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1. (WO2019006013) MEDICAL IMPLANTS WITH IMPROVED ROUGHNESS
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What is claimed is:

1. A medical implant having a hierarchical surface roughness, comprising:

an implant body including a combination of meso-scale surface features, micro-scale surface features, and nano-scale surface features.

2. The medical implant of claim 1, wherein the meso-scale surface features have sizes in a range of 5 μιη to 1 mm.

3. The medical implant of claim 2, wherein the meso-scale surface features have sizes in a range of 5 μιη to 200 μιη.

4. The medical implant of claim 1, wherein the meso-scale surface features include protruding structures.

5. The medical implant of claim 4, wherein the protruding structures have lateral sizes in a range of 5 μιη to 200 μιτι, and heights in a range of 5 μιη to 200 μιη.

6. The medical implant of claim 4, wherein the protruding structures include cone-shaped, nodule-shaped, pyramid-shaped, trapezoidal, hemispherical, or hemi spheroidal structures.

7. The medical implant of claim 1, wherein the micro-scale surface features have sizes in a range of 1 μιη to 5 μιη.

8. The medical implant of claim 1, wherein the nano-scale surface features have sizes in a range up to 1 μιη.

9. The medical implant of claim 8, wherein the nano-scale surface features have sizes in a range of 10 nm to 1 μιη.

10. The medical implant of claim 1, wherein the nano-scale surface features include protruding structures.

11. The medical implant of claim 1, wherein the nano-scale surface features include compartmental structures.

12. The medical implant of claim 1, wherein the nano-scale surface features and the micro-scale surface features are superimposed onto the meso-scale surface features.

13. The medical implant of claim 1, wherein the medical implant is a metallic implant.

14. The medical implant of claim 13, wherein the metallic implant is a titanium or titanium alloy implant.

15. A medical implant, comprising:

an implant body including a surface characterized by an average roughness (Ra) of 1.5 μηι or greater.

16. The medical implant of claim 15, wherein Ra is 2 μιη or greater.

17. The medical implant of claim 15, wherein Ra is 2.5 μιη or greater.

18. A medical implant, comprising:

an implant body including a surface characterized by an average peak-to-valley roughness (Rz) of 7 μιη or greater.

19. The medical implant of claim 18, wherein Rz is 8 μιη or greater.

20. The medical implant of claim 18, wherein Rz is 10 μιη or greater.

21. A medical implant, comprising:

an implant body including a surface characterized by an average slope of roughness profile (Rsa) of 0.21 or greater.

22. The medical implant of claim 21, wherein Rsa is 0.23 or greater.

23. The medical implant of claim 21, wherein R5a is 0.25 or greater.

24. A medical implant, comprising:

an implant body including a surface characterized by:

(a) an average roughness (Ra) of 1.5 μιη or greater;

(b) an average peak-to-valley roughness (Rz) of 7 μιη or greater; and

(c) an average slope of roughness profile (Rsa) of 0.21 or greater.

25. The medical implant of claim 24, wherein Ra is 2.5 μπι or greater, Rz is 10 μπι or greater, and R5a is 0.25 or greater.

26. A method of forming a medical implant having a hierarchical surface roughness, comprising subjecting the medical implant to surface treatment by exposing the medical implant to an etching liquid while generating bubbles within the etching liquid.

27. The method of claim 26, wherein the etching liquid includes an acid.

28. The method of claim 26, wherein exposing the medical implant to the etching liquid includes disposing an auxiliary material within the etching liquid, and disposing the medical implant over the auxiliary material.

29. The method of claim 28, wherein the auxiliary material is the same as a material of the medical implant.

30. The method of claim 28, wherein the auxiliary material is different than a material of the medical implant.

31. The method of claim 26, wherein exposing the medical implant to the etching liquid is carried out at a temperature of 140°C or higher.

32. The method of claim 31, wherein exposing the medical implant to the etching liquid further includes disposing an auxiliary material within the etching liquid, and disposing the medical implant over the auxiliary material.

33. The method of claim 26, wherein exposing the medical implant to the etching liquid is carried out while agitating the etching liquid using an agitator.

34. The method of claim 33, wherein the agitator is an ultrasonic device.