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1. (WO2019009843) AN ENGINE CYCLE
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AN ENGINE CYCLE

Field of the Invention

The present invention relates to an engine cycle, wherein the exhaust gas passing from the combustion chamber to the side of the crank chamber is prevented from being frozen in the area in which it is mixed with fresh air, in cases when the internal combustion engines are cold and at low speeds thereof.

Background of the Invention

In internal combustion engines, the system where the oil in the exhaust gas passing to the crank chamber from between the piston and cylinder subsequent to combustion is separated at a certain amount using different separating mechanisms, and then resupplied to the engine air suction, is called crank chamber ventilation system. The exhaust gas with a high content of engine oil passes through the channels opened along the engine block and the cylinder head from the crank chamber till the engine cover, wherein said gas being introduced to the crank chamber ventilation system. The crank chamber ventilation system generally makes the exhaust gas rich in engine oil pass through a maze-type system, and thus enables the oil molecules to separate from said exhaust gas and the separated engine oil to return to the crank chamber by means of the channels again along the engine. The filtered exhaust gas cannot be disposed to the outer environment due to emission regulations, it is mixed with fresh air before the compressor and returned to the combustion chamber by means of the engine air suction line. As a result of this operation, the exhaust gases coming from inside the crank chamber are not transferred to the outer environment in any way, but directly resupplied to the combustion chamber disposed in the engine.

The biggest problem in relation to the crank chamber ventilation system used above is that the crankcase gas, the oil of which is separated, contains 15% water therein as a natural product of the combustion reaction. Since the crankcase gas comprises a certain amount of water, the water therein freezes while the crankcase gas is being mixed to the engine air suction line prior to the compressor under cold weather conditions, and such freezing fully or partially blocks the crankcase gas flowing line cross-section of the crankcase gas. In this case, recirculation of the crankcase gas to the engine air suction is limited due to the blocked flowing line, which, in turn, causes the crank chamber to remain as a closed volume and increases crank chamber gas pressures, and this leads to various damages, oil leakages, or performance loss in the engine.

In the U.S. Patent Application No. US4237689A in the state of the art, an invention developed for engines is disclosed. Said engines are listed as turbo-charged, super-charged, reciprocating engines and gas turbines. The air supplied to the engine is cooled by a refrigeration process. The system has an accumulator in order to avoid adverse effects of the ice particles likely to be produced in the cooled air. This invention mentions the fact that the introduced water droplets in the air can be changed into ice form under low temperature values. Refrigeration process is performed by means of a first cooling matrix and a second cooling matrix. Ice particles and water droplets are collected by means of the separator. The required precautions are thus taken during the transition of the air to combustion process. It is described in this invention, as a further precaution, that the wall surfaces of the first cooling matrix, the separator and the second cooling matrix are coated with a "non-stick", low friction material such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PFTE); and it is thus aimed to protect the engine against negative effects of the ice particles likely to be formed under low temperatures. In the present invention, however, the walls of the mixing volume in which the crankcase gas is mixed with fresh air are coated with a coating. Thanks to said coating, adherence to the walls disposed in these areas is prevented and the water droplets within the exhaust gas do not adhere to the walls; thus, no blocking occurs in these areas.

Another U.S. Patent Application No. US7562652B2 in the state of the art discloses a crankcase emission system. Described in this invention is a membrane covering the air outlet duct, or optionally the air inlet duct. This membrane inhibits the passage of oil and water out of the crankcase through the crankcase air outlet. In this invention, freezing problem resulting from environmental conditions is mentioned. It is disclosed that the membrane can be produced of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) or a similar material so as to avoid such freezing. This process inhibits liquid water from passing out of the crankcase into the air of the air intake manifold. Thus, the icing, i.e. freezing, problem likely to be experienced in the air inlet area at low ambient temperatures is avoided, allowing the water vapor to exit from the crank chamber. With this process, said vapor is retaken to combustion chambers, and then removed from the engine by means of the engine exhaust system. However, the present invention relates to the walls of the mixture volume disposed at the crankcase gas outlet section, wherein the walls of said mixture volume are coated with various layers.

The International Patent Application No. WO2012157113A1 discloses a different solution with a view to prevent the problems likely to result from an ice clump during the operation of the engine. Such ice clump is captured by means of a capture member, and thus the engine can operate efficiently. When this prior art document and the invention according to the present application are compared, it will be seen that the present invention also has a coating similar to this prior art document. Said coating, however, is only applied to walls disposed in the area in which the crankcase gas outlet exists, i.e. in the mixture area, and is provided in order to prevent freezing of the water within the exhaust gas coming from the crank chamber ventilation system.

In the applications used today, there exist no coating applied to the walls of the mixture area disposed at the outlet of the crank chamber ventilation system.

Objects of the Invention

The object of the present invention is to provide an engine cycle provided with a water-repellent surface at the crankcase gas outlet.

And another object of the present invention is to provide an engine cycle, whereby freezing at the crankcase gas outlet is prevented.

Summary of the Invention

An engine cycle is provided which has been embodied for achieving the objects of the present invention and which is defined in the first claim and the other dependent claims. In this engine, the gas produced as a result of combustion is removed from the engine through the exhaust line. The engine is provided with an EGR line and also a crankcase gas line, to which the gases escaping to the crank chamber as a result of combustion are directed. In addition to these lines, the engine is further provided with a fresh air line. The area in which said crankcase gas line and the fresh air line are combined is the mixture area. In this section, the exhaust gas from the crank chamber line is mixed with the air from the fresh air line, and then resupplied to the suction line. When the engine is cold, however, freezing occurs in the walls disposed at the termination of the crankcase gas line provided in the mixture line, i.e. at the line opening of the crankcase gas, and the crankcase gas line can be partly or fully blocked starting from the walls due to said freezing. A coating is applied to the walls disposed at the crankcase gas line opening so as to prevent such freezing. Said coating preferably consists of a first layer, a second layer, and a third layer. Said layers are applied individually and the friction coefficient of the surface formed in the walls after the layers are applied thereto is reduced between 0.05 and 0.2.

Detailed Description of the Invention

An engine cycle which has been developed for achieving the objects of the present invention is illustrated in the accompanying drawings, in which:

Fig. 1. Schematic view of an engine cycle.

Fig. 2. Schematic view of the section S shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 3. Closer view of the mixture area portion shown in Fig. 2

The parts in the drawings are enumerated individually and the reference numbers corresponding thereto are presented below.

1. An engine cycle

2. Engine

3. Exhaust line

4. Turbine

5. EGR line

6. Compressor

7. Suction line

8. Crankcase gas line

8.1. Crankcase gas line opening

8.2. Wall

9. Fresh air line

10. Mixture area

11. Coating

11.1. First layer

11.2. Second layer

11.3. Third layer

A. Oil separator

B. Exhaust gas purifier

C. Heat exchanger

An engine cycle (1), wherein the exhaust gas passing from the combustion chamber to the side of the crank chamber is prevented from being frozen in the area in which it is mixed with fresh air, in cases when the internal combustion engines are cold and at low speeds thereof, basically comprises:

at least one engine (2) converting chemical energy to mechanical energy, at least one exhaust line (3) formed for transferring the exhaust gas generated as a result of combustion inside the engine (2),

at least one turbine (4) which is disposed in the exhaust line (3) and operates in synchronization with the compressor (6), and thus enables the compressor

(6) to be rotated,

at least one EGR line (5) formed for redelivering a preferred amount of the exhaust gas from the exhaust line (3) to the engine (2),

at least one suction line (7) through which the air pressurized by the compressor (6) is delivered to the engine (2),

at least one crankcase gas line (8) whereby the gases escaping through the area between the piston and the liners in the engine (2) and not advancing towards the exhaust line (3) are directed from the inside of the crank chamber, at least one fresh air line (9) provided for receiving fresh air from the outer environment,

at least one mixture area (10) in which the crankcase gas line (8) and the fresh air line (9) are combined and the exhaust gas, the crankcase gas and the fresh air are mixed, and

a coating (11) which is formed in the walls (8.2) facing the crankcase gas line opening (8.1) of the mixture area (10) disposed at the section where the crankcase gas line (8) and the suction line (7) are combined and which comprises a first layer (11.1) to which 40 to 80 microns of anodic oxidation is applied, a second layer (11.2) to which 30 to 60 microns of PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) or fluoro silicone is applied, and a third layer (11.3) to which 20 to 30 microns of PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) or fluoro silicone is applied.

An engine cycle (1) provided in this embodiment of the invention has an engine (2). Said engine (2) is an internal combustion engine, wherein it converts chemical energy into mechanical energy, and thus generates power. The engine (2) is provided with a combustion chamber and also a piston. As long as combustion takes place inside the engine (2), the piston moves back and forth along the combustion chamber central axis. There exists a certain amount of space between the piston and combustion chamber in order that such movement of the piston can be ensured. In case of combustion inside the combustion chamber, on the other hand, a combustion gas (exhaust gas) passes through said space to the crank chamber disposed in the engine (2). This gas passing to the side of the crank chamber is called crankcase gas. Said crankcase gas first comes to the oil separator (A) where the oil particles therein are separated, and then continues through the crankcase gas line (8). As per international regulations, this crankcase gas is directly routed to the mixture area (10) through the crankcase gas line (8), without being released to the outer environment, since crankcase gas emission to the atmosphere is prohibited.

An engine cycle (1) provided in this embodiment of the invention has an exhaust line (3). Said exhaust line (3) is configured for removing the exhaust gases produced in the engine (2) as a result of combustion, from the engine (2). The exhaust line (3) is provided with a turbine (4). Said turbine (4) rotates by means of the force applied by the exhaust gas fluid coming through the exhaust line (3), and thus ensures that the compressor (6) rotates as well. At the continuation of the turbine (4) is an EGR line (5). From said EGR line (5), the exhaust gas at a preferred amount is transferred to be redirected to the combustion chamber. The exhaust gas passing through the turbine is first purified by means of the exhaust gas purifier (B), followed by being passed through a heat exchanger (C), and thus slightly cooling the exhaust gas. The exhaust gas purifier (B) and the heat exchanger (C) are arranged on the EGR line (5). The exhaust gas advanced

through the EGR line (5) may be redelivered to the combustion chamber at the preferred flow rate and temperature.

An engine cycle (1) provided in this embodiment of the invention has a suction line (7). Said suction line (7) is the line to which the air and air mixture required in the engine (2) for combustion are transmitted. The air pressurized in the compressor (6) is directly transferred to the combustion chambers disposed in the engine (2) through the suction line (7); thus, the chemical energy is converted into mechanical energy in the combustion chambers.

An engine cycle (1) provided in this embodiment of the invention has a mixture area (10). Said mixture area (10), on the other hand, is the area in which the crankcase gas line (8) and the fresh air line (9) are combined and the crankcase gas which is produced as a result of combustion and comes from the crankcase gas line (8) is mixed with the fresh air which comes from the fresh air line (9). In cases when the engine (2) is cold, the walls surrounding the crankcase gas line (8) are naturally cold as well. In this case, 15% water present in crankcase gas advancing through the crankcase gas line (8) generally freezes in the walls (8.2) located at the periphery of the crankcase gas line opening (8.1) disposed in the mixture area (10) and partly or fully blocks the crankcase gas line opening (8.1), starting from the walls (8.2). In order to avoid this, a coating (11) is applied to the walls (8.2) disposed at the crankcase gas line opening (8.1). Said coating (11) consists of more than one layers. In this embodiment of the invention, the coating (11) consists of a first layer (11.1), a second layer (11.2), and a third layer (11.3). In other embodiments of the invention, this coating (11) may consists of more than three layers. In the coating (11) provided in this embodiment of the invention, the first layer (11.1) is preferably formed by applying anodic oxidation; thus, a convenient base for the other layers is formed on the wall (8.2). In this embodiment of the invention, the thickness of the first layer (11.1) prepared by the application of anodic oxidation is between 40 and 80 microns. The thickness can vary in different embodiments of the invention. Applied onto the first layer

(11.1) is a second layer (11.2). In this embodiment of the invention, the second layer (11.2) is formed by applying PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) or fluorosilicone. The thickness of the second layer (11.2), on the other hand, varies between 30 and 60 microns. In this embodiment of the invention, a third layer (11.3) having a thickness of 20 to 30 microns and formed again by applying PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) and fluorosilicone is formed on the second layer (11.2). Said first layer (11.1), second layer (11.2) and the third layer (11.3) of the coating (11) are formed individually; and the friction coefficient on the walls (8.2) disposed at the crankcase gas line opening (8.1) is reduced down to 0.05 to 0.2 microns by the formation of such layers. With said coating (11) applied on the walls (8.2) disposed at the crankcase gas line opening (8.1), the freezing likely to occur in the walls (8.2) is prevented; thus, the need for an additional electric heater to avoid freezing, which is the conventional solution applied within the crankcase gas line (8), no longer exists.