens of peptides were described from different origins including viral protei ns, e.g. VP22 (Elliott, G. and P. O'Hare, Intercellular trafficki ng and protein delivery by a herpesvi rus structural protein. Cel l, 1 997. 88(2): p. 223-33), or from venoms, e.g. melittin (Dempsey, C.E., The actions of melitti n on membranes. Biochim Biophys Acta, 1 990. 1 031 (2): p. 1 43-61 ), mastoporan (Konno, K., et al., Structure and biological activities of eumeni ne mastoparan-AF (EMP-AF), a new mast cel l degranulating peptide in the venom of the solitary wasp (Anterhynchium flavomarginatum micado). Toxicon, 2000. 38(1 1 ): p. 1 505-1 5), maurocalcin (Esteve, E., et al., Transduction of the scorpion toxi n maurocalci ne into cells. Evidence that the toxin crosses the plasma membrane. J Biol Chem, 2005. 280(1 3): p. 1 2833-9), crotamine (Nascimento, F.D., et al., Crotamine mediates gene del ivery into cel ls through the binding to heparan sulfate proteoglycans. J Biol Chem, 2007. 282(29): p. 21 349-60) or bufori n (Kobayashi, S., et al., Membrane translocation mechanism of the antimicrobial peptide buforin 2. Biochemistry, 2004. 43(49): p. 1 561 0-6). Synthetic CPPs were also designed i ncluding the poly-arginine (R8, R9, R1 0 and R1 2) (Futaki, S., et al., Arginine-rich peptides. An abundant source of membrane-permeable peptides having potential as carriers for intracel lular protein delivery. J B iol Chem, 2001 . 276(8): p. 5836-40) or transportan (Pooga, M., et al., Cell penetration by transportan. FASEB J, 1 998. 1 2(1 ): p. 67-77). Any of the above described CPPs may be used as cell penetrating peptide in the antibody or antigen binding fragment according to the present invention. Various CPPs, which can be used as cell penetrating peptide in the antibody or antigen binding fragment according to the present invention are also disclosed in the review: Milletti, F., Cell-penetrating peptides: classes, origin, and current landscape. Drug Discov Today 1 7 (15-16): 850-60, 2012.

Another example of a localization domain, which may be used in the antibody or antigen binding fragment according to the present invention is a domain for crossing the blood brain barrier, for example as described in Farrington CK, Caram-Salas N, Haqqani AS, Brunette E, Eldredge j, Pepinsky B, Antognetti G, Baumann E, Ding W, Garber E, Jiang S, Delaney C, Boileau E, Sisk WP, Stanimirovic DB. A novel platform for engineering blood-brain barrier-crossing bispecific biologies. FASEB J. 2014 Nov;28(1 1 ):4764-78.

A further example of a localization domain is a nuclear localization domain. A nuclear localization domain directs a protein, in particular the antibody or antigen-binding fragment according to the present invention, to the cell nucleus. A nuclear localization domain may be useful for an antibody or antigen-binding fragment to block the activity of a transcription factor and to modulate gene expression. Preferred examples of nuclear localization domains are described in Ka!deron D, Roberts BL, Richardson WD, Smith AE (1984) "A short amino acid sequence able to specify nuclear location" Cell 39 (3 Pt 2): 499-509 and in Lusk CP, Blobel G, King MC (May 2007) "Highway to the inner nuclear membrane: rules for the road" Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 8 (5): 414-20.

Preferably, the functional domain (ii) of the first polypeptide chain and/or the functional domain (v) of the second polypeptide chain the antibody, or the antigen binding fragment thereof, according to the present invention comprises or consists of a tag. More preferably, the tag is an affinity tag, a solubilization tag, a chromatography tag, an epitope tag or a fluorescence tag.

A tag is a peptide sequence grafted onto a recombinant protein. Examples of tags include affinity tags, solubilization tags, chromatography tags, epitope tags, fluorescence tags and protein tags. Affinity tags may be used to purify proteins from their crude biological source using an affinity technique. Examples of affinity tags include chitin binding protein (CBP), maltose binding protein (MBP), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). A further example is the poly(His) tag which binds to metal matrices. Solubilization tags may be used, especially for recombinant proteins expressed in chaperone-deficient species such as E. coli, to assist in the proper folding in proteins and keep them from precipitating. Examples of solubilization tags include thioredoxin (TRX) and poly(NANP). Chromatography tags may be used to alter chromatographic properties of the protein to afford different resolution across a particular separation technique. Chromatography tags often consist of polyanionic amino acids, such as FLAG-tag. Epitope tags are short peptide sequences which are chosen because high-affinity antibodies can be reliably produced in many different species. These are usually derived from viral genes, which explain their high immunoreactivity. Epitope tags include V5-tag, Myc-tag, HA-tag and NE-tag. These tags are particularly useful for western blotting, immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation experiments, although they also find use in antibody purification. Fluorescence tags may be used to give visual readout on a protein. GFP and its variants are the most commonly used fluorescence tags. GFP may be used as a folding reporter (fluorescent if folded, colorless if not). Protein tags may allow specific enzymatic modification (such as biotinylation by biotin ligase) or chemical modification (such as reaction with FIAsH-EDT2 for fluorescence imaging). Tags may be combined, for example, in order to connect proteins to multiple other components. Tags may be removable by chemical agents or by enzymatic means, such as proteolysis or intein splicing.

Preferred examples of tags include, but are not limited to, the following: twin-Strep-Tag (SAWSHPQFE GGGSGGGSGGSAWSHPQFEK; SEQ ID NO: 20); AviTag, a peptide allowing biotinylation by the enzyme BirA and so the protein can be isolated by streptavidin (GLNDIFEAQKIEWHE; SEQ ID NO: 21 ); Calmodulin-tag, a peptide bound by the protein calmodulin (KRRW KNFIAVSAANRF ISSSGAL; SEQ ID NO: 22); polyglutamate tag, a peptide binding efficiently to anion-exchange resin such as Mono-Q (EEEEEE; SEQ ID NO: 23); E-tag, a peptide recognized by an antibody (GAPVPYPDPLEPR; SEQ ID NO: 24); FLAG-tag, a peptide recognized by an antibody (DYKDDDDK; SEQ ID NO: 25); HA-tag, a peptide from hemagglutinin recognized by an antibody (YPYDVPDYA; SEQ ID NO: 26); His-tag, 5-10 histidines bound by a nickel or cobalt chelate (HHHHHH; SEQ ID NO: 27); Myc-tag, a peptide derived from c-myc recognized by an antibody (EQKLISEEDL; SEQ ID NO: 28); NE-

tag, an 18-amino-acid synthetic peptide (TKENPRSNQEESYDDNES; SEQ ID NO: 29) recognized by a monoclonal IgGI antibody, which is useful in a wide spectrum of applications including Western blotting, ELISA, flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry, immunoprecipitation, and affinity purification of recombinant proteins; S-tag, a peptide derived from Ribonuclease A (KETAAAKFERQHMDS; SEQ ID NO: 30); SBP-tag, a peptide which binds to streptavidin (MDE TTGWRGGHVVEGLAGELEQLRARLEHHPQGQREP; SEQ ID NO: 31 ); Softag 1 , for mammalian expression (SLAELLNAGLGGS; SEQ ID NO: 32); Softag 3, for prokaryotic expression (TQDPSRVG; SEQ ID NO: 33); Strep-tag, a peptide which binds to streptavidin or the modified streptavidin called streptactin (Strep-tag II: WSHPQFE ; SEQ ID NO: 34); TC tag, a tetracysteine tag that is recognized by FlAsH and ReAsH biarsenical compounds (CCPGCC; SEQ ID NO: 35); V5 tag, a peptide recognized by an antibody (GKPIPNPLLGLDST; SEQ ID NO: 36); VSV-tag, a peptide recognized by an antibody (YTDIEMNRLGK; SEQ ID NO: 37); Xpress tag (DLYDDDDK; SEQ ID NO: 38); Isopeptag, a peptide which binds covalently to pilin-C protein (TD KDMTITFTN KKDAE; SEQ ID NO: 39); SpyTag, a peptide which binds covalently to SpyCatcher protein (AHIVMVDAYKPTK; SEQ ID NO: 40); SnoopTag, a peptide which binds covalently to SnoopCatcher protein (KLGDIEFIKVNK; SEQ ID NO: 41 ); Tyl tag (EVHTNQDPLD; SEQ ID NO: 42); BCCP (Biotin Carboxyl Carrier Protein), a protein domain biotinylated by BirA enabling recognition by streptavidin; glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-tag, a protein which binds to immobilized glutathione; green fluorescent protein-tag, a protein which is spontaneously fluorescent and can be bound by nanobodies; HaloTag, a mutated bacterial haloalkane dehalogenase that covalently attaches to a reactive haloalkane substrate, this allows attachment to a wide variety of substrates; maltose binding protein (MBP)-tag, a protein which binds to amylose agarose; Nus (N-utilization substance)-tag; Thioredoxin (Trx)-tag; Fasciola hepatica 8-kDa antigen (Fh8)-tag; Small ubiquitin modified (SUMO)-tag; Solubility-enhancer peptide sequences (SET)-tags; IgG domain B1 of Protein G (GBI )-tag; IgG repeat domain ZZ of Protein A (ZZ)-tag; .Solubility e/Vhancing ubiquitous 7ag (SNUT)-tag; Seventeen kilodalton protein (Skp)-tag; Phage T7 protein kinase (T7PK)-tag; E. coli secreted protein A (EspA)-tag; Monomeric bacteriophage T7 0.3 protein (Ore protein)/Mocr-tag; E. coli trypsin inhibitor (Ecotin)-tag; Calcium-binding protein (CaBP)-tag; Stress-responsive arsenate reductase (ArsC)-tag; N-terminal fragment of translation initiation factor IF2 (IF2-domain l)-tag; Expressivity tag (N-terminal fragment of translation initiation factor IF2); Stress-responsive proteins RpoA, SlyD, Tsf, RpoS, PotD, Crr-tags; E. co!i acidic proteins msyB, yjgD, rpoD tags (see, e.g., Costa S, Almeida A, Castro A, Domingues L. Fusion tags for protein solubility, purification and immunogenicity in Escherichia coli: the novel Fh8 system. Frontiers in Microbiology. 2014;5:63, in particular Table 1 in Costa et al., 201 ).

Accordingly, it is preferred that the tag comprises or consists of an amino acid sequence according to any one of SEQ ID NO: 20 - 42 or a sequence variant thereof. Most preferably, the tag is a Strep-tag, in particular according to SEQ ID NO: 20 or 34.

Preferably, the functional domain (ii) of the first polypeptide chain and/or the functional domain (v) of the second polypeptide chain the antibody, or the antigen binding fragment thereof, according to the present invention comprises or consists of a receptor or a functional fragment thereof. A "receptor" is a polypeptide or protein, which binds a specific (signal) molecule, its ligand, and which may initiate a response, e.g. in a cell. In nature, receptors are in particular located on or in the cell membrane (cell surface receptors) or intracellularly (intracellular receptors). Preferred receptors include ion channel-linked (ionotropic) receptors, G protein-linked (metabotropic) hormone receptors, and enzyme-linked hormone receptors, cytoplasmic receptors and nuclear receptors. For receptors, which form a dimer, the functional domain of the first and/or second polypeptide chain may comprise two identical domains connected by a Sinker.

Preferred receptors are receptors comprising an Ig-like domain. In particular, the receptor may be an inhibitor receptor comprising an Ig-like domain or an activating receptor comprising an Ig-like domain. Preferred examples of inhibitory receptors comprising an Ig-like domain include programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1 or PD1 ), cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4), B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA), T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain containing-3 (TIM-3; also known as Hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 2 (HAVCR2)), T cell immunoreceptor with Ig and ITIM domains (TIGIT), Cell surface glycoprotein CD200 receptor 1 (CD200R1 ), 2B4 (CD244; SLAMF4), Trem (Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells)-like transcript 2 (TLT2), Leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor subfamily B member 4 (LILRB4), and Killer Cell Immunoglobulin Like Receptor, Two Ig Domains And Long Cytoplasmic Tail 2 (KIR2DL2). Preferred examples of activating

receptors comprising an Ig-like domain include Inducible T-cell COStimulator (ICOS) and CD28. Particularly preferably, the receptor is programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1 or PDI ) or Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM).

Further preferred receptors are soluble receptors, for example as disclosed in Heaney ML, Golde DW. Soluble receptors in human disease. J Leukoc Biol. 1 998 Aug;64(2):135-46. Examples thereof include TNFR (tumor necrosis factor receptor), p55, p75, Fas (CD95), nerve growth factor receptor, CD27, CD30, growth hormone receptor, CM-CSF receptor, erythropoietin receptor (EpoR), thrombopoietin receptor, G-CSF receptor, IL-1 RI (interleukin 1 receptor I), IL-1 RII (interleukin 1 receptor II), IL-2Ra (interleukin 2 receptor a, Tac, CD25), IL-4R (interleukin 4 receptor), IL-5Roc (interleukin 5 receptor a), IL-7R (interleukin 7 receptor), lL-6Ra (interleukin 6 receptor a), gp1 30, CNTFR (ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor), LIFR (leukemia inhibitory factor receptor), leptin receptor, IL-1 1 R (interleukin 1 1 receptor), IL-1 2 p40 (interleukin 12 receptor p40), stem cell factor receptor (c-kit), interferon receptor, lipopolysaccharide receptor (CD14), complement receptor type I (CD35), hyaluronate receptor (CD44), CD58, IgE receptor (FCERII, CD23), IgC receptor (FcyRII), ICAM-1 (CD54), ICAM-3 (CD50), transforming growth factor β receptor III, epidermal growth factor receptor (c-erb B), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, platelet derived growth factor receptor, fibroblast growth factor, colony stimulating factor- 1 receptor (MCFR, c-fms), ARK (adrenergic receptor kinase), Tie (angiopoietin receptor), insulin receptor, insulin-like growth factor-ll receptor, and mannose 6-phosphate receptor.

More preferably, the soluble receptor is a soluble cytokine receptor, such as a class I cytokine receptor superfamily receptor, a class II cytokine receptor superfamily receptor, an IL-1/TLR family receptor, a TGF-β receptor family receptor, a TNFR superfami ly receptor, or IL-1 R. Preferred receptors of class I cytokine receptor superfamily include IL-4Ra, IL-5Ra, IL-6Ra, IL-7Ra, IL-9Ra, EpoR, G-CSFR, GM-CSFR , gp130, and LIFRa. Preferred receptors of class II cytokine receptor superfamily include type I IFNR, such as IFNAR1 and IFNAR2a. Preferred receptors of IL-1 TLR family include IL-1 RII and IL-I RacP. Preferred receptors of TGF-β receptor family include TβR-l and activin receptor-like kinase 7. Preferred receptors of the TNFR superfami ly include TNFRSF6/Fas/CD95 and TNFRSF9/4-1 BB/CD1 37. Accordingly, preferred examples of cytokine receptors include IL-4R<x, IL-5Roc, IL-6Ra, IL-7Ra, IL-9R ,

EpoR, G-CSFR, GM-CSFRa, gpl 30, LI FRa, IFNAR1 , IFNAR2a, IL-1 RII, IL-l RacP, Τβ^Ι, activi n receptor-li ke kinase 7, TNFRSF6/Fas/CD95, TNFRSF9/4-1 BB/CD1 37 and I L-1 7R. An antibody or antigen-bindi ng fragment comprising a functional domain comprisi ng such a receptor or a functional fragment thereof may modulate the inflammatory response while the antibody reaches its target. For example, soluble type II ! L-1 receptors (sIL-I RI I), which are generated primari ly by proteolytic cleavage in response to a variety of stimuli, can attenuate excessive IL-1 bioactivity by preferentially binding IL-Ι β. For example, soluble IL-1 RAcP, which is generated by alternative splici ng rather than by ectodomain cleavage. For example, soluble IL-6 receptors bi nd IL-6 with an affinity simi lar to the membrane IL-6R, thereby prolonging the I L-6 half-life.

A functional fragment of a receptor may be any fragment of a receptor, which has the ability to mediate a functional ity. Usually, such fragments are referred to as "domains". Accordingly, the functional fragment of a receptor may be any domai n of the receptor. Preferred examples include functional fragments (e.g., domains) of the (exemplified) receptors described above. Preferably, the functional fragment of the receptor, which is comprised by the (additional) functional domain is an extracellu lar domain of a receptor. For example, the (additional) functional domain of the fi rst polypeptide chain and/or of the second polypeptide chain may be an extracellular domain of any of the following receptors IL-4Ra, iL-5Ra, IL-6Ra, I L-7Ra, IL-9Ra, EpoR, G-CSFR, GM-CSFRa, gp1 30, LIFRa, 1FNAR1 , IFNAR2a, IL-1 Rll, IL-1 RacP, T R-I, activin receptor-like kinase 7, TNFRSF6/Fas/CD95, TNFRSF9/4-1 BB/CD1 37, IL-1 7R, p55, p75, nerve growth factor receptor, CD27, CD30, growth hormone receptor, thrombopoietin receptor, I L-1 RI (interleuki n 1 receptor I), IL-2 Ra (i nterleukin 2 receptor a, Tac, CD25), CNTFR (ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor), leptin receptor, !L-1 1 R (interleukin 1 1 receptor), IL-12 p40 (interleuki n 1 2 receptor p40), stem cel l factor receptor (c-kit), interferon receptor, l ipopolysaccharide receptor (CD1 4), complement receptor type I (CD35), hyaluronate receptor (CD44), CD58, IgE receptor (FceRII, CD23), IgG receptor (FcyRII), ICAM-1 (CD54), ICAM-3 (CD50), transformi ng growth factor β receptor I I I, epidermal growth factor receptor (c-erb B), vascular endothel ial growth factor receptor, platelet derived growth factor receptor, fibroblast growth factor, colony stimulati ng factor-1 receptor (MCFR, c-fms), ARK (adrenergic receptor kinase), Tie (angiopoietin receptor), i nsulin receptor, insul i n-like growth factor-ll receptor, and mannose 6-phosphate receptor.

Preferably, the functional fragment of the receptor, which is comprised by the (additional) functional domain is an Ig-like domain. For example, the (additional) functional domain of the first polypeptide chain and/or of the second polypeptide chain may be an Ig-like domai n of any of the following receptors PD1 , SLAM, LAIR1 , CTLA4, BTLA, TlM-3, TIG!T, CD200R1 , 2B4 (CD244), TLT2, LILRB4, KIR2DL2, ICOS or CD28. Preferably, the functional domain (i i) of the first polypeptide chain and/or the functional domain (v) of the second polypeptide chai n the antibody, or the antigen binding fragment thereof, according to the present invention does not comprise a transmembrane domain. Most preferably, the receptor comprises or consists of an amino acid sequence as set forth i n any one of SEQ ID NOs 1 3 -1 5 or a functional sequence variant thereof.

Moreover, it is particu larly preferred that the functional domain of the first polypeptide chain and/or of the second polypeptide chai n comprises or consists of a mutated Leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor 1 (LAI R1 ) fragment as described in WO 201 6/207402 A1 . The mutated LAIR1 fragment as set forth i n SEQ ID NO: 1 3, or a sequence variant thereof havi ng at least 70%, preferably at least 75%, more preferably at least 80%, even more preferably at least 85%, sti ll more preferably 90%, particu larly preferably 95%, and most preferably at least 98% sequence identity, is most preferred.

Particularly preferably, the functional domain of the first polypeptide chai n and/or of the second polypeptide chain comprises or consists of an Ig-like fragment of PD1 or SLAM, such as an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 1 4 or in SEQ ID NO: 1 5; or a sequence variant thereof having at least 70%, preferably at least 75%, more preferably at least 80%, even more preferably at least 85%, sti l l more preferably 90%, particularly preferably 95%, and most preferably at least 98% sequence identity.

Preferably, the functional domain (ii) of the first polypeptide chain and/or the functional domain (v) of the second polypeptide chai n the antibody, or the antigen bi ndi ng fragment thereof, according to the present invention comprises or consists of a ligancl or a functional fragment thereof. A "ligand" is a molecule, which specifical ly binds to a specific site on a protein or any other molecule. In the context of the present invention, the ligand is a peptide, polypeptide or protein, since it is comprised in a polypeptide chain. Binding of a ligancl occurs in particular by intermolecular forces, such as ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds and Van der Waals forces. Preferred examples of ligands are cytokines and ligands of any one of the receptors described above, in particular of the receptors PD1 , SLAM, LAIR1 , CTLA4, BTLA, TIM-3, TIGHT, CD200R1 , 2B4 (CD244), TLT2, LILRB4, K1R2DL2, ICOS or CD28, such as PD-L1 , PD-L2, B7-1 , B7-2, B7-H4 (B7 homolog), galectin-9, poliovirus receptor (PVR), OX-2 membrane glycoprotein, CD48, B7-H3 (B7 homolog), MHC1, and lCOS-L.

Preferably, the ligand is a cytokine or a functional fragment thereof. Cytokines are usually small proteins (-5-20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling. They are released by cells and affect the behavior of other cells, and sometimes affect the behavior of the releasing cell itself. A cytokine may be selected from chemokines such as the SIS family of cytokines, the SIG family of cytokines, the SCY family of cytokines, the Platelet factor-4 superfamily and intercrines, CC chemokine ligands (CCL)-1 to -28 (in particular CCL1 2), CXCL1 - CXCL1 7, XCL1 (lymphotactin-oc) and XCL2 (lymphotactin-β), fractalkine (or CX3CL1 ); interferons, such as Type I I FN, Type II IFN, and Type 111 IFN, in particular IFN-oc, IFN-β, IFN-γ, IFN-ε, IFN- , IFN-ω, 1L10R2 (also called CRF2-4) and 1FNLR1 (also called CRF2-12); interleukins, such as IL-1 , !L-2, lL-3, 1L-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-1 1 , 1L-12, IL-13, IL-14, IL-15, IL-1 6, !L-1 7, IL-18, 1L-1 9, IL-20, IL-21 , IL-22, IL-23, IL-24, IL-25, 1L-26, 1L-27, 1L-28, IL-29, IL-30, IL-31 , 1L-32, 1L-33, 1L-34, 1L-35, and IL-36; lymphokines, such as IL-2, IL-3, !L-4, !L-5, !L-6, GM-CSF, and Interferon-gamma; tumor necrosis factors, such as CD40LG (TNFSF5); CD70 (TNFSF7); EDA; FASLG (TNFSF6); LTA (TNFSF1 ); LTB (TNFSF3); TNF, TNFa, TNFSF4 (OX40L); TNFSF8 (CD1 53); TNFSF9; TNFSF1 0 (TRAIL); TNFSF1 1 (RANKL); TNFSF12 (TWEAK); TNFSF13; TNFSF13 B; TNFSF14; TNFSF1 5; and TNFSF1 8; and colony stimulating factors, such as CSF1 (also known as "macrophage colony-stimulating factor"), CSF2 (also known as "granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor"; GM-CSF and sargramostim), CSF3 (also known as "granulocyte colony-stimulating factor"; G-CSF and filgrastim), as well as synthetic CSFs, such as Promegapoietin. Accordingly, preferred examples of cytokines include IL-1 , IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, IL-1 1 , IL-1 2, IL-13, IL-1 4, IL-15, IL-1 6, IL-1 7, IL-1 8, IL-1 9, IL-20, IL-21 , IL-22, IL-23, IL-24, IL-25, IL-26, IL-27, IL-28, IL-29, IL-30, IL-31 , IL-32, IL-33, IL-34, IL-35, IL-36, CCL-1 , CCL-2, CCL-3, CCL-4, CCL-5, CCL-6, CCL-7, CCL-8, CCL-9, CCL-10, CCL-1 1 , CCL-12, CCL-13, CCL-14, CCL-1 5, CCL-1 6, CCL-1 7,

CCL-1 8, CCL- 1 9, CCL-20, CCL-21 , CCL-22, CCL-23, CCL-24, CCL-25, CCL-26, CCL-27, CCL-28, CXCL1 , CXCL2, CXCL3, CXCL4, CXCL5, CXCL6, CXCL7, CXCL8, CXCL9, CXCL1 0, CXCL1 1 , CXCL12, CXCL13, CXCL14, CXCL1 5, CXCL1 6, CXCL1 7, XCL1 , XCL2, fractalkine, IFN-a, IFN-β, IFN-γ, IFN-ε, IFN-K, IFN-ω, IL I 0R2, IFNLR1 , CD40LG, CD70, EDA, FASLG (TNFSF6), LTA (TNFSF1 ), LTB (TNFSF3), TNFa, TNFSF4 (OX40L), TNFSF8 (CD1 53), TNFSF9, TNFSF10 (TRAIL), TNFSF1 1 (RANKL), TNFSF12 (TWEAK), TNFSF13, TNFSF1 3B, TNFSF14, TNFSF1 5, TNFSF1 8, CSF1 , CSF2 (GM-CSF), and CSF3 (G-CSF). More preferred examples of cytokines include IL-2, IL6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-1 5, IL-1 7, interferons, GM-CSF, and TNF. Cytokines are produced by a broad range of cells, including immune cells like macrophages, B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes and mast cells, as well as endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and various stromal cells, whereby a given cytokine may be produced by more than one type of cell. An antibody or antigen-binding fragment comprising a functional domain comprising such a cytokine or a functional fragment thereof may elicit a pro-inflammatory immunostimulating response or an anti-inflammaotry immunosuppressive or cytotoxic response, depending on the cytokine selected.

Other preferred ligands include, for example, hormones, which are peptides, polypeptides or proteins. Hormones are signaling molecules, which are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs, in particular to regulate physiology and behaviour. Hormones are typically produced by glands in multicellular organisms. A particularly preferred hormone is (human) growth hormone. Further examples of hormones include TRH, vasopressin, insulin, prolactin, ACTH, oxytocin, atrial-natriuretic peptide (ANP), glucagon, somatostatin, cholecystokinin, gastrin, leptin, angiotensin II, basic fibroblast growth factor-2, and parathyroid hormone-related protein.

A functional fragment of a ligand may be any fragment of a ligand, which has the ability to mediate a functionality. Usually, such fragments are referred to as "domains". Accordingly, the functional fragment of a ligand may be any domain of the ligand. Preferred examples include functional fragments (e.g., domains) of the (exemplified) ligands described above. Preferably, the functional fragment of the ligand, which is comprised by the (additional) functional domain is an Ig-like domain.

Preferably, the functional domain (i i) of the first polypeptide chain and/or the functional domain (v) of the second polypeptide chain of the antibody, or the antigen binding fragment, according to the present invention, comprises or consists of an (i ndependent) binding site. Accordingly, it is preferred that the first and/or the second polypeptide chain of the antibody, or the antigen bindi ng fragment thereof, according to the present invention comprises an (independent) binding site.

In general, the "(independent) bindi ng site" is a region of the polypeptide chai n to which a specific target (e.g., a molecule and/or an ion) can bi nd to, in particular by forming a chemical bond, for example a non-covalent bond. A non-covalent bond is a relatively weak chemical bond that does not involve an inti mate shari ng of electrons. Multiple noncovalent bonds often stabilize the conformation of macromolecules and mediate highly specific interactions between molecules. Accordingly, the bindi ng site is a functional domai n of the fi rst and/or the second polypeptide chain, which provides bi ndi ng functionality. In particular, the binding site is not a linker, such as a GS-linker. Even though the binding site may optional ly comprise a linker (peptide), such as a GS-linker, it does preferably not consist of a linker (peptide), such as a GS-li nker. In other words, even if the binding site comprises a linker (peptide), such as a GS-linker, it preferably comprises an additional amino acid sequence mediating a function distinct from (purely) l i nking two peptides to each other. Accordingly, the bi nding site is preferably distinct from a linker (peptide), such as a GS-linker. In particular, the binding site may not comprise a linker (peptide), such as a GS-linker. A linker does typically not provide a bi nding functionality.

Importantly, the (independent) bi nding site (ii) of the first polypeptide chai n does not comprise a fragment of the second polypeptide chain. Accordi ngly, the optional independent binding site (v) of the second polypeptide chai n does not comprise a fragment of the first polypeptide chain. In other words, the second polypeptide chai n (in particular any fragment, such as even a si ngle amino acid, thereof) is not required for or involved i n the independent bi nding site of the first polypeptide chain. Moreover, if the second polypeptide chain also comprises an i ndependent binding site, the fi rst polypeptide chai n (in particular any fragment, such as even a single amino acid, thereof) is not required for or involved in the independent bi nding site of the second polypeptide chai n. Accordi ngly, the i ndependent binding site differs from an antigen bi ndi ng site formed by the variable domain of the first polypeptide chain together with the variable domain of the second polypeptide chain. In other words, the independent binding site differs from an antigen binding site formed by variable domai ns of two different polypeptide chains (however, the independent binding site may sti ll comprise an antigen binding site - if the i nvolved variable domai ns are located on a single polypeptide chain, as described in more detai l below).

Preferably, the (independent) binding site is selected from the group consisting of receptors and functional fragments thereof, ligands and functional fragments thereof, CD molecules and functional fragments thereof, si ngle chain antibodies and antigen binding fragments thereof, antigens and functional fragments thereof, and tags.

More preferably, the (i ndependent) bi nding site comprises or consists of a receptor or a functional fragment thereof. Receptors are typically able to bind to a (specific) ligand. Accordi ngly, receptors may be also referred to as (independent) binding sites. Various receptors are described above and preferred embodiments and examples thereof apply accordingly.

In the context of the binding site, a functional fragment of a receptor is such a fragment of the receptor, which retai ns the receptor's ability to bind to its !igand. Since the binding site may comprise a receptor or a functional fragment thereof, it is the bi nding function of the receptor, to which the term "functional" refers to in the context of the bi nding site. Other fragments/domains of the receptor may be preferably not comprised by the (independent) bindi ng site. For example, a receptor may comprise one or more transmembrane domain(s), which are usual ly not involved in the receptor's binding function, and which are, thus, preferably not included i n the (i ndependent) binding site. Accordi ngly, it is most preferred that the fragment of the receptor, which is comprised by the (independent) bindi ng site, is merely the receptor's bi nding site (in particular without any further domains of the receptor).

It is also more preferred that, the (independent) bi ndi ng site comprises or consists of a ligand or a functional fragment thereof. Ligands are typical ly able to bi nd to a (specific) receptor.

Accordingly, ligands may be also referred to as (independent) binding sites. Various ligands are described above and preferred embodiments and examples thereof apply accordingly.

In the context of the binding site, a functional fragment of a ligand is such a fragment of the ligand, which retains the ligand's binding ability. Since the binding site may comprise a ligand or a functional fragment thereof, it is the binding function of the ligand, to which the term "functional" refers to in the context of the binding site. Other fragments/domains of the ligand may be preferably not comprised by the (independent) binding site. Accordingly, it is most preferred that the fragment of the ligand, which is comprised by the (independent) binding site, is merely the ligand's binding site (in particular without any further domains of the ligand).

Preferably, the (independent) binding site of the first polypeptide chain and/or of the second polypeptide chain is a CD (cluster of differentiation) molecule or a functional fragment thereof. A CD (cluster of differentiation) molecule is a cell surface marker. CD molecules often act as receptors or ligands or are involved in cell adhesion. The CD nomenclature was developed and is maintained through the HLDA (Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigens) workshop started in 1982. Examples of CD molecules, which may serve as binding sites in the context of the present invention, may be retrieved, for example, from a variety of sources known to the person skilled in the art, such as http://www.ebioscience.com/resources/human-cd-chart.htm, BD Bioscience's "Human and Mouse CD Marker Handbook" (retrievable at https://www.bdbiosciences.com/documents/cd_marker_handbook.pdf) or from www.hcdm.org. Accordingly, the (independent) binding site of the first polypeptide chain and/or of the second polypeptide chain may be a CD marker, or a functional fragment thereof, for example a (human) CD marker described in the BD Bioscience's "Human and Mouse CD Marker Handbook" (retrievable at https://www.bclbiosciences.com/documents/cd_marker_handbook.pclf) or in other sources of "CD marker charts", which typically also indicate the binding partners, such that an appropriate binding site can be selected.

A functional fragment of a CD molecule is such a fragment of the CD molecule, which retains the CD molecule's binding ability. In the context of the present invention, the binding site may comprise a CD molecule or a functiona l fragment thereof, and, accordingly, it is the binding function of the CD molecule to which the term "functional" refers to. Other fragments/domains of the CD molecule may be preferably not comprised by the (independent) binding site. Accordingly, it is most preferred that the fragment of the CD molecu le, which is comprised by the (independent) binding site, is merely the CD molecule's binding site (i n particular without any further domains of the CD molecule). Preferably, the functional fragment of the CD molecule, which is comprised by the (independent) binding site is an lg-like domai n.

Preferably, the (independent) binding site of the first polypeptide chain and/or of the second polypeptide chain is a single chain antibody (such as scFv or VHH) or an antigen binding fragment thereof. It is also preferred that the (independent) binding site of the first polypeptide chain and/or of the second polypeptide chai n is an antigen or a functional fragment thereof, such as an epitope.

Preferably, the (i ndependent) binding site of the first polypeptide chain and/or of the second polypeptide chain is a si ngle chain antibody or an antigen binding fragment thereof. A single chain antibody is a recombi nant antibody consisting of one si ngle polypeptide chai n only. Preferred examples of single chain antibodies include single chain antibodies without constant domains, such as single domain antibodies, single chain antibodies based on single chain variable fragments (scFv's) and single chain diabodies (scDb), and single chai n antibodies with constant domai ns, such as si ngle chain Fab fragments (scFab; Hust M, Jostock T, Menzel C, Voedisch B, Mohr A, Brenneis M, Kirsch Ml, Meier D, Dubel S. Single chain Fab (scFab) fragment. BMC Biotechnol. 2007 Mar 8;7:1 4).

Preferred examples of single chain antibodies based on single chain variable fragments (scFv's) include scFv (one si ngle VH and one single VL domain) and tandem scFv's, such as tandem-di-scFv (BiTE), tandem-tri-scFv and tandem-tetra-scFv.

A single domain antibody (also referred to as "nanobody") is an antibody fragment comprising/consisting of one single (monomeric) variable domain only. Like a whole antibody, a single domain antibody is able to bi nd selectively to a specific antigen. The first single domain antibodies were engineered from heavy-chain antibodies found in camelids; these are called "VHH" or "VHH fragments". Cartilaginous fishes also have heavy-chain antibodies (IgNAR, 'immunoglobulin new antigen receptor'), from which single-domain antibodies, called "VN<AR" or "VNAR fragments", can be obtained. An alternative approach is to split the climeric variable domains from common immunoglobulin G (IgG) from humans or mice into monomers. Accordingly, single domain antibodies may be derived from heavy or light chain variable domains (VH or VL). Preferred examples of single domain antibodies include VHH, VNAR, IgG-derived VH and IgG-derived VL.

Most preferably, the functional domain of the first polypeptide chain and/or of the second polypeptide chain is a VHH or an scFv. A most preferred example of a VHH is T3-VHH or F4-VHH. For example, the single domain antibody preferably comprises or consists of an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 1 6 or 1 8 or a sequence variant thereof having at least 70%, preferably at least 75%, more preferably at least 80%, even more preferably at least 85%, still more preferably 90%, particularly preferably 95%, and most preferably at least 98% sequence identity. A most preferred example of an scFv is TT39.7-scFv or MPE8-scFv. For example, the single domain antibody preferably comprises or consists of an amino acid sequence as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 1 7 or 1 9 or a sequence variant thereof having at least 70%, preferably at least 75%, more preferably at least 80%, even more preferably at least 85%, still more preferably 90%, particularly preferably 95%, and most preferably at least 98% sequence identity.

Preferably, the (independent) binding site of the first polypeptide chain and/or of the second polypeptide chain is an antigen or a functional fragment thereof, in particular an epitope. An antigen is a molecule, or a portion of a molecule capable of being bound by an antibody. As the antigen, or the functional fragment thereof, is comprised by the polypeptide chain, it is understood that in the context of the present invention, if the binding site is an antigen or a functional fragment thereof, said antigen or functional fragment thereof is a peptide or polypeptide. An antigen typically comprises one or more epitopes. The epitope is that part of the antigen, which is bound by an antibody ("recognized" by an antibody). Preferred examples of antigens include, but are not limited to, serum proteins, e.g. cytokines such as IL4, IL5, IL9 and IL1 3, bioactive peptides, cell surface molecules, e.g. receptors, transporters, ion-channels, viral and bacterial proteins, RAGE (Receptor for Advanced Glycosylation End Products), GPVI and collagen.

A functional fragment of an antigen is such a fragment of the antigen, which retains the antigen's binding ability. Accordingly, the fragment of the antigen is preferably an epitope or it comprises one or more epitopes. Other fragments/domains of the antigen may be preferably not comprised by the (independent) binding site. Accordingly, it is most preferred that the fragment of the antigen, which is comprised by the (independent) binding site, is an epitope or includes more than one epitope (in particular without any further domains of the antigen).

It is also preferred that the (independent) binding site of the first polypeptide chain and/or of the second polypeptide chain is a tag comprising a binding site. Most tags are able to bind, e.g. affinity tags. Accordingly, those tags, which have the ability to bind to another molecule, may be also referred to as (independent) binding sites. Various tags, including tags comprising a binding site, are described above and preferred embodiments and examples apply accordingly.

Most preferably, the (additional) functional domain of the first polypeptide chain and/or of the second polypeptide chain is an Ig-like domain, an scFv, a VHH or a Strep-tag. In particular, the (additional) functional domain of the first polypeptide chain and/or of the second polypeptide chain preferably comprises or consists of an amino acid sequence as set forth in any of SEQ ID NOs 13 - 20, or a functional sequence variant thereof having at least 80%, preferably at least 85%, more preferably at least 90%, even more preferably at least 95% and most preferably at least 98% sequence identity.

Preferably, the first polypeptide chain comprises one single variable domain (i) N-terminal of the (additional) functional domain (ii) and the second polypeptide chain comprises one single variable domain (iv) N-terminal of the optional (additional) functional domain (v) or N-terminal of the one or more constant domains (vi), the one single variable domain (iv) of the second polypeptide chain forming an antigen binding site with the variable domain (i) of the first polypeptide chain. Preferred examples of such antibodies and antigen binding fragments, according to the present invention are shown in Fig. 1 B and 1 C (all formats of Figure 1 B and 1 C, except the antibody based on DVD-lg shown in the lowest panel of Fig. 1 C).

Alternatively, the first polypeptide chain may comprise two or more variable domains (i) N-terminal of the (additional) functional domain (ii) and the second polypeptide chain may comprise two or more variable domains (iv) N-terminal of the optional (additional) functional domain (v) or N-terminal of the one or more constant domains (vi), the two or more variable domains (iv) of the second polypeptide chain forming antigen binding sites with the two or more variable domains (i) of the first polypeptide chain. For example, the scaffold antibody, into whose elbow region the (additional) functional domain is inserted, may be a bispecific antibody of the DVD-lg format, for example as shown in Figure Ί C, lowest panel "DVD-lg".

It is also preferred that the first polypeptide chain comprises a single chain antibody, such as an scFv or a single domain antibody, for example VHH, N-terminal of the most N-terminal variable domain (i) and/or C-terminal of the most C-terminal constant domain (iii). Alternatively or additionally, the second polypeptide chain may comprise a single chain antibody, such as an scFv or a single domain antibody, for example VHH, N-terminal of the most N-terminal variable domain (i) or C-terminal of the most C-terminal constant domain (vi). Preferred examples thereof are shown in Fig. 1 C and include scFv-(H)lgG, lgC(H)-scFv, scFv-(L)lgG, lgG(L)-scFv, V-(H)lgG, igG(H)-V, V-(L)igG, and lgG(L)-V antibodies with one or more (additional) functional domains inserted into the elbow of the heavy and/or light chain(s).

Preferably, the first polypeptide chain and the second polypeptide chain each comprise one single constant domain, in particular a CL domain and a CHI domain, respectively. Preferred examples thereof are shown in Fig. 1 C and include F(ab)3 and Fab antibody fragments with one or more (additional) functional domains inserted into the elbow of the heavy and/or light chain(s).

Alternatively, it is also preferred that the first polypeptide chain or the second polypeptide chain comprises one single constant domain, in particular a CL domain; and the other of the first polypeptide chain or the second polypeptide chain comprises a CHI domain and one or

more further constant domains, such as a CH2 and/or CH3 domain. Preferred examples of such antibodies and antigen binding fragments, according to the present invention are shown i n Fig. 1 B and 1 C (al l formats of Figure 1 B and 1 C, except the antibody fragments based on F(ab)2 and Fab shown in the upper panels of Fig. 1 C).

Preferably, the antibody, or the antigen binding fragment thereof, according to the present invention comprises an Fc moiety, in particular an Fc region. More preferably, the Fc moiety is derived from human origin, e.g. from human IgC I , lgG2, lgG3, and/or lgC4, whereby human lgG1 is particularly preferred.

As used herei n, the term "Fc moiety" refers to a sequence derived from the portion of an immunoglobulin heavy chain beginning in the hinge region just upstream of the papain cleavage site (e.g., residue 21 6 in native IgG, taki ng the first residue of heavy chain constant region to be 1 1 4) and ending at the C-terminus of the immunoglobulin heavy chain. Accordingly, an Fc moiety may be a complete Fc moiety or a portion (e.g., a domain) thereof. A complete Fc moiety comprises at least a hinge domain, a CH2 domain, and a CH3 domain (e.g., EU amino acid positions 21 6-446). An additional lysine residue (K) is sometimes present at the extreme C-terminus of the Fc moiety, but is often cleaved from a mature antibody. Each of the amino acid positions within an Fc moiety have been numbered according to the art-recognized EU numberi ng system of abat, see e.g., by Kabat et al., in "Sequences of Proteins of Immunological Interest", U.S. Dept. Health and Human Services, 1 983 and 1 987.

Preferably, i n the context of the present i nvention an Fc moiety comprises at least one of: a hi nge (e.g., upper, middle, and/or lower hi nge region) domain, a CH2 domain, a CH3 domain, or a variant, portion, or fragment thereof. In preferred embodiments, an Fc moiety comprises at least a hinge domain, a CH2 domai n or a CH3 domain . More preferably, the Fc moiety is a complete Fc moiety. The Fc moiety may also comprises one or more ami no acid i nsertions, deletions, or substitutions relative to a natural ly-occurring Fc moiety. For example, at least one of a hinge domain, CH2 domain or CH3 domai n (or portion thereof) may be deleted. For example, an Fc moiety may comprise or consist of: (i) hinge domain (or portion thereof) fused to a CH2 domain (or portion thereof), (ii) a hinge domai n (or portion thereof) fused to a CH3 domai n (or portion thereof), (i i i) a CH2 domain (or portion thereof) fused to a CH3 domai n (or portion thereof), (iv) a hinge domain (or portion thereof), (v) a CH2 domain (or portion thereof), or (vi) a CH3 domain or portion thereof.

It wil l be understood by one of ordi nary ski ll in the art that the Fc moiety may be modified such that it varies in amino acid sequence from the complete Fc moiety of a naturally occurring immunoglobuli n molecule, while retaining at least one desirable function conferred by the naturally-occurring Fc moiety. Such functions i nclude Fc receptor (FcR) binding, antibody half-life modulation, ADCC function, protei n A binding, protein G binding, and complement bindi ng. The portions of natural ly occurri ng Fc moieties, which are responsible and/or essential for such functions are well known by those skilled in the art.

For example, to activate the complement cascade CI q binds to at least two molecules of IgGI or one molecule of IgM, attached to the antigenic target (Ward, E. S., and Ghetie, V., Ther. Immunol. 2 (1 995) 77-94). Burton, D. R., described (Mol. Immunol. 22 (1 985) 1 61 -206) that the heavy chai n region comprisi ng amino acid residues 31 8 to 337 is i nvolved in complement fixation. Duncan, A. R., and Winter, G. (Nature 332 (1 988) 738-740), usi ng site directed mutagenesis, reported that Glu31 8, Lys320 and Lys322 form the binding site to CI q. The role of Glu31 8, Lys320 and Lys 322 residues in the binding of C1 q was confirmed by the abi lity of a short synthetic peptide containing these residues to inhibit complement mediated lysis.

For example, FcR binding can be mediated by the i nteraction of the Fc moiety (of an antibody) with Fc receptors (FcRs), which are special ized cell surface receptors on hematopoietic cells. Fc receptors belong to the immunoglobul in superfamily, and were shown to mediate both the removal of antibody-coated pathogens by phagocytosis of immune complexes, and the lysis of erythrocytes and various other cel lular targets (e.g. tumor cells) coated with the corresponding antibody, via antibody dependent cel l mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC; Van cle Winkel, J. G., and Anderson, C. L, J. Leukoc. Biol. 49 (1 991 ) 51 1 -524). FcRs are defined by their specificity for immunoglobuli n classes; Fc receptors for IgG antibodies are referred to as FcyR, for IgE as FceR, for IgA as FcaR and so on and neonatal Fc receptors are referred to as FcRn. Fc receptor bi nding is described for example in Ravetch, J . V., and Kinet, J. P., Annu. Rev. Immunol . 9 (1 991 ) 457-492; Capel, P. J., et al., Immunomethocls 4 (1 994) 25-34; cle Haas, M., et al., J Lab. Clin. Med. 1 26 (1 995) 330-341 ; and Gessner, J. E., et al., Ann. Hematol . 76 (1 998) 231 -248.

Cross-linking of receptors by the Fc domain of native IgG antibodies (FcyR) triggers a wide variety of effector functions including phagocytosis, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, and release of inflammatory mediators, as wel l as immune complex clearance and regulation of antibody production. Therefore, Fc moieties providing cross-linking of receptors (FcyR) are preferred. In humans, three classes of FcyR have been characterized, which are: (i) FcyRI (CD64), which binds monomel ic IgG with high affi nity and is expressed on macrophages, monocytes, neutrophi ls and eosi nophils; (ii) FcyRI I (CD32), which binds complexed IgG with medium to low affi nity, is widely expressed, in particular on leukocytes, is known to be a central player in antibody-mediated immunity, and which can be divided i nto FcyRHA, FcyRIIB and FcyRIIC, which perform different functions in the immune system, but bind with similar low affinity to the IgG-Fc, and the ectodomains of these receptors are highly homologuous; and (i ii) FcyRI!l (CD 1 6), which binds IgG with medium to low affinity and exists as two types: FcyRlllA found on NK cells, macrophages, eosinophi ls and some monocytes and T cel ls and mediati ng ADCC and FcyRIIIB, which is highly expressed on neutrophi ls. FcyRI IA is found on many cells involved in kil ling (e.g. macrophages, monocytes, neutrophi ls) and seems able to activate the ki l l i ng process. FcyRIIB seems to play a role i n i nhibitory processes and is found on B-cells, macrophages and on mast cells and eosi nophi ls.

Regarding FcyRI bi nding, modification in native IgG of at least one of E233-G236, P238, D265, N297, A327 and P329 reduces binding to FcyRI . lgG2 residues at positions 233-236, substituted i nto !gGI and lgG4, reduces binding to FcyR! by l O old and eliminated the human monocyte response to antibody-sensitized red blood cells (Armour, K. L, et al . Eur. j. Immunol. 29 (1 999) 2613-2624). Regarding FcyRII bi nding, reduced binding for FcyRIIA is found e.g. for IgG mutation of at least one of E233-G236, P238, D265, N297, A327, P329, D270, Q295, A327, R292 and K41 4. Regarding FcyRIII binding, reduced binding to FcyRlllA is found e.g. for mutation of at least one of E233-G236, P238, D265, N297, A327, P329, D270, Q295, A327, S239, E269, E293, Y296, V303, A327, 338 and D376. Mapping of the bindi ng sites on human IgGI for Fc receptors, the above mentioned mutation sites and

methods for measuri ng binding to FcyRI and FcyRIIA are described in Shields, R. L, et al., Biol. Chem. 276 (2001 ) 6591 -6604.

Regarding binding to the crucial FcyRI I, two regions of native IgG Fc appear to be critical for interactions of FcyRils and IgGs, namely (i) the lower h inge site of IgG Fc, in particu lar amino acid residues L, L, G, G (234 - 237, EU numberi ng), and (ii) the adjacent region of the CH2 domain of IgG Fc, in particular a loop and strands in the upper CH2 domain adjacent to the lower hinge region, e.g. in a region of P331 (Wines, B.D., et al ., J . Immunol. 2000; 1 64: 531 3 - 531 8). Moreover, FcyRI appears to bi nd to the same site on IgG Fc, whereas FcRn and Protein A bind to a different site on IgG Fc, which appears to be at the CH2-CH3 interface (Wines, B.D., et al., J. Immunol. 2000; 1 64: 531 3 - 531 8).

For example, the Fc moiety may comprise or consist of at least the portion of an Fc moiety that is known in the art to be requi red for FcRn bindi ng or extended half-life. Alternatively or additional ly, the Fc moiety of the antibody of the invention comprises at least the portion of known in the art to be required for Protein A bi nding and/or the Fc moiety of the antibody of the i nvention comprises at least the portion of an Fc molecule known in the art to be required for protei n G bi ndi ng. Accordingly, a preferred Fc moiety comprises at least the portion known in the art to be required for FcyR binding. As outlined above, a preferred Fc moiety may thus at least comprise (i) the lower hinge site of native IgG Fc, in particular ami no acid residues L, L, G, G (234 - 237, EU numberi ng), and (i i) the adjacent region of the CH2 domai n of native IgG Fc, i n particular a loop and strands in the upper CH2 domain adjacent to the lower hinge region, e.g. in a region of P331 , for example a region of at least 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 1 0 consecutive amino acids in the upper CH2 domain of native IgG Fc around P331 , e.g. between ami no acids 320 and 340 (EU numbering) of native IgG Fc.

Preferably, the antibody, or antigen bindi ng fragment thereof, according to the present invention comprises an Fc region. As used herein, the term "Fc region" refers to the portion of an immunoglobulin formed by two or more Fc moieties of antibody heavy chai ns. For example, the Fc region may be monomeric or "single-chai n" Fc region (i.e., a scFc region). Si ngle chain Fc regions are comprised of Fc moieties linked within a single polypeptide chai n (e.g., encoded i n a single contiguous nucleic acid sequence). Exemplary scFc regions are

disclosed in WO 2008/143954 A2. Preferably, the Fc region is a dimeric Fc region. A "dimeric Fc region" or "dcFc" refers to the dimer formed by the Fc moieties of two separate immunoglobulin heavy chains. The dimeric Fc region may be a homodimer of two identical Fc moieties (e.g., an Fc region of a naturally occurring immunoglobulin) or a heterodimer of two non-identical Fc moieties.

The Fc moieties of the Fc region may be of the same or different class and/or subclass. For example, the Fc moieties may be derived from an immunoglobulin (e.g., a human immunoglobulin) of an lgG1 , lgG2, lgG3 or lgG4 subclass. Preferably, the Fc moieties of Fc region are of the same class and subclass. However, the Fc region (or one or more Fc moieties of an Fc region) may also be chimeric, whereby a chimeric Fc region may comprise Fc moieties derived from different immunoglobulin classes and/or subclasses. For example, at least two of the Fc moieties of a dimeric or single-chain Fc region may be from different immunoglobulin classes and/or subclasses. Additionally or alternatively, the chimeric Fc regions may comprise one or more chimeric Fc moieties. For example, the chimeric Fc region or moiety may comprise one or more portions derived from an immunoglobulin of a first subclass (e.g., an IgGI , lgG2, or lgG3 subclass) while the remainder of the Fc region or moiety is of a different subclass. For example, an Fc region or moiety of an Fc polypeptide may comprise a CH2 and/or CH3 domain derived from an immunoglobulin of a first subclass (e.g., an IgGI , igG2 or lgG4 subclass) and a hinge region from an immunoglobulin of a second subclass (e.g., an lgG3 subclass). For example, the Fc region or moiety may comprise a hinge and/or CH2 domain derived from an immunoglobulin of a first subclass (e.g., an lgG4 subclass) and a CH3 domain from an immunoglobulin of a second subclass (e.g., an IgGI , lgG2, or lgG3 subclass). For example, the chimeric Fc region may comprise an Fc moiety (e.g., a complete Fc moiety) from an immunoglobulin for a first subclass (e.g., an lgG4 subclass) and an Fc moiety from an immunoglobulin of a second subclass (e.g., an IgGI , lgG2 or lgG3 subclass). For example, the Fc region or moiety may comprise a CH2 domain from an lgG4 immunoglobulin and a CH3 domain from an IgGI immunoglobulin. For example, the Fc region or moiety may comprise a CH1 domain and a CH2 domain from an lgG4 molecule and a CH3 domain from an IgGI molecule. For example, the Fc region or moiety may comprise a portion of a CH2 domain from a particular subclass of antibody, e.g., EU positions 292-340 of a CH2 domain. For example, an Fc region or moiety may comprise

amino acids a positions 292-340 of CH2 derived from an lgG4 moiety and the remainder of CH2 derived from an IgCI moiety (alternatively, 292-340 of CH2 may be derived from an IgGI moiety and the remainder of CH2 derived from an lgG4 moiety).

Moreover, an Fc region or moiety may (additionally or alternatively) for example comprise a chimeric hinge region. For example, the chimeric hinge may be derived, e.g. in part, from an IgGI , lgG2, or lgG4 molecule (e.g., an upper and lower middle hinge sequence) and, in part, from an lgG3 molecule (e.g., an middle hinge sequence). In another example, an Fc region or moiety may comprise a chimeric hinge derived, in part, from an IgGI molecule and, in part, from an lgG4 molecule. In another example, the chimeric hinge may comprise upper and lower hinge domains from an lgG4 molecule and a middle hinge domain from an IgGI molecule. Such a chimeric hinge may be made, for example, by introducing a proline substitution (Ser228Pro) at EU position 228 in the middle hinge domain of an lgG4 hinge region. In another embodiment, the chimeric hinge can comprise amino acids at EU positions 233-236 are from an lgG2 antibody and/or the Ser228Pro mutation, wherein the remaining amino acids of the hinge are from an lgG4 antibody. Chimeric hinges, which may be used in the Fc moiety of the antibody according to the present invention, are described in US 2005/01 63783 A1 .

In the present invention it is preferred that the Fc moiety, or the Fc region, comprises or consists of an amino acid sequence derived from a human immunoglobulin sequence (e.g., from an Fc region or Fc moiety from a human IgG molecule). However, polypeptides may comprise one or more amino acids from another mammalian species. For example, a primate Fc moiety or a primate binding site may be included in the subject polypeptides. Alternatively, one or more murine amino acids may be present in the Fc moiety or in the Fc region.

Preferably, the antibody according to the present invention comprises, in particular in addition to an Fc moiety as described above, other parts derived from a constant region, in particular from a constant region of IgG, preferably from a constant region of IgGI , more preferably from a constant region of human IgGI . More preferably, the antibody according to the present invention comprises, in particular in addition to an Fc moiety as described above, all other parts of the constant regions, in particular all other parts of the constant regions of IgG, preferably all other parts of the constant regions of lgG1 , more preferably all other parts of the constant regions of human IgGI .

Particularly preferred sequences of constant regions are the amino acid sequences according to SEQ ID NOs: 3, 4 or 7. Preferably, the heavy chain constant region comprises or consists of IgGI CH1 -CH2-CH3, in particular comprising or consisting of the amino acid sequence according to SEQ ID NO: 3 or a functional sequence variant thereof, as described herein. Preferably, the light chain constant region comprises or consists of IgGI CL, in particular comprising or consisting of the amino acid sequence according to SEQ ID NO: 4 or a functional sequence variant thereof, as described herein.

It is also preferred that the antibody, or the antigen binding fragment thereof, according to the present invention does not comprise an Fc region or an Fc moiety. In particular, the constant domains required for the elbow (CHI and CL) are typically not involved in the Fc moiety or Fc region. Therefore, the antibody, or the antigen binding fragment thereof, according to the present invention does preferably not comprise an Fc region or an Fc moiety. Examples of such antibodies (or antibody fragments) include those based on Fab or F(ab)2 (IEI-Fab or IEI-F(ab)2).

Preferably, the first polypeptide chain and/or the second polypeptide chain of the antibody or the antigen binding fragment according to the present invention comprises one or more linkers. For example, the first polypeptide chain and/or the second polypeptide chain of the antibody or the antigen binding fragment according to the present invention may comprise 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 or 10 linkers. More preferably, the first polypeptide chain and/or the second polypeptide chain of the antibody or the antigen binding fragment according to the present invention comprises one linker or two linkers. It is also preferred that the first polypeptide chain and/or the second polypeptide chain of the antibody or the antigen binding fragment according to the present invention comprises three or four linkers. In general, a linker may provide more flexibility to the polypeptide chain. Preferably, the first polypeptide chain and/or the second polypeptide chain comprises a linker between the constant region and the (additional) functional domain. Alternatively, the first polypeptide chain and/or the second polypeptide chain may not comprise a linker between the constant region and the

(additional) functional domain. If the second polypeptide does not comprise a (additional) functional domain, the second polypeptide chain may comprise a l i nker between the constant region and the variable region. Alternatively, the second polypeptide chai n may not comprise a l inker between the constant region and the variable region. Preferably, the first polypeptide chai n and/or the second polypeptide chain comprises a linker between the (additional) functional domain and the variable domai n, i n particular the most C-terminal variable domain. Alternatively, the first polypeptide chain and/or the second polypeptide chain may not comprise a l inker between the (additional) functional domain and the variable domain, in particular the most C-terminal variable domai n. If the first polypeptide chain and/or the second polypeptide chain comprises more than one variable domain, it is also preferred that the first polypeptide chain and/or the second polypeptide chain comprises one or more l inkers between the variable domains. Alternatively, the first polypeptide chain and/or the second polypeptide chai n may not comprise one or more li nkers between the variable domai ns. More preferably, the first polypeptide chain and/or the second polypeptide chain comprises a linker between the constant region and the (additional) functional domain and a li nker between the (additional) functional domain and the variable domai n, in particular the most C-terminal variable domain. Alternatively, the first polypeptide chain and/or the second polypeptide chain may comprise neither a linker between the constant region and the (additional) functional domain nor a linker between the (additional) functional domain and the variable domain, in particular the most C-termina! variable domain. Moreover, the first polypeptide chain may comprise a linker between the constant region and the (additional) functional domain and a li nker between the (additional) functional domain and the variable domain, in particular the most C-terminal variable domain, whi le the second polypeptide chai n may comprise neither a (additional) functional domain nor a linker between the between the constant region and the variable region. It is also preferred - if the first polypeptide chai n and/or the second polypeptide chain comprises more than one variable domain - that the first polypeptide chain and/or the second polypeptide chain comprises a linker between the constant region and the (additional) functional domain; a linker between the (additional) functional domain and the variable domain, in particular the most C-terminal variable domain; and one or more li nkers between the variable domains.

If the first polypeptide chain and/or the second polypeptide chai n comprises more than one linker, the linkers may be the same or different.

Preferably, a l inker consists of up to 20 amino acids, such as 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 1 0, 1 1 , 12, 1 3, 14, 1 5, 1 6, 1 7, 1 8, 1 9 or 20 amino acids, more preferably of up to 1 5 amino acids, such as 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 1 0, 1 1 , 12, 1 3, 1 4 or 1 5 amino acids, even more preferably of up to 10 amino acids, such as 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, or 10 amino acids, and sti ll more preferably of up to 5 amino acids, such as 1 , 2, 3, 4, or 5 amino acids. The linker may be derived from naturally occurring amino acid sequences, such as flanking regions, or from non-natural amino acid sequences. Preferably, the (additional) functional domain corresponds to a single exon or to more than one exons and the ami no acid sequence of the linker is retrieved from the intronic sequences flanki ng that single exon or the more than one exons. For example, (i) the li nker between a variable region and a (additional) functional domain (which is encoded by an exon or a sequence variant thereof) may be encoded by the flanki ng intronic sequence immediately before (in 5'-3' di rection) the exon or sequence variant thereof to be used as "(additional) functional domain" and/or (ii) the linker between a (additional) functional domai n (which is encoded by an exon or a sequence variant thereof) and a constant region may be encoded by the flanking i ntronic sequence immediately after (in 5'-3' direction) the exon or sequence variant thereof to be used as "(additional) functional domain". Preferably, the Sinker does not contain any Cys (C) residues. Preferably, the linker comprises or consists of one or more Glycin (Gly) residues and/or one or more Serin (Ser) residues ("GS linker"). Preferred examples of GS-linkers include the amino acid sequences according to SEQ ID NOs 43 - 48, most preferably the linker is according to SEQ ID NO: 45. Preferred examples of i ntronic sequence l i nkers include the amino acid sequences according to SEQ ID NOs 49 - 52. Most preferably, the linker comprises or consists of an amino acid sequence as set forth i n any one of SEQ ID NOs 43 - 52.

For example, the first polypeptide chain and/or the second polypeptide chain may comprise (i n N-to-C-terminal direction) a linker as set forth i n SEQ I D NO: 49, or a functional sequence variant thereof, di rectly fol lowed by a (additional) functional domain as set forth i n SEQ I D NO: 1 4, or a functional sequence variant thereof. Moreover, the first polypeptide chain and/or the second polypeptide chai n may comprise (i n N-to-C-termi nal direction) a (additional)

functional domain as set forth in SEQ I D NO: 1 4, or a functional sequence variant thereof, di rectly followed by a linker as set forth i n SEQ ID NO: 50, or a functional sequence variant thereof. Most preferably, the first polypeptide chain and/or the second polypeptide chain may comprise (i n N-to-C-terminal direction) (a variable domain, directly followed by) a linker as set forth i n SEQ ID NO: 49, or a functional sequence variant thereof, directly followed by a (additional) functional domain as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 1 4, or a functional sequence variant thereof, directly followed by a linker as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 50, or a functional sequence variant thereof (directly followed by a constant domain.

For example, the first polypeptide chain and/or the second polypeptide chain may comprise (in N-to-C-terminal direction) a linker as set forth i n SEQ ID NO: 51 , or a functional sequence variant thereof, directly fol lowed by a (additional) functional domain as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 1 5, or a functional sequence variant thereof. Moreover, the first polypeptide chai n and/or the second polypeptide chain may comprise (in N-to-C-terminal direction) a (additional) functional domai n as set forth in SEQ I D NO: 1 5, or a functional sequence variant thereof, directly followed by a linker as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 52, or a functional sequence variant thereof. Most preferably, the first polypeptide chai n and/or the second polypeptide chain may comprise (in N-to-C-terminal direction) (a variable domain, directly followed by) a linker as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 51 , or a functional sequence variant thereof, directly followed by a (additional) functional domain as set forth in SEQ ID NO: 1 5, or a functional sequence variant thereof, directly fol lowed by a li nker as set forth in SEQ I D NO: 52, or a functional sequence variant thereof (directly fol lowed by a constant domain.

Alternatively, it is also preferred that the first polypeptide chain and/or the second polypeptide does not comprise any linkers.

Preferably, the first polypeptide chain of the antibody or the antigen binding fragment thereof according to the present invention comprises or consists of (in N-to-C-terminal direction): V-D-CH 1 , wherein

V is a variable domain (i);

D is an (additional) functional domai n (ii); and

CH I is a CH I constant domai n (iii).

V and D and/or D and CH I may be linked via a linker as described above or may be directly li nked to each other.

More preferably, the first polypeptide chain of the antibody or the antigen bi ndi ng fragment thereof according to the present invention comprises or consists of (in N-to-C-terminal direction): V-D-CH 1 -CH2-CH3, wherei n

V-D-CH1 is as described above; and

CH2 and CH3 are a CH2 constant domai n and a CH3 constant domai n, respectively.

It is also preferred that the fi rst polypeptide chain of the antibody or the antigen binding fragment thereof according to the present i nvention comprises or consists of (in N-to-C-terminal direction): (V)A-D-CH 1 , wherein

V-D-CH 1 is as described above;

A is an i nteger from 1 to 5, preferably from 1 to 4, more preferably from 1 to 3 and even more preferably 1 or 2; and

the variable domains V may be coupled to each other directly or via a l i nker.

Preferably, the second polypeptide chain of the antibody or the antigen binding fragment thereof according to the present i nvention comprises or consists of (in N-to-C-termi nal direction): V-CL, wherein

V is a variable domain (iv); and

CL is a constant domain (vi).

V and CL may be linked via a linker as described above or may be directly linked to each other.

It is also preferred that the second polypeptide chai n of the antibody or the antigen binding fragment thereof accordi ng to the present invention comprises or consists of (in N-to-C-terminal direction): (V)A-CL, wherein

V-CL is as described above;

A being an integer from 1 to 5, preferably from 1 to 4, more preferably from 1 to 3 and even more preferably Ί or 2; and

the variable domains V may be coupled to each other directly or via a li nker.

For example, the variable domain (i) of the first polypeptide chain of the antibody or the antigen binding fragment thereof according to the present i nvention may comprise or consist of an ami no acid sequence as set forth in any one of SEQ I D NOs 1 , 5, 8, or 1 0, or a functional sequence variant thereof having at least 80%, preferably at least 85%, more preferably at least 90%, even more preferably at least 95% and most preferably at least 98% sequence identity.

For example, the variable doma in (iv) of the second polypeptide chai n chain of the antibody or the antigen binding fragment thereof according to the present invention may comprise or consist of an amino acid sequence as set forth in any one of SEQ ID NOs 2, 6, 9 or 1 1 , or a functional sequence variant thereof having at least 80%, preferably at least 85%, more preferably at least 90%, even more preferably at least 95% and most preferably at least 98% sequence identity.

Preferably, the antibody, or the antigen binding fragment thereof, according to the present invention comprises one si ngle or two first polypeptide chai ns and one single or two second polypeptide chains. Examples of such antibodies, or antigen binding fragments thereof are shown i n Fig. 1 B and 1 C. It is also preferred that the first polypeptide chain and the second polypeptide chain are linked by a disulfide bond, thereby forming a pair. In particu lar, the heavy chain and the light chain of the antibody, or the antigen binding fragment thereof, according to the present invention may be l inked by a disulfide bond, thereby forming a pai r. Moreover, it is also preferred that the antibody, or the antigen binding fragment thereof, comprises two first polypeptide chains and two second polypeptide chains and that the two first polypeptide chains and/or the two second polypeptide chai ns are linked by one or more, such as two, disulfide bonds. In particular, the two heavy chains of the antibody, or the antigen bi ndi ng fragment thereof, may be li nked by one or more, such as two, disu lfide bonds.

Preferably, the antibody, or the antigen bindi ng fragment thereof, according to the present invention is bivalent for each specificity/antigen. In particular, it is preferred that the (additional) functional domai n(s) comprise(s) or consist(s) of (an) (independent) binding site(s) and (1 ) the (independent) bindi ng site(s) and (2) the antigen bi nding site(s) formed by the one or more variable domains of the first pair of first and second polypeptide chains correspond

to (1 ) the (independent) binding site(s) and (2) the antigen binding site(s) formed by the one or more variable domains of the second pair of first and second polypeptide chains. Alternatively, the antibody, or the antigen binding fragment thereof, may be monovalent for each specificity (antigen).

Accordingly, it is preferred that the antigen binding site(s) formed by the one or more variable domains of the first pair of first and second polypeptide chains and the antigen binding site(s) formed by the one or more variable domains of the second pair of first and second polypeptide chains are the same or distinct.

Moreover, it is preferred that the antibody, or the antigen bi nding fragment thereof, according to the present i nvention comprises at least two (additional) functional domains, which may be the same or disti nct. For example, the antibody, or the antigen binding fragment thereof, accordi ng to the present i nvention may comprise 2 or 4 (additional) functional domains, which may be the same or distinct.

If the antibody or the antigen binding fragment according to the present invention comprises more than one (additional) functional domain, for example in the same or in distinct polypeptide chains, the (additional) functional domai ns may be the same or distinct. Preferably, they may belong to the same or distinct group of functional domains. For example, at least two or all (additional) functional domains may comprise or consist of (independent) bindi ng sites. For example, at least two or all (additional) functional domains may comprise or consist of carrier domains. For example, at least two or al l (additional) functional domains may comprise or consist of reporter domains. For example, at least two or all (additional) functional domains may comprise or consist of tags. For example, at least two or al l (additional) functional domains may comprise or consist of local ization domai ns. Even if the (additional) functional domai ns belong to the same group of functional domains, the subgroup and, in particular, their amino acid sequence, may sti ll be the same or distinct. For example, at least two or all (additional) functional domains may comprise or consist of the same ami no acid sequences. Alternatively, it is also preferred that the (additional) functional domai ns belong to distinct group of functional domains. For example, one (additional) functional domain may comprise or consist of an (i ndependent) bi nding site, whi le another (additional) functional domain of the antibody or antigen bindi ng fragment may comprise or consist of a carrier domain. For example, one (additional) functional domain may comprise or consist of an (i ndependent) bindi ng site, while another (additional) functional domai n of the antibody or antigen bindi ng fragment may comprise or consist of a reporter domain. For example, one (additional) functional domain may comprise or consist of an (i ndependent) binding site, whi le another (additional) functional domain of the antibody or antigen binding fragment may comprise or consist of a tag. For example, one (additional) functional domain may comprise or consist of an (i ndependent) bindi ng site, whi le another (additional) functional domain of the antibody or antigen binding fragment may comprise or consist of a localization domai n. For example, one (additional) functional domain may comprise or consist of a carrier domain, while another (additional) functional domain of the antibody or antigen bindi ng fragment may comprise or consist of a reporter domain. For example, one (additional) functional domain may comprise or consist of a carrier domain, whi le another (additional) functional domain of the antibody or antigen binding fragment may comprise or consist of a tag. For example, one (additional) functional domain may comprise or consist of a carrier domain, whi le another (additional) functional domain of the antibody or antigen bindi ng fragment may comprise or consist of a local ization domai n. For example, one (additional) functional domain may comprise or consist of a reporter domain, while another (additional) functional domain of the antibody or antigen binding fragment may comprise or consist of a tag. For example, one (additional) functional domain may comprise or consist of a reporter domain, whi le another (additional) functional domain of the antibody or antigen binding fragment may comprise or consist of a localization domai n. For example, one (additional) functional domai n may comprise or consist of a local ization domain, whi le another (additional) functional domai n of the antibody or antigen binding fragment may comprise or consist of a tag.

Furthermore, it is preferred that the antibody, or the antigen bindi ng fragment thereof, according to the present invention comprises two first polypeptide chai ns and two second polypeptide chains forming a first and a second pair of first and second polypeptide chains, and wherei n the first pair of first and second polypeptide chai ns comprises at least one (additional) functional domain(s) and/or the second pair of first and second polypeptide chai ns comprises at least one (additional) functional domain(s). For example, the first pair of first and second polypeptide chains may comprise at least one (additional) functional domain(s), while the second pair of first and second polypeptide chains may not comprise an (additional) functional domain. For example, the first pair of first and second polypeptide chains may not comprise an (additional) functional domain, while the second pair of first and second polypeptide chains may comprise at least one (additional) functional domain(s). Most preferably, both, the first pair of first and second polypeptide chains comprises at least one (additional) functional domain(s) and the second pair of first and second polypeptide chains comprises at least one (additional) functional domain(s).

Preferably, the antibody, or the antigen binding fragment thereof, according to the present invention is derived from an IgG-like antibody, a Fab or a F(ab)2. In other words, the antibody, or the antigen binding fragment thereof, comprises all of the variable and constant regions of an IgG-like antibody, a Fab or a F(ab)2. In particular, an IgG-like antibody, a Fab or a F(ab)2 may be used as "scaffold" antibodies, into whose elbow region a (additional) functional domain is inserted.

Preferably, the two or more variable domains (i) and (iv) of the antibody, or the antigen binding fragment thereof, according to the present invention are derived from a monoclonal antibody. In particular, the two or more variable domains (i) and (iv) of the antibody, or the antigen binding fragment thereof, according to the present invention are (correspond to) the two or more variable domains a monoclonal antibody.

It is also preferred that the variable domains and/or the constant domains of the antibody, or the antigen binding fragment thereof, according to the present invention are human or humanized. In particular, the variable domains and/or the constant domains of the antibody, or the antigen binding fragment thereof, according to the present invention correspond to the variable domains and/or the constant domains of human or humanized antibody, or antigen binding fragment thereof.

Preferably, the (additional) functional domain(s) of the antibody, or the antigen binding fragment thereof, according to the present invention comprise(s) or consist(s) of an amino acid sequence, which is human or humanized.

Preferably, the first polypeptide chain of the antibody, or the antigen binding fragment thereof, according to the present invention comprises or consists of an amino acid sequence as set forth in any one of SEQ ID NOs 53, 55, 56, 58, 59, 60, 61 , 62, 64, 65, 66, 68, 69 or 70, or a functional sequence variant thereof having at least 80%, preferably at least 85%, more preferably at least 90%, even more preferably at least 95% and most preferably at least 98% sequence identity, and/or the second polypeptide chain of the antibody, or the antigen binding fragment thereof, according to the present invention comprises or consists of an amino acid sequence as set forth i n any one of SEQ ID NOs 54, 57, 63, or 67, or a functional sequence variant thereof having at least 80%, preferably at least 85%, more preferably at least 90%, even more preferably at least 95% and most preferably at least 98% sequence identity.

Preferably, the first and/or the second polypeptide chain of the antibody, or the antigen binding fragment thereof, according to the present invention may not comprise or consist of an amino acid sequence as set forth in any one of SEQ ID NOs 75 - 92. It is also preferred that the first and/or the second polypeptide chain of the antibody, or the antigen binding fragment thereof, according to the present invention may not comprise or consist of an amino acid sequence as set forth in any one of SEQ ID NOs 96 - 1 12. More preferably, the first and/or the second polypeptide chain of the antibody, or the antigen binding fragment thereof, according to the present invention may not comprise or consist of an amino acid sequence as set forth in any one of SEQ ID NOs 75 - 95. Even more preferably, the (additional) functional domain comprised by the first and/or the second polypeptide chain of the antibody, or the antigen binding fragment thereof, according to the present invention may not comprise or consist of an amino acid sequence as set forth in any one of SEQ ID NOs 1 1 3 - 130. Still more preferably, the (additional) functional domain comprised by the first and/or the second polypeptide chain of the antibody, or the antigen binding fragment thereof, according to the present invention may not comprise or consist of an amino acid sequence as set forth in any one of SEQ ID NOs 1 13 - 133. Most preferably, the first and/or the second polypeptide chain of the antibody, or the antigen binding fragment thereof, according to the present invention may not comprise or consist of an amino acid sequence as set forth in any one of SEQ ID NOs 75 - 133. Optionally, the (additional) functional domain comprised by the first and/or

the second polypeptide chain of the antibody, or the antigen binding fragment thereof, according to the present invention may not comprise or consist of a (mutated) LAI 1 fragment.

Nucleic acid molecule

in another aspect, the present invention also provides a nucleic acid molecule comprising a first polynucleotide encoding the first polypeptide chain of the antibody, or antigen-binding fragment thereof, according to the present invention and/or a second polypeptide encoding the second polypeptide chain of the antibody, or antigen-binding fragment thereof, according to the present invention.

A nucleic acid molecule is a molecule comprising, preferably consisting of nucleic acid components. The term nucleic acid molecule preferably refers to DNA or RNA molecules. In particular, it is used synonymous with the term "polynucleotide". Preferably, a nucleic acid molecule is a polymer comprising or consisting of nucleotide monomers which are covalently linked to each other by phosphodiester-bonds of a sugar/phosphate-backbone. The term "nucleic acid molecule" also encompasses modified nucleic acid molecules, such as base-modified, sugar-modified or backbone-modified etc. DNA or RNA molecules.

Preferably, the nucleic acid molecule is a DNA molecule or an RNA molecule. Examples of nucleic acid molecules and/or polynucleotides include, e.g., a recombinant polynucleotide, a vector, an oligonucleotide, an RNA molecule such as an rRNA, an mRNA, an mi RNA, an siRNA, or a tRNA, or a DNA molecule such as a cDNA. Nucleic acid sequences encoding part or all of the first and/or second polypeptide chains are preferred. Preferably provided herein are thus nucleic acid sequences encoding part or all of the light and heavy chains, in particular VH and VL sequences and/or (additional) functional domains of the exemplary antibodies or antigen binding fragments of the invention.

It is also preferred that nucleic acid molecule according to the invention includes a nucleic acid sequence having at least 70%, at least 75%, at least 80%, at least 85%, at least 88%, at least 90%, at least 92%, at least 95%, at least 96%, at least 97%, at least 98% or at least 99% identity to the nucleic acid encoding a (additional) functional domain, a VH sequence and/or a VL sequence used in an (exemplary) antibody or antigen binding fragment thereof according to the present invention.

In general, the nucleic acid molecule may be manipulated to insert, delete or alter certain nucleic acid sequences. Changes from such manipulation include, but are not limited to, changes to introduce restriction sites, to amend codon usage, to add or optimize transcription and/or translation regulatory sequences, etc. It is also possible to change the nucleic acid to alter the encoded amino acids. For example, it may be useful to introduce one or more (e.g., 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 1 0, etc.) amino acid substitutions, deletions and/or insertions into the antibody's amino acid sequence. Such point mutations can modify effector functions, antigen-binding affinity, post-translational modifications, immunogenicity, etc., can introduce amino acids for the attachment of covalent groups (e.g., labels) or can introduce tags (e.g., for purification purposes). Mutations can be introduced in specific sites or can be introduced at random, followed by selection (e.g., molecular evolution). For instance, one or more nucleic acids encoding any of the (additional) functional domains, a VH sequence and/or a VL sequence of an (exemplary) antibody of the invention can be randomly or directionally mutated to introduce different properties in the encoded amino acids. Such changes can be the result of an iterative process wherein initial changes are retained and new changes at other nucleotide positions are introduced. Further, changes achieved in independent steps may be combined. Different properties introduced into the encoded amino acids may include, but are not limited to, enhanced affinity.

Vector

Further included within the scope of the invention are vectors, for example, expression vectors, comprising a nucleic acid molecule according to the present invention. Preferably, a vector comprises a nucleic acid molecule as described above.

The term "vector" refers to a nucleic acid molecule, preferably to a recombinant nucleic acid molecule, i.e. a nucleic acid molecule which does not occur in nature. A vector in the context

of the present invention is suitable for incorporating or harboring a desired nucleic acid sequence. Such vectors may be storage vectors, expression vectors, cloning vectors, transfer vectors etc. A storage vector is a vector which allows the convenient storage of a nucleic acid molecule. Thus, the vector may comprise a sequence corresponding, e.g., to a desired antibody or antibody fragment thereof according to the present invention. An expression vector may be used for production of expression products such as RNA, e.g. mRNA, or peptides, polypeptides or proteins. For example, an expression vector may comprise sequences needed for transcription of a sequence stretch of the vector, such as a promoter sequence. A cloning vector is typically a vector that contains a cloning site, which may be used to incorporate nucleic acid sequences into the vector. A cloning vector may be, e.g., a plasmid vector or a bacteriophage vector. A transfer vector may be a vector which is suitable for transferring nucleic acid molecules into cells or organisms, for example, viral vectors. A vector in the context of the present invention may be, e.g., an RNA vector or a DNA vector. Preferably, a vector is a DNA molecule. For example, a vector in the sense of the present application comprises a cloning site, a selection marker, such as an antibiotic resistance factor, and a sequence suitable for multiplication of the vector, such as an origin of replication. Preferably, a vector in the context of the present application is a plasmid vector.

Cells

In a further aspect, the present invention also provides cell expressing the antibody, or the antigen binding fragment thereof, according to the present invention and/or comprising the nucleic acid molecule or the vector according the present invention.

Examples of such cells include but are not limited to, eukaryotic cells, e.g., yeast cells, animal cells or plant cells. Preferably, the cells are mammalian cells, more preferably a mammalian cell line. Preferred examples include human cells, CHO cells, HEK293T cells, PER.C6 cells, NS0 cells, human liver cells, myeloma cells or hybridoma cells.

In particular, the cell may be transfected with a vector according to the present invention, preferably with an expression vector. The term "transfection" refers to the introduction of

nucleic acid molecules, such as DNA or RNA (e.g. mRNA) molecules, into cel ls, preferably into eukaryotic cel ls. I n the context of the present i nvention, the term "transfection" encompasses any method known to the ski lled person for introduci ng nucleic acid molecules into cel ls, preferably i nto eukaryotic cel ls, such as into mammal ian cells. Such methods encompass, for example, electroporation, lipofection, e.g. based on cationic lipids and/or liposomes, calcium phosphate precipitation, nanoparticle based transfection, virus based transfection, or transfection based on cationic polymers, such as DEAE-dextran or polyethylenimine etc. Preferably, the i ntroduction is non-viral.

Moreover, the cells of the present invention may be transfected stably or transiently with the vector according to the present i nvention, e.g. for expressing the antibody, or the antigen binding fragment thereof, according to the present invention. Preferably, the cells are stably transfected with the vector according to the present i nvention encoding the antibody, or the antigen binding fragment thereof, accordi ng to the present invention. Alternatively, it is also preferred that the cel ls are transiently transfected with the vector according to the present invention encodi ng the antibody, or the antigen binding fragment thereof, accordi ng to the present invention.

Composition

The present invention also provides a composition comprising one or more of:

(i) the antibody, or the antibody fragment thereof, according to the present invention;

(i i) the nucleic acid molecule accordi ng to the present invention;

(i i i) the vector comprisi ng the nucleic acid according to the present invention; and/or

(iv) the cell expressi ng the antibody according to the present invention and/or comprising the vector or the nucleic acid molecu le accordi ng to the present invention.

In other words, the present invention also provides a composition comprising the antibody, or the antigen bi nding fragment thereof, accordi ng to the present i nvention, the nucleic acid according to the present invention, the vector according to the present i nvention and/or the cell accordi ng to the present i nvention.

S2

Preferably, the composition is a pharmaceutical composition. The pharmaceutical composition may preferably also contai n a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier, diluent and/or excipient. Although the carrier or excipient may faci litate administration, it should not itself induce the production of antibodies harmful to the individual receiving the composition. Nor should it be toxic. Suitable carriers may be large, slowly metabolized macromolecules such as proteins, polypeptides, liposomes, polysaccharides, polylactic acids, polygiycolic acids, polymeric amino acids, amino acid copolymers and inactive virus particles. In general, pharmaceutical ly acceptable carriers in a pharmaceutical composition according to the present invention may be active components or inactive components.

Pharmaceutical ly acceptable salts can be used, for example mi neral acid salts, such as hydrochlorides, hydrobromides, phosphates and sulphates, or salts of organic acids, such as acetates, propionates, malonates and benzoates.

Pharmaceutical ly acceptable carriers in a pharmaceutical composition may additionally contain liquids such as water, saline, glycerol and ethanol. Additionally, auxiliary substances, such as wetti ng or emulsifying agents or pH buffering substances, may be present in such compositions. Such carriers enable the pharmaceutical compositions to be formulated as tablets, piils, dragees, capsules, liquids, gels, syrups, slurries and suspensions, for i ngestion by the subject.

Pharmaceutical compositions of the invention may be prepared in various forms. For example, the compositions may be prepared as injectables, either as liquid solutions or suspensions. Solid forms suitable for solution in, or suspension in, liquid vehicles prior to injection can also be prepared (e.g., a lyophi l ized composition, simi lar to Synagis™ and Herceptin™, for reconstitution with sterile water containing a preservative). The composition may be prepared e.g., as an ointment, cream or powder. The composition may be prepared for e.g., as a tablet or capsule, as a spray, or as a syrup (optionally flavored). The composition may be prepared e.g., as an inhaler, using a fine powder or a spray. The composition may be prepared e.g., as drops. The composition may be in kit form, designed such that a combined

composition can be reconstituted, e.g. just prior to administration. For example, a lyophilized antibody may be provided in kit form with steri le water or a sterile buffer.

It is preferred that the active ingredient i n the composition is an antibody molecule, an antibody fragment or variants and derivatives thereof, i n particular the active ingredient in the composition is an antibody, an antibody fragment or variants and derivatives thereof, according to the present invention. The composition may contai n agents which protect the antibody from degradation i n the gastrointestinal tract, but which release the antibody once it has been absorbed from the gastrointesti nal tract.

A thorough discussion of pharmaceutically acceptable carriers is avai lable in Cennaro (2000) Remington: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 20th edition, ISBN: 0683306472.

Pharmaceutical compositions of the invention generally have a pH between 5.5 and 8.5, i n some embodiments this may be between 6 and 8, and in other embodiments about 7. The pH may be maintained by the use of a buffer. The composition may be sterile and/or pyrogen free. The composition may be isotonic with respect to humans. In one embodiment pharmaceutical compositions of the invention are suppl ied i n hermetically-sealed containers.

The composition may take the form of a suspension, solution or emulsion i n an oily or aqueous vehicle and, in particu lar, it may contain formulatory agents, such as suspending, preservative, stabilizing and/or dispersi ng agents. Alternatively, the antibody molecule may be in dry form, for reconstitution before use with an appropriate steri le liquid.

The composition may comprise a vehicle, such as water or sal ine. A vehicle is typically understood to be a material that is suitable for storing, transporting, and/or administering a compound, such as a pharmaceutical ly active compound, in particular the antibodies according to the present i nvention. For example, the vehicle may be a physiological ly acceptable liquid, which is suitable for stori ng, transporting, and/or administering a pharmaceutically active compound, i n particular the antibodies according to the present invention.

The composition may be an aqueous solution which is pyrogen-free and has suitable pH, isotonicity and stability. Those of relevant skill in the art are well able to prepare suitable solutions using, for example, isotonic vehicles such as Sodium Chloride Injection, Ringer's Injection, Lactated Ringer's Injection. Preservatives, stabilizers, buffers, antioxidants and/or other additives may be included, as required. The composition according to the present invention may be provided for example in a pre-fil led syringe.

The composition as defined above may also be in a dosage form including, but not limited to, capsules, tablets, aqueous suspensions or solutions. In the case of tablets, carriers commonly used include lactose and corn starch. Lubricating agents, such as magnesium stearate, are also typically added. For capsule form, useful diluents include lactose and dried cornstarch. When aqueous suspensions are required, the active ingredient may be combined with emulsifying and suspending agents. If desired, certain sweetening, flavoring or coloring agents may also be added.

Further examples of carriers comprised by the composition include, but are not limited to, mineral oil, liquid petrolatum, white petrolatum, propylene glycol, polyoxyethylene, polyoxypropylene compound, emulsifying wax and water. Alternatively, the composition can be formulated in a suitable lotion or cream. In the context of the present invention, suitable carriers include, but are not limited to, mineral oil, sorbitan monostearate, polysorbate 60, cetyl esters wax, cetearyi alcohol, 2-octyldodecanoi, benzyl alcohol and water.

In one embodiment, a composition of the invention may include antibodies of the invention, wherein the antibodies may make up at least 50% by weight (e.g., 60%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99% or more) of the total protein in the composition. In such a composition, the antibodies are preferably in purified form.

Pharmaceutical compositions may include an antimicrobial particularly if packaged in a multiple dose format. They may comprise detergent e.g., a Tween (polysorbate), such as Tween 80. Detergents are generally present at low levels e.g., less than 0.01 %. Compositions may also include sodium salts (e.g., sodium chloride) to give tonicity. For example, a concentration of 10+2mg/ml NaCI is typical.

Further, pharmaceutical compositions may comprise a sugar alcohol (e.g., mannitol) or a disaccharide (e.g., sucrose or trehalose) e.g., at around 15-30 mg/ml (e.g., 25 mg/ml), particularly if they are to be lyophilized or if they include material which has been reconstituted from lyophilized material. The pH of a composition for lyophilization may be adjusted to between 5 and 8, or between 5.5 and 7, or around 6.1 prior to lyophilization.

The compositions of the invention may also comprise one or more immunoregulatory agents. In one embodiment, one or more of the immunoregulatory agents include(s) an adjuvant.

Production of Antibodies

Antibodies according to the invention can be made by any method known in the art. For example, a scaffold antibody may be provided and genetically engineered at the elbow region(s). To obtain a scaffold antibody, for example, the general methodology for making monoclonal antibodies using hybridoma technology is well known (Kohler, G. and Milstein, C,. 1975; Kozbar et al. 1983). In particular, the alternative EBV immortalization method described in WO2004/076677 may be used.

A preferred method is described in WO 2004/076677. In this method B cells producing the antibody of the invention are transformed with EBV and a polyclonal B cell activator. Additional stimulants of cellular growth and differentiation may optionally be added during the transformation step to further enhance the efficiency. These stimulants may be cytokines such as IL-2 and 1L-15. In one aspect, IL-2 is added during the immortalization step to further improve the efficiency of immortalization, but its use is not essential. The immortalized B cells produced using these methods can then be cultured using methods known in the art and antibodies isolated therefrom.

Another preferred method is described in WO 2010/046775. In this method plasma cells are cultured in limited numbers, or as single plasma cells in microwell culture plates. Antibodies can be isolated from the plasma cell cultures. Further, from the plasma cell cultures, RNA can be extracted and PCR can be performed using methods known in the art. The VH and VL regions of the antibodies can be ampl ified by RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase PCR), sequenced and cloned i nto an expression vector that is then transfected into HEK293T cel ls or other host cells. The cloni ng of nucleic acid in expression vectors, the transfection of host cells, the culture of the transfected host cells and the isolation of the produced antibody can be done using any methods known to one of skill in the art.

Fragments of the antibodies of the invention can be obtai ned from the antibodies by methods that include digestion with enzymes, such as pepsin or papain, and/or by cleavage of disulfide bonds by chemical reduction. Alternatively, fragments of the antibodies can be obtained by cloning and expression of part of the sequences of the heavy or light chains. Antibody "fragments" include Fab, Fab' and F(ab')2 fragments.

For example, the present invention also provides a process for producing an antibody, or an antigen-binding fragment thereof, according to the present invention comprising:

— Transforming an eukaryotic host cel l by (e.g., as described above) incorporati ng one or more nucleic acid molecule(s) as described above encoding a first polypeptide chai n and a second polypeptide chai n, e.g. a vector according to the present invention as described above;

— cultivating the host cell under suitable conditions so that said nucleic acid molecu les are expressed;

— causing or al lowing said first and second polypeptide chains to combine to form the antibody, or antigen-binding fragment thereof; and

— optionally, purifying the antibody, or antigen-bindi ng fragment thereof, from the culture medium.

Standard techniques of molecular biology may be used to prepare DNA sequences encoding the antibodies or antibody fragments of the present invention. Desi red DNA sequences may be synthesized completely or in part usi ng oligonucleotide synthesis techniques. Site-directed mutagenesis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques may be used as appropriate.

Any suitable host cell/vector system may be used for expression of the DNA sequences encoding the antibody molecules of the present invention or fragments thereof. Bacterial, for example E. coli, and other microbial systems may be used, in part, for expression of antibody fragments such as Fab and F(ab')2 fragments, and especially Fv fragments and single chain antibody fragments, for example, single chain Fvs. Eukaryotic, e.g., mammalian, host cell expression systems may be used for production of larger antibody molecules, including complete antibody molecules. Suitable mammalian host cells include, but are not limited to, CHO, HEK293T, PER.C6, NSO, myeloma or hybridoma cells.

For example, the cell line may be transfected with two vectors, a first vector encoding the first polypeptide chain, e.g. a heavy chain polypeptide, and a second vector encoding the second polypeptide chain, e.g. a light chain polypeptide,. Alternatively, a single vector may be used, the vector including sequences encoding the first and the second polypeptide chain, e.g. light chain and heavy chain polypeptides.

The antibodies may be further purified, if desired, using filtration, centrifugation and various chromatographic methods such as HPLC or affinity chromatography. Techniques for purification of antibodies, e.g., monoclonal antibodies, including techniques for producing pharmaceutical-grade antibodies, are well known in the art.

Methods and Uses

In a further aspect, the present invention provides the use of the antibody, or the antigen binding fragment thereof, according to the present invention, the nucleic acid according to the present invention, the vector according to the present invention, the cell according to the present invention or the (pharmaceutical) composition according to the present invention for use in medicine.

Accordingly, the present invention also provides a method of preventing or treating a disease or disorder in a subject comprising the step of administering the antibody, or the antigen binding fragment thereof, according to the present invention, the nucleic acid according to the present invention, the vector according to the present invention, the cell according to the present invention or the (pharmaceutical) composition accordi ng to the present invention to the subject.

It is understood that the one or more specificity/specificities of the antibody, or the antigen bindi ng fragment thereof, according to the present i nvention may be chosen accordi ng to the disease or disorder to be prevented and/or treated. For example, for prevention and/or treatment of malaria, the antibody, or the antigen binding fragment thereof, may comprise a specificity against a malaria antigen, for example an antigen bindi ng site (formed by variable domai ns) and/or a (additional) functional domai n in the elbow region, which specifically binds to a malaria antigen. An example thereof is a mutated LAI R1 fragment as described herei n, i n particular a mutated LAIRI fragment as described in WO 201 6/207402 A1 , e.g. comprising an amino acid sequence according to SEQ ID NO: 1 3 or a sequence variant thereof having at least 70%, preferably at least 75%, more preferably at least 80%, even more preferably at least 85%, stil l more preferably 90%, particularly preferably 95%, and most preferably at least 98% sequence identity. An antibody comprising such a specificity (such a (antigen) binding site) may be in particular useful for providing immunity to blood stage malaria parasites (in particular Plasmodium falciparum).

Diseases to be treated and/or prevented by use of the antibody/the antigen bi ndi ng fragment according to the present i nvention; the nucleic acid molecule according to the present invention; the vector according to the present invention; the cel l according to the present invention; or the composition according to the present invention include cancer, infectious diseases, and autoimmunity disorders. Thereby, treatment and/or prevention of cancer and/or i nfectious diseases is preferred.

Preferably, the antibocly/the antigen bi ndi ng fragment according to the present i nvention; the nucleic acid molecule accordi ng to the present invention; the vector according to the present i nvention; the cell according to the present invention; or the composition according to the present i nvention may be used for (the preparation of a medicament for) the prophylaxis, treatment and/or amel ioration of cancer or tumor diseases. In general, the term "cancer" includes solid tumors, i n particular malignant solid tumors, such as sarcomas, carcinomas and lymphomas, and blood cancer, such as leukemias. Cancers include carcinomas, sarcomas, lymphomas, keukemias, germ cell tumors and blastomas.

Preferably, the antibody/the antigen binding fragment according to the present invention; the nucleic acid molecule according to the present invention; the vector according to the present invention; the cell according to the present invention; or the composition according to the present invention may be used for (the preparation of a medicament for) the prophylaxis, treatment and/or amelioration of an infectious disease. Infectious diseases include viral, retroviral, bacterial and protozoological infectious diseases.

Moreover, the antibody/the antigen binding fragment according to the present invention; the nucleic acid molecule according to the present invention; the vector according to the present invention; the cell according to the present invention; or the composition according to the present invention may be used for (the preparation of a medicament for) the prophylaxis, treatment and/or amelioration of autoimmune disorders. Typically, autoimmune diseases arise from an abnormal immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body (autoimmunity). This may be restricted to certain organs or may involve a particular tissue in different places. Autoimmune diseases may be classified by corresponding type of hypersensitivity: type I (i.e. urticaria induced by autologous serum), type II, type 111, or type IV.

In addition, the antibody, or the antigen binding fragment thereof, according to the present invention, the nucleic acid according to the present invention, the vector according to the present invention, the cell according to the present invention or the (pharmaceutical) composition according to the present invention may also be useful for (in vitro) diagnosis. Methods of diagnosis may include contacting an antibody or an antibody fragment with a sample. Such samples may be isolated from a subject, for example an isolated tissue sample taken from, for example, nasal passages, si nus cavities, salivary glands, lung, liver, pancreas, kidney, ear, eye, placenta, alimentary tract, heart, ovaries, pituitary, adrenals, thyroid, brain, skin or blood, preferably plasma or serum. The methods of diagnosis may also include the detection of an antigen/antibody complex, in particular following the contacting of an antibody or an antibody fragment with a sample. Such a detection step is typically performed at the bench, i.e. without any contact to the human or animal body. Examples of detection methods are wel l-known to the person ski lled in the art and include, e.g., ELISA (enzyme-l i nked immunosorbent assay).

Also for diagnosis, it is understood that the one or more specificity/specificities of the antibody, or the antigen binding fragment thereof, according to the present invention may be chosen according to the disease or disorder to be prevented and/or treated, essentially as described above for prevention and/or treatment of diseases.

Moreover, the present invention also provides an assay for detecti ng an antigen or for quantification of antigen binding comprising:

-— incubating an antigen with the antibody, or the antigen bi nding fragment thereof, according to the present invention under conditions which permit bi nding of the antigen to the polyvalent antibody; and

— detecti ng antigen-antibody binding.

For example, such an assay may be useful i n the context of diagnosis as described above.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES

In the followi ng a brief description of the appended figures will be given. The figures are i ntended to i l lustrate the present invention i n more detai l. However, they are not intended to limit the subject matter of the invention in any way.

Figure 1 (A) classical monospecific antibody comprising two heavy chains (grey), each with a si ngle variable domai n VH and three constant domai ns CH I , CH2 and CH3, and two light chains (white), each with a single variable domain VL and a si ngle constant domain CL. The elbow region is indicated by arrows.

(B) Preferred examples of antibodies according to the present invention (In-elbow-insert Ig molecules; IEI Ig) derived from the classical monospecific antibody shown in (A): antibody comprising one single (additional) functional domain in the elbow region of each heavy chain but no elbow insert in the light chain; antibody comprising one single (additional) functional domain in the elbow region of each light chain but no elbow insert in the heavy chain; antibody comprising one single (additional) functional domain in the elbow region of each heavy chain and of each light chain; antibody comprising two (additional) functional domains in the elbow region of each heavy chain but no elbow insert in the light chain; and antibody comprising two (additional) functional domains in the elbow region of each light chain but no elbow insert in the heavy chain.

(C) Preferred examples of antigen binding fragments and antibodies according to the present invention (ln-elbow-insert Ig molecules; IEI Ig) derived from antibody fragments or from bispecific antibodies: F(ab)2 fragment comprising one single (additional) functional domain in the elbow region of each heavy chain but no elbow insert in the light chain; F(ab)2 fragment comprising one single (additional) functional domain in the elbow region of each light chain but no elbow insert in the heavy chain; Fab fragment comprising one single (additional) functional domain in the elbow region of each heavy chain but no elbow insert in the light chain; Fab fragment comprising one single (additional) functional domain in the elbow region of each light chain but no elbow insert in the heavy chain; CrossMab/Knobs-in-holes/orthogonal Fab/Fab-arm exchange antibodies comprising one single (additional) functional domain in the elbow region of one single heavy chain but no elbow insert in the light chains and in the other heavy chain; scFv-(H)lgG comprising one single (additional) functional domain in the elbow region of each heavy chain but no elbow insert in the light chain; (gG(H)-scFv comprising one single (additional) functional domain in the elbow region of each heavy chain but no elbow insert in the light chain; scFv-(L)lgG comprising one single (additional) functional domain in the elbow region of each heavy chain but no elbow insert in the light chain; lgG(L)-scFv comprising one single (additional) functional domain i n the elbow region of each heavy chain but no elbow insert i n the light chain; and DVD-lg comprisi ng one single (additional) functional domain in the elbow region of each heavy chain but no elbow i nsert in the light chain.

shows for Example 1 a scheme of the seven antibody constructs according to the present i nvention (C2 to C8) compared to scaffold antibodies (GCE536, CI ).

Figure 3 shows for Example 2 the EC50 values determined by non-linear regression analysis of bindi ng values (OD) and relative antibody concentrations in the EL1SA tests made usi ng a set of antigens or anti-domain antibodies. The constructs were also tested for binding to l Es (isolate 921 5) and binding values (%) at a concentration of 1 pg/ml are shown.

Figure 4 shows for Example 3 the SPR binding curves of C4 and different controls to

GM-CSF and col lagen. C4 and C5 that use GCE536 as scaffold bind to GM- CSF, but only C4 is then bound by collagen. Non-specific FI 1 74 and collagen- specific MGDUCA antibodies don't show any specific binding signal.

Figure 5 shows for Example 3 the SPR binding curves of C4 and different controls to

GM-CSF and col lagen. C4 and GCE536 bind to GM-CSF, but only C4 is then recognized by col lagen. Collagen-specific MGDUCA antibody binds to collagen only. Control antibody TT1 07 is a TT-specific monoclonal antibody, which does not show any specific binding signal in SPR experiment.

Figure 6 shows for Example 4 the ELISA bindi ng curves of C5, C5b, C6 and C6b constructs to GM-CSF or by anti-PD1 or anti-SLAM antibodies, compared to the scaffold antibody (GCE536). PD1 -containing C5 and C5b and SLAM- containing C6 and C6b constructs are recognized by anti-PDI or anti-SLAM antibodies, respectively. All the constructs bi nd to GM-CSF as GCE536. The presence of l inkers i n C5b and C6 does not affect bindi ng.

shows for Example 6 the ELISA binding curve of a Strep-tacti n antibody to C9 construct compared to the scaffold C1 b. The Twin Strep-tag i nserted in the elbow of C9 construct is specifical ly recognized by the Strep-tacti n antibody.

shows for Example 7 a scheme of the four additional antibody constructs (C9 to CI 2) compared to the scaffold antibody (FI 1 74).

shows for Example 8 the SPR binding curves of C9 and CI O and different controls to H1 and TT. C9 and CI O show dual binding to both H I and TT. TT107 is a TT-specific monoclonal antibody.

shows for Example 8 the SPR bi ndi ng curves of CI 1 and C1 2 and different controls to H 1 and RSV F protein. C1 1 and CI 2 show dual binding to both H I and RSV F protei n. MPE8 is a RSV F protein-specific monoclonal antibody.

EXAMPLES

In the following, particular examples illustrating various embodiments and aspects of the invention are presented. However, the present invention shall not to be limited in scope by the specific embodiments described herein. The following preparations and examples are given to enable those skilled in the art to more clearly understand and to practice the present invention. The present invention, however, is not limited in scope by the exemplified embodiments, which are intended as illustrations of single aspects of the invention only, and methods which are functionally equivalent are within the scope of the invention. Indeed, various modifications of the invention in addition to those described herein will become readily apparent to those skilled in the art from the foregoing description, accompanying figures and the examples below. All such modifications fall within the scope of the appended claims.

Example 1 : Design and construction of antibody variants inserting different Ig-like functional domains into the elbow region of scaffold antibodies.

To investigate the effect of distinct (additional) functional domains inserted into the elbow region of an antibody on antibody specificity, seven different constructs (named "C2 - C8") were designed, in which unmutated LA1R1 (SEQ ID NO: 12), mutated LAIR1 (SEQ ID NO: 13) or other Ig-like domains were inserted into the elbow region of an antibody that was used as a scaffold. Constructs C2 - C3 have the same complete constant region of the heavy chain as construct C1 (VH: SEQ ID NO: 5, VL: SEQ ID NO: 6, heavy chain constant region: SEQ ID NO: 3, light chain constant region: SEQ ID NO: 7). Constructs C4 - C6 have the same complete constant region of the heavy chain as the antibody GCE536 (VH: SEQ ID NO: 1 , VL: SEQ ID NO: 2, heavy chain constant region: SEQ ID NO: 3, light kappa chain constant region: SEQ ID NO: 4; Piccoli, L., et al. Neutralization and clearance of GM-CSF by autoantibodies in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Nature communications 6, 7375 (2015)). Constructs C7 - C8 have the same complete constant region of the heavy chain as construct Cl b (VH: SEQ ID NO: 8, VL: SEQ ID NO: 9, heavy chain constant region: SEQ ID NO: 3, light chain constant region: SEQ ID NO: 4). The light chain of the constructs was not modified in comparison to the scaffold antibodies. All construct were finally expressed as monoclonal antibodies (heavy and light chains).

The following constructs were produced and are shown schematically in Figure 2:

1 . "CI " (VH: SEQ ID NO: 5, VL: SEQ ID NO: 6, heavy chain constant region: SEQ ID NO: 3, light chain lambda constant region: SEQ ID NO: 7) is a recombinant monospecific antibody for control purposes. C1 is formed by (in this order from N- to C-terminus): the expression product of a V (variable) gene segment of a heavy chain variable domain ("VH3-30"); the expression product of a D (diversity) gene segment of a heavy chain variable domain ("D"); the expression product of a ] Coining) gene segment element of a heavy chain variable domain ("JH6"); the expression product of a C (constant) gene segment of a heavy chain constant region (IgGI isotype); and on a separate chain: the expression product of a V (variable) gene segment of a light chain variable domain and the expression product of a J (Joining) gene segment element of a light chain variable domain; the expression product of a C (constant) gene segment of a light chain lambda constant region.

2. "CI b" (VH: SEQ ID NO: 8, VL: SEQ ID NO: 9, heavy chain constant region: SEQ ID NO: 3, light chain kappa constant region: SEQ ID NO: 4) is a recombinant monospecific antibody for control purposes. C1 is formed by (in this order from N- to C-terminus): the expression product of a V (variable) gene segment of a heavy chain variable domain ("VH3-20"); the expression product of a D (diversity) gene segment of a heavy chain variable domain ("D"); the expression product of a J Coining) gene segment element of a heavy chain variable domain ("JH3"); the expression product of a C (constant) gene segment of a heavy chain constant region (IgGI isotype); and on a separate chain: the expression product of a V (variable) gene segment of a light chain variable domain and the expression product of a J (Joining) gene segment element of a light chain variable domain; the expression product of a C (constant) gene segment of a light chain kappa constant region.

In construct "C2" a mutated LAI R-1 fragment ("LAI R1 mul"; SEQ ID NO: 1 3) was inserted i nto the elbow region of recombinant monospecific antibody "C1 " (see above). In the mutated LAIR1 fragment, the binding of LAIR1 to col lagen is abol ished, but the mutated LAIR1 fragment binds strongly to P. falciparum infected erythrocytes (Tan, J ., Pieper, K., Piccoli, L, et al . A LAIR1 insertion generates broadly reactive antibodies against malaria variant antigens. Nature 529, 1 05-1 09 (201 6); WO 201 6/207402 A1 ). Construct "C2 " (complete heavy chain: SEQ ID NO: 53, complete l ight chain: SEQ ID NO: 54) is formed by (in this order from N- to C-terminus): the expression product of a V (variable) gene segment of a heavy chain variable domai n of C1 ("VH3-30"); the expression product of a D (diversity) gene segment of a heavy chain variable domain of CI ("D"); the expression product of a J (Joining) gene segment element of a heavy chain variable domain of CI ("JH6"); the expression product of the mutated LAIR-1 fragment of GD21 ("LA1R1 D2"'); the expression product of a C (constant) gene segment of a heavy chain constant region (IgGI isotype); and on a separate chain: the expression product of a V (variable) gene segment of a light chain variable domain of C1 and the expression product of a j Coi ni ng) gene segment element of a light chain variable domain of CI ; the expression product of a C (constant) gene segment of a light chain constant region.

In construct "C3" an unmutated LAIR-1 fragment ("LAI R1 scn"; SEQ ID NO: 12) was i nserted i nto the elbow region of recombinant monospecific antibody "C1 " (see above). Construct "C3" (complete heavy chain: SEQ ID NO: 55, complete light chain: SEQ I D NO: 54) is formed by (i n this order from N- to C-terminus): the expression product of a V (variable) gene segment of a heavy chain variable domain of CI ("VH3-30"); the expression product of a D (diversity) gene segment of a heavy chain variable domai n of C1 ("D"); the expression product of a J (Joining) gene segment element of a heavy chai n variable domai n of CI ("JH6"); the expression product of the unmutated LAI R-1 fragment ("LAI R1 8en"); the expression product of a C (constant) gene segment of a heavy chain constant region (IgGI isotype); and on a separate chai n: the expression product of a V (variable) gene segment of a light chain variable domain of C1 and the expression product of a J (Joi ning) gene segment element of a l ight chain variable domain of CI ; the expression product of a C (constant) gene segment of a light chai n constant region.

In construct "C4" an unmutated LAIR-1 fragment ("LAIR1 sen"; SEQ ID NO: 1 3) was inserted into the elbow region of antibody GCE536. Construct "C4" (complete heavy chai n: SEQ ID NO: 56, complete light chai n: SEQ ID NO: 57) is formed by (in this order from N- to C-terminus): the expression product of a V (variable) gene segment of a heavy chain variable domain of GCE536 ("VH1 -46"); the expression product of a D (diversity) gene segment of a heavy chain variable domai n of GCE536 ("D"); the expression product of a J (Joi ning) gene segment element of a heavy chain variable domain of GCE536 ("JH6"); the expression product of the unmutated LAIR-1 fragment ("LAi R1 gei1"); the expression product of a C (constant) gene segment of a heavy chai n constant region (lgG1 isotype); and on a separate chain: the expression product of a V (variable) gene segment of a light chain variable domain of GCE536 and the expression product of a J (Joining) gene segment element of a light chain variable domai n of GCE536; the expression product of a C (constant) gene segment of a light chain constant region.

In construct "C5" an extracellular Ig-like domai n of PD1 molecu le ("PD1 "; SEQ ID NO: 1 4) was i nserted into the elbow region of antibody GCE536. Construct "C5" (complete heavy chai n: SEQ ID NO: 58, complete light chain: SEQ ID NO: 57) is formed by (in this order from N- to C-terminus): the expression product of a V (variable) gene segment of a heavy chai n variable domai n of GCE536 ("VH 1 -46"); the expression product of a D (diversity) gene segment of a heavy chain variable domain of GCE536 ("D"); the expression product of a J (Joining) gene segment element of a heavy chain variable domain of GCE536 ("JH6"); the expression product of an extracellular Ig-li ke domain of PD1 molecule ("PD1 "); the expression product of a C (constant) gene segment of a heavy chain constant region (IgGI isotype); and on a separate chain: the expression product of a V (variable) gene segment of a light chain variable domai n of GCE536 and the expression product of a J (Joi ning) gene segment element of a light chain variable domai n of GCE536; the expression product of a C (constant) gene segment of a light chain constant region.

In construct "C5b" an extracellular Ig-li ke domain of PD 1 molecule ("PD1 "; SEQ ID NO: 1 4) with flanki ng i ntronic sequences ("1 5-mer JH-PD1 "; SEQ ID NO: 49 and "1 5-mer PD 1 -CH V linkers"; SEQ ID NO: 50) was i nserted into the elbow region of antibody GCE536. Construct "C5" (complete heavy chai n: SEQ I D NO: 59, complete light chain: SEQ I D NO: 57) is formed by (in this order from N- to C-terminus): the expression product of a V (variable) gene segment of a heavy chain variable domai n of GCE536 ("VH 1 -46"); the expression product of a D (diversity) gene segment of a heavy chain variable domain of GCE536 ("D"); the expression product of a J (Joining) gene segment element of a heavy chain variable domain of GCE536 ("JH6"); the expression product of a linker ("15-mer JH-PD1"); the expression product of an extracellular Ig-like domai n of PD1 molecule ("PD1 "); the expression product of a li nker ("15-mer PD1-CH") ; the expression product of a C (constant) gene segment of a heavy chain constant region (IgG I isotype); and on a separate chai n: the expression product of a V (variable) gene segment of a light chain variable domain of GCE536 and the expression product of a J (Joini ng) gene segment element of a light chain variable domain of GCE536; the expression product of a C (constant) gene segment of a light chain kappa constant region.

In construct "C6" an extracel lular Ig-like domain of SLAM molecule ("SLAM"; SEQ ID NO: 1 5) was inserted into the elbow region of antibody GCE536. Construct "C6" (complete heavy chain: SEQ ID NO: 60, complete light chai n: SEQ ID NO: 57) is formed by (in this order from N- to C-terminus): the expression product of a V (variable) gene segment of a heavy chain variable domain of GCE536 ("VH 1 -46"); the expression product of a D (diversity) gene segment of a heavy chain variable domain of GCE536 ("D"); the expression product of a J (Joi ni ng) gene segment element of a heavy chain variable domain of GCE536 ("J H6"); the expression product of an extracellular Ig-l ike domai n of SLAM molecule ("SLAM"); the expression product of a C (constant) gene segment of a heavy chain constant region (IgG I isotype); and on a separate chain: the expression product of a V (variable) gene segment of a l ight chai n variable domain of GCE536 and the expression product of a J (Joining) gene segment element of a light chain variable domain of GCE536; the expression product of a C (constant) gene segment of a light chain constant region.

. In construct "C6b" an extracellular Ig-like domain of SLAM molecule ("SLAM"; SEQ ID NO: 15) with flanking intronic sequences ("15-mer JH-SLAM"; SEQ ID NO: 51 and "15-mer SLAM-CH1 " linkers"; SEQ ID NO: 52) was inserted into the elbow region of antibody GCE536. Construct "C6" (complete heavy chain: SEQ ID NO: 61 , complete light chain: SEQ ID NO: 57) is formed by (in this order from N- to C-terminus): the expression product of a V (variable) gene segment of a heavy chain variable domain of GCE536 ("VH1 -46"); the expression product of a D (diversity) gene segment of a heavy chain variable domain of GCE536 ("D"); the expression product of a J (Joining) gene segment element of a heavy chain variable domain of GCE536 ("JH6"); the expression product of a linker ("15-mer JH-SLAM" ) ; the expression product of an extracellular Ig-like domain of SLAM molecule ("SLAM"); the expression product of a linker ("15-mer SLAM-CH" ) ; the expression product of a C (constant) gene segment of a heavy chain constant region (IgGl isotype); and on a separate chain: the expression product of a V (variable) gene segment of a light chain variable domain of

GCE536 and the expression product of a J (joining) gene segment element of a light chain variable domain of GCE536; the expression product of a C (constant) gene segment of a light chain kappa constant region.

10. In construct "C7" an extracellular Ig-like domain of PD1 molecule ("PD1 "; SEQ ID

NO: 14) was inserted into the elbow region of recombinant monospecific antibody "CI b" (see above). Construct "C7" (complete heavy chain: SEQ ID NO: 62, complete light chain: SEQ ID NO: 63) is formed by (in this order from N- to C-terminus): the expression product of a V (variable) gene segment of a heavy chain variable domain ("VH3-20"); the expression product of a D (diversity) gene segment of a heavy chain variable domain ("D"); the expression product of a J (joining) gene segment element of a heavy chain variable domain ("JH3"); the expression product of an extracellular Ig-like domain of PD1 molecule ("PD1 "); the expression product of a C (constant) gene segment of a heavy chain constant region (IgGl isotype); and on a separate chain: the expression product of a V (variable) gene segment of a light chain variable domain and the expression product of a J (joining) gene segment element of a light chain variable domain; the expression product of a C (constant) gene segment of a light chain constant region.

1 1 . In construct "C8" an extracellular Ig-like domain of SLAM molecule ("SLAM"; SEQ ID NO: 15) was inserted into the elbow region of recombinant monospecific antibody

"CI b" (see above). Construct "C8" (complete heavy chain: SEQ ID NO: 64, complete light chain: SEQ ID NO: 63) is formed by (in this order from N- to C-terminus): the expression product of a V (variable) gene segment of a heavy chain variable domain ("VH3-20"); the expression product of a D (diversity) gene segment of a heavy chain variable domain ("D"); the expression product of a J Coining) gene segment element of a heavy chain variable domain ("JH3"); the expression product of an extracellular Ig-like domain of SLAM molecule ("SLAM"); the expression product of a C (constant) gene segment of a heavy chain constant region (IgGI isotype); and on a separate chain: the expression product of a V (variable) gene segment of a light chain variable domain and the expression product of a J (Joining) gene segment element of a light chain variable domain; the expression product of a C (constant) gene segment of a light chain constant region.

Example 2: Ig-like domains can be inserted in the elbow region of antibodies resulting in functional antibodies

The eight antibody constructs described in Example 1 were produced recombinantly by transient transfection. To this end, antibody heavy and light chains were cloned into human IgGI , Ig and IgA expression vectors and expressed by transient transfection of Expi293F Cells (ThermoFisher Scientific) using polyethylenimine (PEI). Cell lines were routinely tested for mycoplasma contamination.

Next, the antibody constructs CI - C8 and control antibody GCE536 (see Example 1 ) were tested for staining of 9215 lEs (infected erythrocytes) and binding values (%) at 1 g/ml antibody concentration were calculated by interpolation of binding curves fitted to a sigmoidal curve model (Graphpad Prism 6). In addition, binding to recombinant human

col lagen, anti-human LAI R 1 antibody, recombinant human GM-CSF, an anti-PDI and an anti-SLAM antibody was tested by ELISA. Briefly, total IgGs were quantified using 96-wel l MaxiSorp plates (Nunc) coated with goat anti-human IgG (SouthernBiotech, 2040-01 ) using Certified Reference Material 470 (ERMs-DA470, Sigma-Aldrich) as a standard. To test specific bindi ng of antibody constructs, ELISA plates were coated with 2 pg m ' of type I recombinant human collagen (Mi l lipore, CC050), 2 pg ml-' of an anti-human LAIRI antibody (clone DX26, BD Biosciences 55081 0), 1 pg ml-1 of recombinant human GM-CSF (Gentaur), 2 pg ml"1 of an anti-PD I or an anti-SLAM antibody (R&D Systems, AF1 086 and AF1 64). Plates were blocked with 1 % bovine serum albumin (BSA) and incubated with titrated antibodies, followed by AP-conjugated goat anti-human IgG, Fey fragment specific (Jackson lmmuno Research, 1 09-056-098). Plates were then washed, substrate (p-NPP, Sigma) was added and plates were read at 405 nm.

Results of the different bi nding studies are shown in Figure 3. Antibody constructs carrying LAIRI stai ned lEs and were recognized by an anti-LAIR1 antibody. Insertion of LAIRI , PD1 or SLAM Ig-like domains i nto the elbow region of an anti-GM-CSF antibody did not affect binding to GM-CSF (constructs C4 - C6), indicating that this site is permissive for i nsertions of different domains without affecting the original antibody specificity. In contrast, insertion of LAI R1 into the CDR3 abol ished binding to GM-CSF (data not shown). Accordingly, the elbow region is permissive for i nsertions of different domains, without affecting the original antibody specificity.

Example 3: Constructs containing an Ig-like domain in the elbow can simultaneously bind to two different antigens

To test whether the bispecific constructs carryi ng a bi nding site in the elbow region, are able to simultaneously bind with both specificities, simultaneous bindi ng was investigated by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). To this end, bispecific construct C4, which has a V(D)J region specific for GM-CSF and carries unmutated LAIRI (binding site for collagen) i n the elbow, was tested for simu ltaneous bi ndi ng to GM-CSF and col lagen by surface plasmon resonance (SPR).

In one experiment, GM-CSF was immobilized on the surface of a sensor chip and the constructs were injected, followed by injection of collagen. Antibodies C5 and GCE53G (cf. above), antibody MGDUCA (contains unmutated LAIR1 and is, thus, able to bind collagen; Tan, J., Pieper, K., Piccoii, L, et al. A LAIR1 insertion generates broadly reactive antibodies against malaria variant antigens. Nature 529, 105-109 (2016); VH: SEQ ID NO: 71 , VL: SEQ ID NO: 72, heavy chain constant region: SEQ ID NO: 3, light chain constant region: SEQ ID NO: 4) and antibody F1174 (specific for influenza HI hemagglutinin; Pappas, L, et al. Rapid development of broadly influenza neutralizing antibodies through redundant mutations. Nature 51 6, 418-422 (2014); (VH: SEQ ID NO: 10, VL: SEQ ID NO: 1 1 , heavy chain constant region: SEQ ID NO: 3, light chain constant region: SEQ ID NO: 4) were used as controls. Briefly, GM-CSF (200 nM) was stabilized in 10 mM acetate buffer, pH 4.5, and immobilized onto an ethyl(dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide/N-Hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS) pre-activatedProteOnsensor chip (Bio-Rad) through amine coupling; unreacted groups were blocked by injection of 1 M ethanolamine HCI. HEPES buffered saline (HBS) (l OmMHEPES, pH7.4, 1 50mM NaCI, 3mM EDTA, 0.005% surfactant Tween-20) was used as a running buffer. All injections were made at a flowrate of 100 μΙ/min. Monoclonal antibodies were diluted in HBS to 10nM and injected for 240 s onto the GM-CSF-coated chip, followed by injection of collagen (50 nM) for 120 s. One channel of the chip was injected with HBS and used as reference for the analysis. Each binding interaction of the monoclonal antibodies to GM-CSF and collagen was assessed using a ProteONXPR36 instrument (Bio-Rad) and the data were processed with ProteOn Manager software.

Results are shown in Figure 4. Both constructs C4 and C5, which use GCE536 as scaffold (see Example 1 ), bind to GM-CSF. Of C4 and C5, only C4 (which carries LAIR1 in the elbow region - whereas C5 carries an Ig-like domain of PD1 in the elbow region) is then bound by collagen. Monospecific anti-GM-CSF antibody GCE536 binds only to GM-CSF, but not to collagen. Anti-Hi antibody FI1 74 and collagen-specific MGDUCA antibody do not show any specific binding signal. In summary, those data show that bispecific construct C4 bound to GM-CSF and then collagen bound to the LAIR1 domain of C4.

In a second experiment, protein A was used to capture the construct followed by co-injection of the analytes (GM-CSF followed by collagen). In this experiment antibodies GCE536 and

MGDUCA (all described in Examples 1 and 2) and antibody TT107 (specific for tetanus toxoid (TT); VH: SEQ ID NO: 73, VL: SEQ ID NO: 74, heavy chain constant region: SEQ ID NO: 3, light chain constant region: SEQ ID NO: 4) were used as controls. Briefly, Protein A (25 ,ug/ml) was stabilized in 10 mM acetate buffer, pH 4.5, and immobilized onto an ethyl(dimethylaminopropyl) carbocliimide/N-Hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS) pre-activatedProteOnsensor chip (Bio-Rad) through amine coupling; unreacted groups were blocked by injection of 1 M ethanolamine HCI. HEPES buffered saline (HBS) (l OmMHEPES, pH7.4, 150mM NaCI, 3mM EDTA, 0.005% surfactant Tween-20) was used as a running buffer. All injections were made at a flowrate of 100 μΙ/min. Monoclonal antibodies were diluted in HBS to 10nM and injected for 240 s onto the Protein A-coated chip for capturing, followed by co-injection of GM-CSF collagen (50 nM) immediately followed by collagen (50 nM) for total 1 10 s. One channel of the chip was injected with HBS and used as reference for the analysis. Each binding interaction of the monoclonal antibodies to GM-CSF and collagen was assessed using a ProteONXPR36 instrument (Bio-Rad) and the data were processed with ProteOn Manager software.

Results are shown in Figure 5. Construct C4 and GCE536 bind to GM-CSF. However, only C4 is then recognized by collagen. Collagen-specific MGDUCA antibody binds to collagen only. Control antibody TT107 is a TT (tetanus toxoid)-specific monoclonal antibody, which does not show any specific binding signal in this SPR experiment. In summary those results show that constructs containing a (additional) functional domain, such as an Ig-like domain, in the elbow region can simultaneously bind to (i) the binding partner of the elbow binding site and (ii) the antigen recognized by the variable domains of the scaffold antibody.

Example 4: Ig-like domains can be inserted together with flanking linkers in the elbow region of antibodies resulting in functional antibodies

The antibody constructs C5b and C6b contain the same domain (either PD1 or SLAM) inserted in the elbow in C5 and C6 constructs, respectively, with two additional 15-mer amino acid linkers inserted between JH and the domain, and between the domain and CH1. The constructs were tested for binding to recombinant human GM-CSF, an anti-PD1 and an anti-

SLAM antibody by ELISA. Briefly, total IgGs were quantified using 96-well MaxiSorp plates (Nunc) coated with goat anti-human IgG (SouthernBiotech, 2040-01 ) using Certified Reference Material 470 (ERMs-DA470, Sigma-Aldrich) as a standard. To test specific bindi ng of antibody constructs, ELISA plates were coated withl μξ ml"1 of recombi nant human GM-CSF (Gentaur), 2 μg ml"1 of an anti-PDI or an anti-SLAM antibody (R&D Systems, AF1086 and AF1 64). Plates were blocked with 1 % bovine serum albumin (BSA) and incubated with titrated antibodies, followed by AP-conjugated goat anti-human IgG, Fey fragment specific Gackson Immuno Research, 1 09-056-098). Plates were then washed, substrate (p-NPP, Sigma) was added and plates were read at 405 nm.

Results of the different binding studies are shown in Figure 6. Insertion of PD1 or SLAM Ig-like domai ns with flanki ng linkers into the elbow region of an anti-GM-CSF antibody did not affect binding to GM-CSF, indicating that this site is permissive for i nsertions also of different domai ns with flanking linkers without affecting the original antibody specificity. In addition, the presence of the li nkers did not alter the Ig-like domain since both C5 and C5b were equal ly recognized by an anti-PD1 antibody. Similar results were obtained for C6 and C6b recognized by an anti-SLAM antibody. Taken together, these findi ngs suggest that domains can be inserted in the elbow with additional linkers that distance such domains from the main antibody scaffold. Without being bound to any theory, it is assumed that the linkers can provide enhanced flexibi lity of the i nsert.

Example 5: Design of an antibody containing a molecular tag inserted in the elbow region

To investigate the possibility to use a tag i nserted into the elbow region of an antibody for antibody detection, one construct (named "C9") was designed, in which a twin Strep-tag was inserted into the elbow region of the heavy chai n of scaffold antibody Cl b (cf. Example 1 ). The light chain of the construct was not modified in comparison to the scaffold antibody. The construct was finally expressed as monoclonal antibody (heavy and light chai ns).

Construct "C9" is shown schematically in Figure 2. In construct "C9" a twi n Strep-tag ("2XST"; SEQ ID NO: 20) was inserted i nto the elbow region of a recombinant monospecific antibody

"Cl b" (see above). Construct "C9" (complete heavy chain: SEQ ID NO: 65, complete light chain: SEQ ID NO: 63) is formed by (in this order from N- to C-terminus): the expression product of a V (variable) gene segment of a heavy chain variable domain ("VH3-20"); the expression product of a D (diversity) gene segment of a heavy chain variable domain ("D"); the expression product of a J (Joining) gene segment element of a heavy chain variable domain ("JH3"); the expression product of a twin Strep-tag ("2XST"); the expression product of a C (constant) gene segment of a heavy cham constant region (IgGI isotype); and on a separate chain: the expression product of a V (variable) gene segment of a light chain variable domain and the expression product of a J (Joining) gene segment element of a light chain variable domain; the expression product of a C (constant) gene segment of a light chain kappa constant region.

Example 6: Molecular tags can be inserted in the elbow region of antibodies resulting in functional antibodies

The antibody construct "C9" described in Example 5 was produced recombinantly by transient transfection. To this end, antibody heavy and light chains were cloned into human IgGI and Igi expression vectors and expressed by transient transfection of Expi293F Cells (ThermoFisher Scientific) using polyethylenimine (PEI). Cell lines were routinely tested for mycoplasma contamination.

Next, the antibody construct C9 and control antibody C1 b (see Example 1 ) were tested for recognition by Strep-tag-specific Strep-tactin molecule by ELISA. Briefly, total IgGs were quantified using 96-well MaxiSorp plates (Nunc) coated with goat anti-human IgG (SouthernBiotech, 2040-01 ) using Certified Reference Material 470 (ERMs-DA470, Sigma-Aldrich) as a standard. To test specific recognition of the antibody construct, ELISA plates were coated with 10 μ¾ ml"1 of an anti-human IgG antibody (SouthernBiotech), plates were blocked with 1 % bovine serum albumin (BSA) and incubated with titrated antibodies, followed by AP-conjugated Strep-Tactin (Iba Lifesciences). Plates were then washed, substrate (p-NPP, Sigma) was added and plates were read at 405 nm.

Results are shown i n Figure 7. Antibody construct "C9" carrying a Strep-tag was efficiently and specifical ly recognized by Strep-tag-specific Strep-tactin, whereas the control "Cl b" antibody that does not carry Strep-tag was not recognized. These results suggest that the elbow is permissive for insertion of molecular tags that allow recognition and tracing of an antibody.

Example 7: Design of antibodies containing a single-chain-antibody variable domain

(VHH) or a single-chain variable fragment (ScFv) inserted in the elbow region

To investigate whether insertion of (additional) functional domains other than Ig-l i ke domains into the elbow region results i n functional multispecific antibodies, four new constructs were designed (C9 - CI 2). In the four new constructs C9 - C12, a single-chai n-antibody variable domain (VHH) or a single-chain variable fragment (ScFv), specific for tetanus toxoid (TT) or for the fusion (F) protein of the respi ratory syncytial virus (RSV), respectively, were i nserted into the elbow region of an antibody specific for influenza H I hemaggluti ni n (FI 1 74; Pappas, L, et al. Rapid development of broadly influenza neutralizing antibodies through redundant mutations. Nature 51 6, 41 8-422 (2014); VH : SEQ ID NO: 1 0, VL: SEQ ID NO: 1 1 , heavy chai n constant region: SEQ ID NO: 3, l ight kappa chain constant region: SEQ ID NO: 1 2/SEQ ID NO: 4). The light chain of the constructs was not modified in comparison to the scaffold antibody FI 1 74. All construct were finally expressed as monoclonal antibodies (heavy and light chains).

The fol lowing variants were produced and are shown schematically in Figure 8:

1 . In construct "C1 0" an anti-TT VHH ("T3-VHH"; Rossotti, M.A., et al. I ncreasi ng the potency of neutralizing si ngle-domai n antibodies by functional ization with a CD1 1 b/CD1 8 bi nding domai n. mAbs 7, 820-828 (201 5); SEQ ID NO: 1 6) was inserted into the elbow region of FI 1 74. Construct "C1 0" (complete heavy chai n: SEQ ID NO: 66, complete light chain: SEQ I D NO: 67) is formed by (i n this order from N- to C-terminus): the expression product of a V (variable) gene segment of a heavy chain variable domai n of F11 74 ("VH"); the expression product of a D (diversity) gene

segment of a heavy chain variable domain of F1174 ("D"); the expression product of a J (joining) gene segment element of a heavy chain variable domain of FI174 ("jH"); the expression product of an anti-TTVHH ("T3-VHH"; Rossotti, M.A., etal. Increasing the potency of neutralizing single-domain antibodies by functionalization with a CD11 b/CD18 binding domain. tnAbs 7, 820-828 (2015)); the expression product of a C (constant) gene segment of a heavy chain constant region (IgGI isotype); and on a separate chain: the expression product of a V (variable) gene segment of a light chain variable domain of FI174 and the expression product of a J (Joining) gene segment element of a light chain variable domain of FI174; the expression product of a C (constant) gene segment of a light chain constant region.

In construct "C11 " an anti-TT ScFv ("TT39.7-ScFv"; SEQ ID NO: 17) was inserted into the elbow region of FIT 74. Construct "C 11" (complete heavy chain: SEQ ID NO: 68, complete light chain: SEQ ID NO: 67) is formed by (in this order from N- to C-terminus): the expression product of a V (variable) gene segment of a heavy chain variable domain of FI174 ("VH"); the expression product of a D (diversity) gene segment of a heavy chain variable domain of FI174 ("D"); the expression product of a J (Joining) gene segment element of a heavy chain variable domain of FI174 ("JH"); the expression product of an anti-TT ScFv ("TT39.7-ScFv"); the expression product of a C (constant) gene segment of a heavy chain constant region (IgG I isotype); and on a separate chain: the expression product of a V (variable) gene segment of a light chain variable domain of FI174 and the expression product of a J (Joining) gene segment element of a light chain variable domain of FI174; the expression product of a C (constant) gene segment of a light chain constant region.

In construct "CI 2" an anti-RSV F protein VHH ("F4-VHH"; Rossey, I., et al. Potent single-domain antibodies that arrest respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein in its prefusion state. Nature communications 8, 14158 (2017); SEQ ID NO: 18) was inserted into the elbow region of FI174. Construct "C12" (complete heavy chain: SEQ ID NO: 69, complete light chain: SEQ ID NO: 67) is formed by (in this order from N-to C-terminus): the expression product of a V (variable) gene segment of a heavy chain variable domain of FI174 ("VH"); the expression product of a D (diversity) gene

segment of a heavy chai n variable domai n of FI 1 74 ("D"); the expression product of a J (Joining) gene segment element of a heavy chain variable domain of FI 1 74 ("JH"); the expression product of an anti-RSV F protei n VH H ("F4-VHH"; Rossey, I., et al . Potent single-domain antibodies that arrest respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein i n its prefusion state. Nature communications 8, 1 41 58 (201 7)); the expression product of a C (constant) gene segment of a heavy chain constant region (IgGI isotype); and on a separate chain: the expression product of a V (variable) gene segment of a light chai n variable domai n of FI1 74 and the expression product of a J (Joi ning) gene segment element of a light chain variable domain of Fil 74; the expression product of a C (constant) gene segment of a light chain constant region.

In construct "C1 3" an anti-RSV F protein ScFv (" PE8-ScFv"; Corti, D., et al. Cross-neutralization of four paramyxoviruses by a human monoclonal antibody. Nature 501 , 439-443 (201 3); SEQ ID NO: 1 9) was inserted into the elbow region of FI 1 74. Construct "CI 3" (complete heavy chain: SEQ I D NO: 70, complete light chai n: SEQ ID NO: 67) is formed by (in this order from N- to C-terminus): the expression product of a V (variable) gene segment of a heavy chain variable domain of FI 1 74 ("VH"); the expression product of a D (diversity) gene segment of a heavy chain variable domain of FIT 74 ("D"); the expression product of a J (Joining) gene segment element of a heavy chai n variable domain of F11 74 ("JH"); the expression product of an anti-RSV F protei n ScFv ("MPE8-ScFv"; Corti, D., et al. Cross-neutralization of four paramyxoviruses by a human monoclonal antibody. Nature 501 , 439-443 (201 3)); the expression product of a C (constant) gene segment of a heavy chain constant region (lgG1 isotype); and on a separate chain: the expression product of a V (variable) gene segment of a light chai n variable domain of F11 74 and the expression product of a J (Joi ni ng) gene segment element of a light chai n variable domai n of FI T 74; the expression product of a C (constant) gene segment of a light chai n constant region.

Example 8: VHH and ScFv can be inserted in the elbow region resulting in functional bispecific antibodies

The four new antibody constructs described in Example 4 were produced recombinantly by transient transfection. To this end, antibody heavy and light chains were cloned into human IgGI , Igi and Ig expression vectors and expressed by transient transfection of Expi293F Cells (ThermoFisher Scientific) using polyethylenimine (PEl). The constructs were tested for dual binding to (i) H1 and (ii) either TT or RSV F protein by surface plasmon resonance (SPR).

In a first experiment, constructs CI 0 and C1 1 (with TT-specific VHH or scFv in elbow region of FI1 74) were analyzed. To this end, protein A was used to capture the constructs followed by co-injection of the analytes (HI as first analyte immediately followed by TT). As controls TT-specific antibody TT107 and the H1 -specific antibody FI1 74 were used. Briefly, protein A (25 ng/ml) was stabilized in 10 mM acetate buffer, pH 4.5, and immobilized onto an ethyl(dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide/N-Hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS) pre-activatedProteOnsensor chip (Bio-Rad) through amine coupling; unreacted groups were blocked by injection of 1 M ethanolamine HCI. HEPES buffered saline (HBS) (l OmMHEPES, pH7.4, 150mM NaCI, 3mM EDTA, 0.005% surfactant Tween-20) was used as a running buffer. All injections were made at a flowrate of 100 μΙ/min. Monoclonal antibodies were diluted in HBS to 10 nM and injected for 240 s onto the Protein A-coated chip for capturing, followed by co-injection of HI California hemagglutinin (50 nM) immediately followed by tetanus toxoid (50 nM) for total 1 10 s. One channel of the chip was injected with HBS and used as reference for the analysis. Each binding interaction of the monoclonal antibodies to HI and TT was assessed using a ProteONXPR36 instrument (Bio-Rad) and the data were processed with ProteOn Manager software. Results are shown in Figure 9. Constructs C10 and C1 1 (carrying a TT- specific domain (VHH or ScFv)) bound both H I and TT, while control antibodies F11 74 and TT107 recognize only HI or only TT, respectively.

In a second experiment, constructs CI 2 and CI 3 (with RSV F-protein-specific VHH or scFv in elbow region of Fil 74) were analyzed. To this end, protein A was used to capture the constructs followed by co-injection of the analytes (HI as first analyte immediately followed by RSV F protein). As controls RSV F protein-specific antibody MPE8 and the H1 -specific antibody FI 1 74 were used. Briefly, protein A (25 ng/ml) was stabilized in 10 mM acetate buffer, pH 4.5, and immobilized onto an ethyl(di methylaminopropyl) carbodiimide/N-Hydroxysucci nimide (EDC/NHS) pre-activatedProteOnsensor chip (Bio-Rad) through ami ne coupl ing; unreacted groups were blocked by injection of 1 M ethanolamine HCI. HEPES buffered sali ne (H BS) (l OmMHEPES, pH7.4, 1 50mM NaCI, 3mM EDTA, 0.005% surfactant Tween-20) was used as a running buffer. Al l injections were made at a flowrate of 1 00 μΙ/mi n. Monoclonal antibodies were diluted in HBS to 1 0 nM and i njected for 240 s onto the Protei n A-coated chip for capturing, followed by co-i njection of H I California hemagglutinin (50 nM) immediately fol lowed by RSV F protein (50 nM) for total 1 1 0 s. One channel of the chip was i njected with H BS and used as reference for the analysis. Each binding interaction of the monoclonal antibodies to H I and RSV F protein was assessed using a ProteONXPR36 instrument (Bio-Rad) and the data were processed with ProteOn Manager software. Results are shown in Figure 1 0. Constructs CI 2 and C1 3 (carrying a RSV F protein-specific domai n (VHH or ScFv)) bound both H I and RSV F protei n, while control antibodies F11 74 and MPE8 recognize only H I or only RSV F protein, respectively.

In summary, the data show that i nsertion of VHH or ScFv domains into the elbow region of FI T 74 did not affect bi nding to H1 hemagg!utin, indicating that this site is permissive for insertions of different domains without affecti ng the original antibody specificity, as already shown above for the Ig-like domains. Dual simultaneous recognition of the two different specific antigens by the VDJ region of the antibody scaffold and the VHH or ScFv domains inserted i n the elbow indicates that it is possible to generate functional and bispecific antibodies carryi ng different types of inserts in the elbow.

TABLE OF SEQUENCES AND SEQ ID NUMBERS (SEQUENCE LISTING):

SEQ ID NO Sequence Remarks

SEQ ID NO: 1 QLQLVQSGTEVKKPGASVKVSCKSSGYVFTSYYLV GCE536 VH aa

WVRQAPGQGLEWMATISPGDVNTSYEQRFQCRV TVTTDASTNTVDMELRSLRSEDTAVYYCARGPRSKP PYLYFALDVWGQGTAVTVSS

SEQ ID NO: 2 EIVLTQSPGTLSLSPGETAILSCRASQSVSSSLLAWYQ GCE536 VL aa

QKPGQAPRLLIYGASNRATGIRGRFSGSGSGTDFTL TISRLEPEDFVLYYCQHYGSRVTFGQGTKLEiK

SEQ ID NO: 3 ASTKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGGTAALGCLVKDYFPEPV Human HC IgGI

TVSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSVVTVPS constant region aa

SSLGTQTYICNVNH PSNT VDKRVEP SCDKTHT

CPPCPAPELLGGPSVFLFPP P DTLMISRTPEVTCVV

VDVSHEDPEVKFNWYVDGVEVHNAKTKPREEQYN

STYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLNGKEY CKVSNKALPAPIE

KTISKAKGQPREPQVYTLPPSREEMTKNQVSLTCLVK

GFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNYKTTPPVLDSDGSFFL

YSKLTVDKSRWQQGNVFSCSVMHEALHNHYTQ S

LSLSPGK

SEQ ID NO: 4 RTVAAPSVFIFPPSDEQLKSGTASVVCLLNNFYPREA Human LC kappa

VQWKVDNALQSGNSQESVTEQDSKDSTYSLSSTL constant region aa TLSKADYEKHKVYACEVTHQGLSSPVTKSFNRGEC

SEQ ID NO: 5 QVQLAQYGGGAVQPGGSLRLSCVVSGFRFSLYGI C1 VH aa

HWVRQAPGKGLEWLSLIENHGRKIYYAESVKGRIT VSRDNFKNVAYLEMYRLSTEDTAIYYCARNDGLGR YTDAGGTHRTAYLDYWGRGTLVTVSS

SEQ ID NO: 6 SYEVTQPPSVSVSPGQAARITCSGDELPRTDISWYQ C1 VL aa

QTSGQAPVLVIYEGT RPSGIPERFSGSVSGAMATL MISEAQLEDEGDYYCFSIDTSGNHGGAFGTGT LT VL

SEQ ID NO: 7 GQPKAAPSVTLFPPSSEELQANKATLVCLISDFYPGA Human LC lambda

VTVAW ADSSPV AGVETTTPSKQSNN YAASSYL constant region aa SLTPEQWKSHRSYSCQVTHEGSTVE TVAPTECS

SEQ ID NO: 8 DVQLVESGGGVVRPGVSLRLSCVASGFSF NYDM C1 b VH aa

AWVRQVPG GLEWVCGINWNGSLRGYADSVKG RFLISRDHAKDSLYLQMSRLRAEDTALYYCARDPGY NTGRDHPYDLWGQGTMVTVSS

SEQ ID NO: 9 DIQMTQSPSTLSASVGDRVTITCRASQSISSWLAWY Cl b VL aa

QQKPGKAPKLLIY ASSLGSGVPSRFSGSGSGTQFT

LTISSLQPDDFATYYCQQYNNYPYTFGQGTKLEI

SEQ ID NO: 10 QVQLVQSGAEVRKPGSSVKVSCKTSGGIIRKYALS FI 1 74 VH aa WVRQAPGQGLEWMGGIIAIFGTTNYAQKFQGRV TINADESTSTVYLELSSLTSEDTAIYYCAGSATYYESRF DYWGQGTLVTVSS

SEQ ID NO: 1 1 EIVLTQSPGTLSLSPGARATLSCRASQSVSSSSLAWY FI 1 74 VL aa

QQKPGQAPRLLIYDASSRATGIPDRFSGSGSGTDFT

LTISRLEPEDFAVYYCHQYGDSRKTFGQGTKVEI

SEQ ID NO: 12 EDLPRPSISAEPGTVIPLGSHVTFVCRGPVGVQTFRL unmutatecl LAIR1

ERESRSTYNDTEDVSQASPSESEARFRIDSVSEGNAG fragment aa PYRCIYYKPPKWSEQSDYLELLVK

SEQ ID NO: 1 3 EDLPRPSISAEPGTVIPLGSHVTFVCRGPVGVQTFRL mutated LAIR1

ERERNYLYSDTEDVSQTSPSESEARFRIDSVNAGNA fragment aa GLFRCIYYKSRKWSEQSDYLELVVK

SEQ ID NO: 14 DSPDRPWNPPTFSPALLVVTEGDNATFTCSFSNTSE PD-1 fragment aa

SFVLNWYR SPSNQTDKLAAFPEDRSQPGQDCRF RVTQLPNGRDFHMSVVRARRNDSGTYLCGAISLAP KAQIKESLRAELRVT

SEQ ID NO: 15 EQVSTPEIKVLNKTQENGTCTLILGCTVEKGDHVAY SLAM fragment aa

SWSE AGTHPLNPANSSHLLSLTLGPQHADNIYICT VSNP1SNNSQTFSPWPGCRTDPS

SEQ ID NO: 1 6 MAQVQLVESGGGLVQAGGSLTLSCAASGSTSRSY T3-VHH aa

ALGWFRQAPG EREFVAHVGQTAEFAQGRFTISR DFAKNTVSLQMNDLKSDDTAIYYCVASNRGWSPS RVSYWGQGTQVTVSS

SEQ ID NO: 17 QITLKESGPTLVKPTQTLTLTCTFSGFSLSTSRVGVG TT39.7-scFv aa

WIRQPPGKALEWLSLIYWDDEKHYSPSL NRVTISK

DSS NQVVLTLTD DPVDTGTYYCAHRGVDTSG

WGFDYWGQGALVTVSSGGGGSGGGGSGGGGS

QSALTQPASVSGSPGQSITISCSGAGSDVGGHNFV

SWYQQYPGKAPKLMIYDVKNRPSGVSYRFSGSKSG

YTASLTISGLQAEDEATYFCSSYSSSSTLIIFGGGTRLT

VL

SEQ ID NO: 18 QVQLQESGGGLVQPGGSLRLSCAASGFTLDYYYIG F4-VHH aa

WFRQAPGKEREAVSCISGSSGSTYYPDSVKGRFTISR DNAKNTVYLQMNSLKPEDTAVYYCATIRSSSWGG CVHYGMDYWG GTQVTVSS

SEQ ID NO: 19 EVQLVESGGGLVKPGGSLRLSCAASGFTFSSYSMN MPE8-scFv aa

WVRQAPGKGLEWVSSISASSSYSDYADSA GRFTIS

RDNA TSLFLQMNSLRAEDTAIYFCARARATGYSSI

TPYFDIWGQGTLVTVSSGGGGSGGGGSGGGGSQ

SVVTQPPSVSGAPGQRVTISCTGSSSNIGAGYDVH

WYQQLPGTAP LLIYDNNNRPSGVPDRFSASKSGT

SASLAITGLQAEDEADYYCQSYDRNLSGVFGTGTK

VTVL

SEQ ID NO: 20 SAWSHPQFEKGGGSGGGSGGSAWSHPQFEK twin StrepTag aa SEQ ID NO: 21 GLNDIFEAQKIEWHE AviTag

SEQ !D NO: 22 KRRVVKKNFIAVSAANRFKKISSSGAL Calmodulin-tag

SEQ ID NO: 23 EEEEEE polyglutamate tag

SEQ !D NO: 24 GAPVPYPDPLEPR E-tag

SEQ ID NO: 25 DYKDDDDK FLAG-tag

SEQ ID NO: 26 YPYDVPDYA HA-tag

SEQ ID NO: 27 HHHHHH His-tag

SEQ ID NO: 28 EQKLISEEDL Myc-tag

SEQ !D NO: 29 TKENPRSNQEESYDDNES N E-tag

SEQ ID NO: 30 KETAAAKFERQHMDS S-tag

SEQ ID NO: 31 MDEKTTGWRGGHVVEGLAGELEQLRARLEHHPQ SBP-tag

GOREP

SEQ ID NO: 32 SLAELLNAGLGGS Softag 1

SEQ ID NO: 33 TQDPSRVG Softag 3

SEQ ID NO: 34 WSHPQFEK Strep-tag

SEQ ID NO: 35 CCPGCC TC tag

SEQ ID NO: 36 GKPIPNPLLGLDST V5 tag

SEQ ID NO: 37 YTDIEMNRLGK VSV-tag

SEQ ID NO: 38 DLYDDDDK X press tag

SEQ ID NO: 39 TDKDMTITFTNKKDAE Isopeptag

SEQ ID NO: 40 AHIVMVDAYKPTK SpyTag

SEQ ID NO: 41 KLGDIEFIKVNK SnoopTag

SEQ ID NO: 42 EVHTNQDPLD Tyl tag

SEQ ID NO: 43 GGGGS linker

SEQ ID NO: 44 GGGGSGGGGS linker

SEQ ID NO: 45 GGGGSGGGGSGGGGS linker

SEQ ID NO: 46 GGGGSGGGGSGGGGSGGGGS linker

SEQ ID NO: 47 GGGGSGGGGSGGGGSGGGGSGGGGS linker

SEQ ID NO: 48 GGGGSGGGGSGGGGSGGGGSGGGGSGGGGS linker

SEQ ID NO: 49 FVGPPSPFLTSLHLS linker

SEQ ID NO: 50 G AASEAPGQG LAEPV linker

SEQ ID NO: 51 QGFTSVMAPFLPLLT linker

SEQ ID NO: 52 GEYTGGSLCATLMSM linker

U 4

SEQ ID NO: 53 QVQLAQYGGGAVQPGGSLRLSCVVSGFRFSLYGI C2 heavy chain aa

HWVRQAPGKGLEWLSLIENHGRKIYYAESV GRITV

SRDNF NVAYLEMYRLSTEDTAIYYCARNDGLGRY

TDAGGTHRTAYLDYWGRGTLVTVSSEDLPRPSISAE

PGTVIPLGSHVTFVCRGPVGVQTFRLERERNYLYSD

TEDVSQTSPSESEARFRIDSVNAGNAGLFRCIYYKSR

KWSEQSDYLELVVKASTKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGGTA

ALGCLVKDYFPEPVTVSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQ

SSGLYSLSSVVTVPSSSLGTQTYICNVNHKPSNTKVD

KRVEPKSCD THTCPPCPAPELLGGPSVFLFPP PKD

TLMISRTPEVTCVVVDVSHEDPEVKFNWYVDGVEV

HNA TKPREEQYNSTYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLNGKE

YKCKVSNKALPAPIE TIS AKGQPREPQVYTLPPSRE

EMTKNQVSLTCLVKGFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNY

KTTPPVLDSDGSFFLYS LTVDKSRWQQGNVFSCS

VMHEALHNHYTQ SLSLSPGK

SEQ ID NO: 54 SYEVTQPPSVSVSPGQAARITCSGDELPRTDISWYQ C2/C3 light chain aa

QTSGQAPVLVIYEGTKRPSGIPERFSGSVSGAMATL MISEAQLEDEGDYYCFSIDTSGNHGGAFGTGTKLT VLGQPKAAPSVTLFPPSSEELQANKATLVCLISDFYP GAVTVAWKADSSPVKAGVETTTPS QSNNKYAAS SYLSLTPEQWKSHRSYSCQVTHEGSTVEKTVAPTEC S

SEQ ID NO: 55 QVQLAQYGGGAVQPGGSLRLSCVVSGFRFSLYGI C3 heavy chain aa

HWVRQAPGKGLEWLSLIENHGRKIYYAESV GRIT

VSRDNFKNVAYLEMYRLSTEDTAIYYCARNDGLGR

YTDAGGTHRTAYLDYWGRGTLVTVSSEDLPRPSIS

AEPGTVIPLGSHVTFVCRGPVGVQTFRLERESRSTY

NDTEDVSQASPSESEARFRIDSVSEGNAGPYRCIYY

KPP WSEQSDYLELLV ASTKGPSVFPLAPSS STSG

GTAALGCLVKDYFPEPVTVSWNSGALTSGVHTFPA

VLQSSGLYSLSSVVTVPSSSLGTQTYICNVNH PSN

T VD RVEPKSCDKTHTCPPCPAPELLGGPSVFLFP

PKPKDTLMISRTPEVTCVVVDVSHEDPEVKFNWYV

DGVEVHNAKTKPREEQYNSTYRWSVLTVLHQD

WLNGKEY CKVSNKALPAPIEKTIS AKGQPREPQ

VYTLPPSREEMT NQVSLTCLVKGFYPSDIAVEWES

NGQPENNYKTTPPVLDSDGSFFLYSKLTVDKSRW

QQGNVFSCSVMHEALHNHYTQKSLSLSPGK

SEQ ID NO: 56 QLQLVQSGTEV KPGASV VSC SSGYVFTSYYLV C4 heavy chain aa

WVRQAPGQGLEWMATISPGDVNTSYEQRFQGR

VTVTTDASTNTVDMELRSLRSEDTAVYYCARGPRS PPYLYFALDVWGQGTAVTVSSEDLPRPSISAEPGT

VIPLGSHVTFVCRGPVGVQTFRLERESRSTYNDTED

VSQASPSESEARFRIDSVSEGNAGPYRCIYYKPPKW

SEQSDYLELLV AST GPSVFPLAPSS STSGGTAAL

GCLVKDYFPEPVTVSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSS

GLYSLSSVVTVPSSSLGTQTY1CNVNH PSNT VD

RVEPKSCDKTHTCPPCPAPELLGGPSVFLFPPKPKD

TLMISRTPEVTCVVVDVSHEDPEVKFNWYVDGVE

VHNA T PREEQYNSTYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLNG

KEYKCKVSN ALPAPIEKTISKAKGQPREPQVYTLPP

SREEMTKNQVSLTCLV GFYPSD!AVEWESNGQPE

NNYKTTPPVLDSDGSFFLYS LTVDKSRWQQGNV

FSCSV HEALHNHYTO SLSLSPGK

SEQ ID NO: 57 EIVLTQSPGTLSLSPGETAILSCRASQSVSSSLLAWY C4/C5/C6 light chain

QQKPGQAPRLLIYGASNRATGIRGRFSGSGSGTDF aa

TLT1SRLEPEDFVLYYCQHYGSRVTFGQGTKLEI RT

VAAPSVFIFPPSDEQL SGTASVVCLLNNFYPREAK

VQW VDNALQSGNSQESVTEQDS DSTYSLSSTL

TLSKADYE H VYACEVTHQGLSSPVTKSFNRGEC

SEQ ID NO: 58 QLQLVQSGTEVK PGASV VSCKSSGYVFTSYYLV C5 heavy chain aa

WVRQAPGQGLEWMATISPGDVNTSYEQRFQGR

VTVTTDASTNTVDMELRSLRSEDTAVYYCARGPRS PPYLYFALDVWGQGTAVTVSSDSPDRPWNPPTF

SPALLVVTEGDNATFTCSFSNTSESFVLNWYRMSPS

NQTDKLAAFPEDRSQPGQDCRFRVTQLPNGRDF

HMSVVRARRNDSGTYLCGAISLAPKAQIKESLRAEL

RVTASTKGPSVFPLAPSS STSGGTAALGCLVKDYF

PEPVTVSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSVV

TVPSSSLGTQTY1CNVNH PSNTKVD RVEP SCD

THTCPPCPAPELLGGPSVFLFPPKP DTLM1SRTPE

VTCVVVDVSHEDPEV FNWYVDGVEVHNA T P

REEQYNSTYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLNGKEY CKVSN ALPAPIEKTISKAKGQPREPQVYTLPPSREEMT NQ

VSLTCLV GFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNYKTTPPV

LDSDGSFFLYSKLTVDKSRWQQGNVFSCSVMHEA

LHNHYTQKSLSLSPGK

SEQ ID NO: 59 QLQLVQSGTEVKKPGASVKVSCKSSGYVFTSYYLV C5b heavy chain aa

WVRQAPGQGLEWMATISPGDVNTSYEQRFQGRV

TVTTDASTNTVDMELRSLRSEDTAVYYCARGPRS P

PYLYFALDVWGQGTAVTVSSFVGPPSPFLTSLHLSD

SPDRPWNPPTFSPALLVVTEGDNATFTCSFSNTSESF

VLNWYRMSPSNQTDKLAAFPEDRSQPGQDCRFRV

TQLPNGRDFHMSVVRARRNDSGTYLCGAISLAP A

QI ESLRAELRVTGAASEAPGQGLAEPVASTKGPSVF

PLAPSSKSTSGGTAALGCLVKDYFPEPVTVSWNSGA

LTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSVVTVPSSSLGTQTYIC

NVNHKPSNTKVDKRVEPKSCDKTHTCPPCPAPELL

GGPSVFLFPP PKDTLMISRTPEVTCVVVDVSHEDPE

V FNWYVDGVEVHNA T PREEQYNSTYRVVSVLT

VLHQDWLNG EY CKVSN ALPAPIE TIS A GQ

PREPQVYTLPPSREE T NQVSLTCLVKGFYPSDIAV

EWESNGQPENNY TTPPVLDSDGSFFLYS LTVDKS

RWQQGNVFSCSVMHEALHNHYTQ SLSLSPGK

SEQ ID NO: 60 QLQLVQSGTEVK PGASVKVSCKSSGYVFTSYYLV C6 heavy chain aa

WVRQAPGQGLEWMATISPGDVNTSYEQRFQGRV

TVTTDASTNTVDMELRSLRSEDTAVYYCARGPRS P

PYLYFALDVWGQGTAVTVSSFVGPPSPFLTSLHLSD

SPDRPWNPPTFSPALLVVTEGDNATFTCSFSNTSESF

VLNWYR SPSNQTD LAAFPEDRSQPGQDCRFRV

TQLPNGRDFHMSVVRARRNDSGTYLCGAISLAPKA

QIKESLRAELRVTGAASEAPGQGLAEPVAST GPSVF

PLAPSSKSTSGGTAALGCLVKDYFPEPVTVSWNSGA

LTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSVVTVPSSSLGTQTY1C

NVNHKPSNTKVDKRVEPKSCDKTHTCPPCPAPELL

GGPSVFLFPPKP DTLMISRTPEVTCVVVDVSHEDPE

VKFNWYVDGVEVHNAKT PREEQYNSTYRVVSVLT

VLHQDWLNGKEYKCKVSN ALPAPIEKTISKA GQ

PREPQVYTLPPSREEMT NQVSLTCLV GFYPSDIAV

EWESNGQPENNY TTPPVLDSDGSFFLYSKLTVDKS

RWQQGNVFSCSVMHEALHNHYTQ SLSLSPG

SEQ ID NO: 61 QLQLVQSGTEVKKPGASVKVSCKSSGYVFTSYYLV C6b heavy chain aa

WVRQAPGQGLEWMAT!SPGDVNTSYEQRFQGR

VTVTTDASTNTVDMELRSLRSEDTAVYYCARGPRS

KPPYLYFALDVWGQGTAVTVSSQGFTSVMAPFLPL

LTEQVSTPEI VLN TQENGTCTLILGCTVE GDHV

AYSWSEKAGTHPLNPANSSHLLSLTLGPQHADNIY

ICTVSNPISNNSQTFSPWPGCRTDPSGEYTGGSLC

ATLMSMASTKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGGTAALGCLVK

DYFPEPVTVSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLS

SVVTVPSSSLGTQTYICNVNH PSNTKVDKRVEP S

CDKTHTCPPCPAPELLGGPSVFLFPP P DTLMISRT

PEVTCVVVDVSHEDPEV FNWYVDGVEVHNA T

KPREEQYNSTYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLNGKEYKC V

SNKALPAPIEKTISKA GQPREPQVYTLPPSREEMTK

NQVSLTCLV GFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNY TTP

PVLDSDGSFFLYS LTVDKSRWQQGNVFSCSVMH

EALHNHYTQKSLSLSPGK

SEQ ID NO: 62 DVQLVESGGGVVRPGVSLRLSCVASGFSF NYD C7 heavy chain aa

AWVRQVPGKGLEWVCGINWNGSLRGYADSVKG

RFLISRDHAKDSLYLQMSRLRAEDTALYYCARDPG

YNTGRDHPYDLWGQGTMVTVSSDSPDRPWNPP

TFSPALLVVTEGDNATFTCSFSNTSESFVLNWYRMS

PSNQTDKLAAFPEDRSQPGQDCRFRVTQLPNGR

DFHMSVVRARRNDSGTYLCGAISLAP AQIKESLR

AELRVTASTKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGGTAALGCLVK

DYFPEPVTVSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLS

SVVTVPSSSLGTQTYICNVNHKPSNTKVDKRVEPKS

CDKTHTCPPCPAPELLGGPSVFLFPP P DTLMISRT

PEVTCVVVDVSHEDPEVKFNWYVDGVEVHNA T PREEQYNSTYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLNGKEY CKV

SN ALPAPIEKTISKA GQPREPQVYTLPPSREEMTK

NQVSLTCLV GFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNYKTTP

PVLDSDGSFFLYSKLTVDKSRWQQGNVFSCSVMH

EALHNHYTQKSLSLSPGK

SEQ ID NO: 63 DIQMTQSPSTLSASVGDRVTITCRASQSISSWLAW C7/C8/C9 light chain

YQQKPGKAPKLLIYKASSLGSGVPSRFSGSGSGTQF aa

TLTISSLQPDDFATYYCQQYNNYPYTFGQGTKLEIK

RTVAAPSVFIFPPSDEQLKSGTASVVCLLNNFYPREA

KVQWKVDNALQSGNSQESVTEQDSKDSTYSLSST

LTLSKADYEKHKVYACEVTHQGLSSPVTKSFNRGE

C

SEQ ID NO: 64 DVQLVESGGGVVRPGVSLRLSCVASGFSFKNYDMA C8 heavy chain aa

WVRQVPGKGLEWVCGINWNGSLRGYADSVKGRF

LISRDHAKDSLYLQMSRLRAEDTALYYCARDPGYNT

GRDHPYDLWGQGTMVTVSSEQVSTPEIKVLNKTQ

ENGTCTLILGCTVE GDHVAYSWSE AGTHPLNPA

NSSHLLSLTLGPQHADNIYICTVSNPISNNSQTFSPW

PGCRTDPSASTKGPSVFPLAPSS STSGGTAALGCLV

KDYFPEPVTVSWNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSL

SSVVTVPSSSLGTQTY1CNVNH PSNTKVDKRVEPK

SCDKTHTCPPCPAPELLGGPSVFLFPPKPKDTLMISR

TPEVTCVVVDVSHEDPEV FNWYVDGVEVHNAKT PREEQYNSTYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLNG EYKC VS

N ALPAPIEKTISKA GQPREPQVYTLPPSREEMTKN

QVSLTCLV GFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNY TTPPV

LDSDGSFFLYS LTVD SRWQQGNVFSCSVMHEAL

HNHYTQKSLSLSPGK

SEQ ID NO: 65 DVQLVESGGGVVRPGVSLRLSCVASGFSFKNYDM C9 heavy chain aa

AWVRQVPG GLEWVCGINWNGSLRGYADSVKG

RFLISRDHAKDSLYLQMSRLRAEDTALYYCARDPG

YNTGRDHPYDLWGQGTMVTVSSSAWSHPQFE

GGGSGGGSGGSAWSHPQFEKAST GPSVFPLAPS

SKSTSGGTAALGCLV DYFPEPVTVSWNSGALTSG

VHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSVVTVPSSSLGTQTY!CNV

NH PSNTKVDKRVEPKSCDKTHTCPPCPAPELLGG

PSVFLFPPKPKDTLMISRTPEVTCVVVDVSHEDPEVK

FNWYVDGVEVHNA TKPREEQYNSTYRVVSVLTV

LHQDWLNGKEYKC VSN ALPAPIEKTISKAKGQP

REPQVYTLPPSREEMTKNQVSLTCLV GFYPSD1AV

EWESNGQPENNYKTTPPVLDSDGSFFLYSKLTVDK

SRWQQGNVFSCSVMHEALHNHYTQKSLSLSPG

SEQ ID NO: 66 QVQLVQSGAEVR PGSSVKVSCKTSGGIIRKYALS C1 0 heavy chain aa

WVRQAPGQGLEWMGGIIAIFGTTNYAQKFQGRV

TINADESTSTVYLELSSLTSEDTA!YYCAGSATYYESR

FDYWGQGTLVTVSSMAQVQLVESGGGLVQAGG

SLTLSCAASGSTSRSYALGWFRQAPGKEREFVAHV

GQTAEFAQGRFTISRDFAKNTVSLQMNDL SDDT

AIYYCVASNRGWSPSRVSYWGQGTQVTVSSAST

GPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGGTAALGCLVKDYFPEPVTVS

WNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSVVTVPSSSL

GTQTYICNVNHKPSNTKVD RVEP SCD THTCP

PCPAPELLGGPSVFLFPPKP DTLMISRTPEVTCVVV

DVSHEDPEV FNWYVDGVEVHNAKTKPREEQYN

STYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLNGKEYKCKVSN ALPAPI

E TISKAKGQPREPQVYTLPPSREEMT NQVSLTCL

V GFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNY TTPPVLDSDGS

FFLYS LTVDKSRWQQGNVFSCSVMHEALHNHYT

QKSLSLSPGK

SEQ ID NO: 67 EIVLTQSPGTLSLSPGARATLSCRASQSVSSSSLAWY C1 0/C1 1/C12/C13 light

QQKPGQAPRLLIYDASSRATGIPDRFSGSGSGTDF chain aa

TLTISRLEPEDFAVYYCHQYGDSRKTFGQGTKVEI

RTVAAPSVFIFPPSDEQL SGTASVVCLLNNFYPREA

KVQWKVDNALQSGNSQESVTEQDS DSTYSLSST

LTLS ADYE H VYACEVTHQGLSSPVTKSFNRGE

C

SEQ ID NO: 68 QVQLVQSCAEV KPGSSVKVSCKTSGGIIR YALS C1 1 heavy chain aa

WVRQAPGQGLEW GGIIA1FGTTNYAQ FQGRV

TiNADESTSTVYLELSSLTSEDTA!YYCAGSATYYESR

FDYWGQGTLVTVSSQITL ESGPTLVKPTQTLTLTC

TFSGFSLSTSRVGVGW1RQPPG ALEWLSLIYWDD

E HYSPSLKNRVTISKDSS NQVVLTLTDMDPVDT

GTYYCAHRGVDTSGWGFDYWGQGALVTVSSGG

GGSGGGGSGGGGSQSALTQPASVSGSPGQSITIS

CSGAGSDVGGHNFVSWYQQYPG AP LM1YDV

NRPSGVSYRFSGSKSGYTASLTISGLQAEDEATYF

CSSYSSSSTL1IFGGGTRLTVLASTKGPSVFPLAPSS S

TSGGTAALGCLV DYFPEPVTVSWNSGALTSGVH

TFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSVVTVPSSSLGTQTYICNVNH

KPSNTKVDKRVEPKSCDKTHTCPPCPAPELLGGPSV

FLFPPKP DTLMISRTPEVTCVWDVSHEDPEV FN

WYVDGVEVHNAKT PREEQYNSTYRWSVLTVLH

QDWLNG EY CKVSNKALPAPIEKTISKAKGQPRE

PQVYTLPPSREEMTKNQVSLTCLVKGFYPSDIAVE

WESNGQPENNYKTTPPVLDSDGSFFLYSKLTVD S

RWQQGNVFSCSVMHEALHNHYTQKSLSLSPGK

SEQ ID NO: 69 QVQLVQSGAEVRKPGSSVKVSCKTSGGIIRKYALSW C12 heavy chain aa

VRQAPGQGLEWMGGIIA1FGTTNYAQKFQGRVTI

NADESTSTVYLELSSLTSEDTAIYYCAGSATYYESRFD

YWGQGTLVTVSSQVQLQESGGGLVQPGGSLRLSC

AASGFTLDYYYIGWFRQAPGKEREAVSCISGSSGST

YYPDSV GRFTISRDNA NTVYLQMNSLKPEDTAV

YYCATIRSSSWGGCVHYGMDYWG GTQVTVSSAS

TKGPSVFPLAPSSKSTSGGTAALGCLVKDYFPEPVTV

SWNSGALTSGVHTFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSVVTVPSSSL

GTQTY1CNVNHKPSNTKVD RVEP SCDKTHTCPP

CPAPELLGGPSVFLFPPKPKDTLMISRTPEVTCWVD

VSHEDPEVKFNWYVDGVEVHNA TKPREEQYNST

YRVVSVLTVLHQDWLNG EY C VSN ALPAP1EKT

!SKA GQPREPQVYTLPPSREEMT NQVSLTCLVKG

FYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNYKTTPPVLDSDGSFFLY

SKLTVD SRWQQGNVFSCSVMHEALHNHYTQKSL

SLSPGK

SEQ ID NO: 70 QVQLVQSGAEVRKPGSSV VSC TSGGIIRKYALS C13 heavy chain aa

WVRQAPGQGLEWMGGI1AIFGTTNYAQ FQGRV

TINADESTSTVYLELSSLTSEDTAIYYCAGSATYYESR

FDYWGQGTLVTVSSEVQLVESGGGLVKPGGSLRL

SCAASGFTFSSYSMNWVRQAPGKGLEWVSSISASS

SYSDYADSA GRFTISRDNAKTSLFLQMNSLRAEDT

AIYFCARARATGYSSITPYFDIWGQGTLVTVSSGG

GGSGGGGSGGGGSQSVVTQPPSVSGAPGQRVTI

SCTGSSSNIGAGYDVHVVYQQLPGTAPKLL!YDNN

NRPSGVPDRFSASKSGTSASLAITGLQAEDEADYYC

QSYDRNLSGVFGTGT VTVLAST GPSVFPLAPSSK

STSGGTAALGCLVKDYFPEPVTVSWNSGALTSGV

HTFPAVLQSSGLYSLSSVVTVPSSSLGTQTYICNVN

H PSNTKVD RVEPKSCD THTCPPCPAPELLGGP

SVFLFPP PKDTL ISRTPEVTCVVVDVSHEDPEVKF

NWYVDGVEVHNAKT PREEQYNSTYRVVSVLTVL

HQDWLNG EY C VSN ALPAPIEKTISKA GQPR

EPQVYTLPPSREEMTKNQVSLTCLVKGFYPSDIAVE

WESNCQPENNY TTPPVLDSDGSFFLYS LTVDKS

RWQQGNVFSCSVMHEALHNHYTQ SLSLSPG

SEQ !D NO: 71 QVQLQESGPGLV PSGTLSLTCAVSGGSISSSNW

WSWVRQPPG GLEW1GEIYHSGSTNYNPSL SRV

TISVDKSKNQFSLKLSSVTAADTAVYYCARASPL S

QRDTEDLPRPSISAEPGTVIPLGSHVTFVCRGPVGV

MGDUCA VH aa

QTFRLERESRSTYNDTEDVSQASPSESEARFRIDSVS

EGNAGPYRC1YYKPPKWSEQSDYLELLV GEDVTW

ALPQSQLDPRACPQGELPISTD!YYMDVWGKGTT

VTVSS

SEQ ID NO: 72 AIRMTQSPSSFSASTGDRVTITCRASQGISSYLAWY MGDUCA VL aa

QQKPGKAPKLLIYAASTLQSGVPSRFSGSGSGTDFT

LTISCLQSEDFATYYCQQYYSYPPDFGQGTRLEIK

SEQ ID NO: 73 QVQLIQSGGGLV PGGSLRLSCAASGFTFSDYYMS πΐ 07 VH aa

WIRQVPGKGLEWISVISATTGYTDYADSV GRFTIS RDNA NSVFLQMNSLRVDDMAVYYCAREVLGTA WFDYWGQGTLVTISS

SEQ ID NO: 74 EIVLTQSPGTLSLSPGERATLSCRASQSVTSNYLAWY TT1 07 VL aa

QQKPGQAPRLLIYGVSRRATGIPDRFSGSCSGTDF

ALTISRLEPEDFAVYYCQQYRSSPRTFGPGTKVEF

SEQ ID NO: 75 EVQLVESGGGVVRPGESLRLSCAASGFIFNDFGMN MGJ1 VH

WVRQPPGRGLEWVAGI WRGGGVALVPSVTGRF

TISGDND NSLYLQMTSLRDEDTAVYYCARDSGFR

GGRGHAFDLWGQGTMVTISAEDLPRPSISAEPGTV

IPLGSHVTFVCRGPVGVHTFRLERESRSTYNETEDVS

QASPSESEARFRIDSVSEGNAGPYRCIYYKPPKWSEQ

SDYLELLVK

SEQ ID NO: 76 EVQVVESGGRVARPGGSLRLSCAASGFHLDDYDM MGJ2 VH

SWVRQPPG KGL E W VAGI N WN G G RTG YADSVKG

RLTISRDNAKKFLYLEMKSLRAEDTALYYCARDPGYS

SGRRNALDIWGQGTMVTVSLEDLPRPSISAEPGTVI

PLGSHVTFVCRGPVGVQTFRLERESRFTYNDTEDVS

QASPSESEARFRIDSVSEGNAGPYRCIYYKPPKWSEQ

SDYLELLVK

SEQ ID NO: 77 EVQLVQSGGGWRPGGFLRLSCAASGFTFENYAVA MGJ3 VH

WVRQVAGKGLEWLCVINWDAGTTNYADSVKGRF

TISRDIVKNSLVLEMSSLRAEDTALYYCARDPVYGSD

RGDVFDMWGQGTVVTVSSDLPRPSISAEPGTVIPL

GSHVTFVCRGPVGVQTFRLERESRSTYNETEDVSQA

SPSESEARFRIDSVSEGNAGPYRCIYYKPPKWSEQSD

YLELLVK

SEQ ID NO: 78 DVQLVESGGGVVRPGVSLRLSCVASGFSFKNYDMA MGJ5 VH

WVRQVPGKGLEWVCGINWNGSLRGYADSVKGRF

LISRDHAKDSLYLQMSRLRAEDTALYYCARDPGYNT

GRDHPYDLWGQGTMVTVSSEDLPRPSISAEPGTVI

PLGSHVTFVCRGPVGVQTFRLERESRSTYNETEDVS

QVSPSESEARFRIDSVSEGNAGPYRCIYYKPPKWSEQ

SDYLELLVK

SEQ ID NO: 79 EVQLVESGGRVVRPGESLRLSCEVSGVSINDYD S M J1 VH

WVRQPLGKGLEWVSGIDRKGVGTGYADSVKGRFT

ISRDHAKNSLYLQMNSLTGDDTAFYYCVRDPGESS

GRGHIFNIWGQGTMVTVSLEDLPRPSISAEPGTVIPL

GSHVTFVCRGPVGVQTFRLERESRSTYNETEDVSQV

SPSESEARFRIDSVSEGNAGPYRC1YYKPPKWSEQSD

YLELLVK

SEQ ID NO: 80 EVQLVESGGGVVRPGESLRLSCEVSGVNINDYDMS MMJ2 VH

WVRQFLGKGLEWVSGIDRKGVGTGYADSVKGRFT

ISRDHAKNSLYLQMNSLRGEDTALYYCVRDPGDTS

GRGHIFNVWGQGTMVTVSLEDLPRPSISAEPGTVIP

LGSHVTFVCRGPVGVQTFRLERESRSTYNETEDVSQ

VSPSESEARFRIDSVSEGNAGPYRCIYYKPPKWSEQS

DYLELLVK

SEQ ID NO: 81 EVQLVESGGGVVRPGESLRLSCEVSGVNINDYDMS MMJ5 VH

WVRQPLGKGLEWVSGIDRKGVGTGYADSVKGRFT

ISRDNGKNSLYLQMNSLRGEDTALYYCVRDPGDRS

GRGHIFN!WGQGTMVTVSLEDLPRPSISAEPGTVIPL

GSHVTFVCRGPVGVQTFRLERESRSTYNETEDVSQV

SPSESEARFRIDSVSEGNAGPYRCIYYKPPKWSEQSD

YLELLVK

SEQ ID NO: 82 EVQLVESGGGVVRPGESLRLSCEVSGVSINDYDMS MMJ6 VH

WVRQPLG GLEWVSGIDRKCVGTGYADSVKGRFT

ISRDHAKNSLYLQMNSLRGEDTALYYCVRDPGDSS

GRGQIFNIWGQGTMVTVSLEDLPRPSISAEPGTVIPL

GSHVTFVCRGPVGVQTFRLERESRSTYNETEDVSQV

SPSESEARFRIDSVSEGNAGPYRCIYYKPPKWSEQSD

YLELLVK

SEQ ID NO: 83 EVQLVESGGGVVRPGESLRLSCEVSGVSINDYDMS MMJ7 VH

WVRQRLGKGLEWVSGIDRKGVGTGYADSVKGRFT

ISRDHAKNSLYLQMNSLRGEDTALYYCVRDPGESS

GRGHIFNIWGQGTMVTISLEDLPRPSISAEPGTVIPL

GSHVTFVCRGPVGVQTFRLERESRSTYNETEDVSQV

SPSESEARFRIDSVSEGNAGPYRCIYYKPPKWSEQSD

YLELLVK

SEQ ID NO: 84 EVQLVESGGGVVRPGESLRLSCEVSGVNINDYDMS MMJ8 VH

WVRQFLGKGLEWVSGIDRKGVGTGYADSVKGRFT

ISRDHAKNSLYLQMNSLRGEDTALYYCVRDPGDTS

GRGHIFNVWGQGTMVTVSLEDLPRPSISAEPGTV!P

LGSHVTFVCRGPVGVQTFRLERESRSTYNETEDVSQ

VSPSESEARFRIDSVSEGNAGPYRCIYYKPPKWSEQS

DYLELLVK

SEQ ID NO: 85 EVQLVESGGGVVRPGESLRLSCEVSGVN1NDYDMS MMJ10 VH

WVRQFLGKGLEWVSGIDRKGVGTGYADSVKGRFT

ISRDHAKNSLYLQMNSLRGEDTALYYCVRDPGDTS

GRGHIFNVWGQGTMVTVSLEDLPRPSISAEPGTVIP

LGSHVTFVCRGPVGVQTFRLERESRSTYNETEDVSQ

VSPSESEARFRIDSVSEGNAGPYRCIYYKPPKWSEQS

DYLELLVK

SEQ ID NO: 86 EVQLVESGGGVVRPGESLRLSCEVSGVNINDYDMS MMJ 1 6 VH

WVRQFLGKGLEWVSGIDRKGVGTGYADSVKGRFT

ISRDHAKNSLYLQMNSLRGEDTALYYCVRDPGDTS

GRGHIFNVWGQGTMVTVSLEDLPRPSISAEPGTV1P

LGSHVTFVCRGPVGVQTFRLERESRSTYNETEDVSQ

VSPSESEARFRIDSVSEGNAGPYRCIYYKPPKWSEQS

IDYLELLGK

SEQ ID NO: 87 EVQLVESGGCVVRPGESLRLSCEVSGVNINDYDMS MJ23 VH

WVRQPLGKGLEWVSGIDRKGVGTGYADSVKGRFT

ISRDNG NSLYLQMNSLRGEDTALYYCVRDPGDRS

GRGHIFNIWGQGTMVTVSLEDLPRPSISAEPGTVIPL

GSHVTFVCRGPVGVQTFRLERESRSTYNETEDVSQV

SPSESEARFRIDSVSEGNAGPYRCIYYKPPKWSEQSD

YLELLVK

SEQ ID NO: 88 EVQLVESGGGVVRPGESLRLSCEVSGVSINDYDMS MMJ25 VH

WVRQPLGKGLEWVSGIDR GVGTGYADSV GRFT

ISRDHAKNSLYLQMNSLRGADTALYYCVRDPGDSS

GRGHIFNIWGQGTMVTVSLEDLPRPSISAEPGTVIPL

GSHVTFVCRGPVGVQTFRLERESRSTYNETEDVSQV

SPSESEARFRIDSVSEGNAGPYRCIYYKPPKWSEQSD

YLELLVK

SEQ ID NO: 89 QVQLAQYGGGAVQPGGSLRLSCVVSGFRFSLYGI GM1 VH

HWVRQAPGKGLEWLSLIENHGRK!YYAESVKGRITV

SRDNFKNVAYLEMYRLSTEDTAIYYCARNDGLGRY

TDAGGTHRTAYLDYWGRGTLVTVSSEDLPRPSISAE

PGTVIPLGSHVTFVCRGPVGVQTFRLERESRSTYND

TEDVSQASPSESEARFRIDSVSEGNAGPYRCVYYKPP

KWSEQSDYLDLLVK

SEQ ID NO: 90 QVQLVESGGDVVQPGGSLRLSCAVSGFKFNIYDIH MG 3 VH

WVRQAPGKGLEWVSFIRHDGNNQEYADSVKGRF

TISRDNFKNIIDLQMHSLRTEDTALYYCATNQGSGG

SDDTWETNRSAFFPHWGQGTLVTVSSDLPRPSISAE

PGTVIPLGSHVTFVCRGPVGVQTFRLERESRSIYNDT

EDVSQASPSESEARFRIDSVSEGNAGPYRCVYYKPPK

WSEESDYLELLVK

SEQ ID NO: 91 QVQLVESGGGVVQPGGSLRLSCEVSGFRFSTYGIH MGM4 VH

WARQAPGKGLEWVAFIRYDGNNKSYADSVKGRFT

ISRDNSKNTLYLQMNSLRIEDTAVYYCAKNQASGG

YDDTWGTYRSAYLDYWGQGTLVTVSSEDLPRPSIS

AEPGTVIPLGSHVTFVCRGPVGVQTFRLERESRSTYN

DTEDVSQASPSESEARFRIDSVSEGNAGPYRCVYYKP

PKWSEESDSLELLVK

SEQ ID NO: 92 QVQLVESGGGVVQPGGSLRLSCKMSGFKFSAFGIH MGM5 VH

WVRQAPGKGLEWVAFVRYDGGDKYYADSVKGRF

TISRDNSKNTVHLQLNSLKPADTAVYYCAKNQPSG

QSDDTWGTSLSAYLDYWGQGTQVSVSPEDLPRPSl

SAEPGTVIPLGSHVTFVCRGPVGVQTFRLERESRSTY

NDTEDVSQASPSESEARFRIDSVSEGNAGPYRCVYY

KPPKWSEQSDYLELLVK

SEQ ID NO: 93 EAQVVDHGNRGRARDLEDIKKRRARDLEYEDLPRP MGB2 VH

SISAEPGTVIPLGSRVTFVCRCPVGVQTFRLERESRSK YNETEDVSQASPSESEARFRIDSVSEGNAGPYRCIYY KPPKWSEHSDFLELLVK



SEQ ID NO: 121 EDLPRPSISAEPCTVIPLCSHVTFVCRGPVGVQTFRL MMJ7 LAIR1

ERESRSTYNETEDVSQVSPSESEARFRIDSVSEGNAGP

YRCIYYKPPKWSEQSDYLELLVK

SEQ ID NO: 122 EDLPRPSISAEPGTVIPLGSHVTFVCRGPVGVQTFRL MMJ8 LA1R1

ERESRSTYNETEDVSQVSPSESEARFRIDSVSEGNAGP

YRCIYYKPPKWSEQSDYLELLVK

SEQ ID NO: 123 EDLPRPSISAEPGTVIPLGSHVTFVCRGPVGVQTFRL MMJ 1 0 LAIR1

ERESRSTYNETEDVSQVSPSESEARFRIDSVSEGNAGP

YRCIYYKPPKWSEQSDYLELLVK

SEQ ID NO: 124 EDLPRPSISAEPGTVIPLGSHVTFVCRGPVGVQTFRL MJ1 6 LAIR1

ERESRSTYNETEDVSQVSPSESEARFRIDSVSEGNAGP

YRCIYYKPPKWSEQSDYLELLGK

SEQ ID NO: 125 EDLPRPSISAEPGTVIPLGSHVTFVCRGPVGVQTFRL MMJ23 LAIR1

ERESRSTYNETEDVSQVSPSESEARFRIDSVSEGNAGP

YRCIYYKPPKWSEQSDYLELLVK

SEQ ID NO: 126 EDLPRPSISAEPGTVIPLGSHVTFVCRGPVGVQTFRL M J25 LAIR1

ERESRSTYNETEDVSQVSPSESEARFRIDSVSEGNAGP

YRCIYYKPPKWSEQSDYLELLVK

SEQ ID NO: 127 EDLPRPSISAEPGTVIPLGSHVTFVCRGPVGVQTFRL MGM1 LAIR1

ERESRSTYNDTEDVSQASPSESEARFRIDSVSEGNAG PYRCVYYKPPKWSEQSDYLDLLVK

SEQ ID NO: 1 28 DLPRPSISAEPGTVIPLGSHVTFVCRGPVGVQTFRLE GM3 LAIR1

RESRSIYNDTEDVSQASPSESEARFRIDSVSEGNAGP YRCVYYKPPKWSEESDYLELLVK

SEQ ID NO: 129 EDLPRPSISAEPGTVIPLGSHVTFVCRGPVGVQTFRL MGM4 LAIR1

ERESRSTYNDTEDVSQASPSESEARFRIDSVSEGNAG PYRCVYYKPPKWSEESDSLELLVK

SEQ ID NO: 1 30 EDLPRPSISAEPGTVIPLGSHVTFVCRGPVGVQTFRL MGM5 LAIR1

ERESRSTYNDTEDVSQASPSESEARFRIDSVSEGNAG PYRCVYYKPPKWSEQSDYLELLVK

SEQ ID NO: 131 EDLPRPSISAEPGTVIPLGSRVTFVCRGPVGVQTFRLE MGB2 LAIR1

RESRSKYNETEDVSQASPSESEARFRIDSVSEGNAGP

YRCIYYKPPKWSEHSDFLELLVK

SEQ ID NO: 1 32 EDLPRPSISAEPGTVIPLGSHVTFVCRGPVGVQTFRL MGB43 LA1R1

ERESRSRYNETEDVSQTSPSESEARFRIDSVSEGNAGP

YRCLYYKTPKWSEQSDFLELLVK

SEQ ID NO: 1 33 EDLPRPSISAEPGTVIPLGSHVTFVCRGPVGVQTFRL MGB47 LAIR1

ERESRSRYTETEDVSQTSPSESEARFRIDSVSEGNAGP YRCLYYKPPKWSEQSDFLELLVK