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1. (WO2019005661) NEURAL MODULATION OF AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM TO ALTER MEMORY AND PLASTICITY OF THE AUTONOMIC NETWORK
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CLAIMS

What is claimed is:

1. A method for altering the plasticity of a neural structure comprising, delivering energy to an autonomic neural structure (ganglion or nerve), wherein the delivery of energy alters the plasticity of the neural structure during and beyond the delivery.

2. The method of claim 1, wherein the effects extend beyond neural structure to which energy is delivered, to the greater autonomic network.

3. The method of claim 1, wherein energy is selected from the group consisting of electrical energy, electromagnetic energy, acoustic energy, and thermal energy.

4. The method of claim 1, wherein one or more electrodes are placed directly in or adjacent to the neural structure by direct surgical access.

5. The method of claim 1, wherein one or more electrodes are placed in or adjacent to the neural structure by vascular access.

6. The method of claim 1, wherein one or more electrodes are placed in proximity to the neural structure.

7. The method of claim 1, wherein the neural structure is at least one selected from the group consisting of: a nerve or ganglia of the intrinsic cardiac nervous system, a nerve or ganglia of the intrathoracic nerve trunk, a nerve or ganglia of the cervical

vagosympathetic nerve trunk, nodose ganglia, petrosal ganglia, a paravertebral sympathetic chain ganglia, the dorsal root ganglia, the spinal cord, and a peripheral distribution of the 9th, 10th, or 12th cranial nerves.

8. The method of claim 1, wherein the method alters the neural network structure, and wherein the alteration includes one or more changes selected from the group consisting of changes in: neuronal apoptosis potential, neural network interconnectivity, neuronal phenotype, receptors and the neural-myocyte interface.

9. The method of claim 1, wherein, the method comprises directly altering the neural structure to which energy is delivered.

10. The method of claim 1, wherein the method comprises altering a neural structure that is rostral and/or caudal to the neural structure to which energy is delivered.

11. The method of claim 1, wherein the energy is delivered acutely.

12. The method of claim 1, where the energy is delivered chronically.

13. A method of altering the function of an autonomic neural structure, comprising delivering energy to an autonomic neural structure (ganglion or nerve), wherein the delivery of energy alters its function during and beyond the delivery.

14. The method of claim 13, wherein the effects extend beyond neural structure to which energy is delivered, to the greater autonomic network.

15. The method of claim 13, wherein energy is selected from the group consisting of electrical energy, electromagnetic energy, acoustic energy, and thermal energy.

16. The method of claim 13, wherein one or more electrodes are placed directly in or adjacent to the neural structure by direct surgical access.

17. The method of claim 13, wherein one or more electrodes are placed in or adjacent to the neural structure by vascular access.

18. The method of claim 13, wherein one or more electrodes are placed in proximity to the neural structure.

19. The method of claim 13, wherein the neural structure is at least one selected from the group consisting of: a nerve or ganglia of the intrinsic cardiac nervous system, a nerve or ganglia of the intrathoracic nerve trunk, a nerve or ganglia of the cervical

vagosympathetic nerve trunk, nodose ganglia, petrosal ganglia, a paravertebral sympathetic chain ganglia, the dorsal root ganglia, the spinal cord, and a peripheral distribution of the 9th, 10th, or 12th cranial nerves.

20. The method of claim 13, wherein the method alters the neural network function, and wherein the alteration includes one or more changes selected from the group consisting of changes in: neural activity, network interconnect! vity, and altered neurotransmitter release at the neural-myocyte interface.

21. The method of claim 13, wherein neuronal function is altered in a subset or subsets of neurons contained within intrathoracic ganglia including afferents, local circuit, sympathetic or parasympathetic soma.

22. The method of claim 13, wherein neuronal function is altered in primary cardiovascular afferent associated with the dorsal root, petrosal or nodose ganglia and their projections to brainstem and spinal cord neural networks.

23. The method of claim 13, wherein, the method comprises directly altering the neural structure to which energy is delivered.

24. The method of claim 13, wherein the method comprises altering a neural structure that is rostral and/or caudal to the neural structure to which energy is delivered.

25. The method of claim 13, wherein the energy is delivered acutely.

26. The method of claim 13, where the energy is delivered chronically.

27. The method of claim 1 or claim 13, wherein the delivery of energy is delivered in an open loop by an external control.

28. The method of claim 1 or 13, wherein the delivery of energy is delivered in a closed-loop.

29. The method of claim 28, wherein the energy is delivered upon the detection of a signal.

30. The method of claim 29, wherein the signal comprises the identification of neural signature or recordings indicative of adverse autonomic activity and that is recorded from electrodes placed into or on intrathoracic ganglia or intrathoracic axonal projections.

31. The method of claim 29, wherein the signal comprises the identification of neural signature or recordings indicative of adverse cardiovascular activity and that is recorded from electrodes placed into or on nodose, petrosal or dorsal root ganglia.

32. The method of claim 29, wherein the signal comprises the identification of neural signature or recordings indicative of adverse autonomic activity and that is recorded from electrodes placed into or on the cervical vagosympathetic nerve trunk or paravertebral ganglia.

33. The method of claim 29, wherein the signal comprises detection of one or more abnormal chemicals or biomarkers, as detected from one or more sensors within the heart muscle, cardiac chambers or other intravascular sites.

34. A system for modulating the plasticity and/or memory of the autonomic nervous system comprising one or more components for delivering energy to a nerve or ganglion of the autonomic nervous system.

35. The system of claim 34 further comprising one or more recording electrodes for measuring the activity of a nerve, ganglia, neuron or electrical activity of the heart.

36. The system of claim 34 comprising one for more recording electrodes for measuring biomarker levels within the heart or vasculature.

37. The system of claim 34, wherein the one or more components comprise one or more stimulating electrodes for applying an electrical stimulus.

38. The system, wherein stimulating electrodes are placed dorsal to and utilized in conjunction with one or more components for producing scalable block of efferent projecting axons to the heart.

39. The system of claim 38 where the one or more components for producing scalable block of efferent projecting axons to the heart are configured for delivering energy for producing the scalable block, wherein the energy is selected from the group consisting of electrical energy, electromagnetic energy, acoustic energy, and thermal energy.

40. The system of claim 38 where the evaluation of block efficacy is done manually.

41. The system of claim 38 where the evaluation of block efficacy is done in close looped fashion and evoked changes in neural signals or cardiac signals are the sensory detect signal against which block efficacy is assessed.