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1. (WO2019005052) APPARATUS, SYSTEM, AND METHOD OF RESTRICTING A PROBE RESPONSE TO A RESTRICTED RESPONSE AREA
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APPARATUS, SYSTEM, AND METHOD OF RESTRICTING A PROBE RESPONSE TO A RESTRICTED RESPONSE AREA

TECHNICAL FIELD

[001] Embodiments described herein generally relate to restricting a probe response to a restricted response area.

BACKGROUND

[002] A wireless communication station may perform a scan procedure, for example, to discover an Access Point (AP) with which the wireless communication station may connect and communicate.

[003] The wireless communication station may perform additional scan procedures, e.g., while connected to the AP, for example, to discover another AP, which may be a better candidate for communication.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[004] For simplicity and clarity of illustration, elements shown in the figures have not necessarily been drawn to scale. For example, the dimensions of some of the elements may be exaggerated relative to other elements for clarity of presentation. Furthermore, reference numerals may be repeated among the figures to indicate corresponding or analogous elements. The figures are listed below.

[005] Fig. 1 is a schematic block diagram illustration of a system, in accordance with some demonstrative embodiments.

[006] Figs. 2 A, 2B, and 2C are schematic illustrations of a deployment of a station (STA) and a plurality of Access Points (APs) to demonstrate one or more technical problems of an unrestricted response roaming procedure, which may be solved in accordance with some demonstrative embodiments.

[007] Fig. 3 is a schematic illustration of a deployment of a STA and a plurality of APs to demonstrate one or more technical problems of a Receive Signal Strength Indication (RSSI) threshold roaming procedure, which may be solved in accordance with some demonstrative embodiments.

[008] Figs. 4A and 4B are schematic illustrations of a deployment of a STA and a plurality of APs to demonstrate restriction of a probe response to a restricted response area, in accordance with some demonstrative embodiments

[009] Fig. 5 is a schematic illustration of a structure of an information element, in accordance with some demonstrative embodiments.

[0010] Fig. 6 is a schematic illustration of a sequence diagram of operations and communications between a STA and an AP, in accordance with some demonstrative embodiments.

[0011] Fig. 7 is a schematic flow-chart illustration of a method of restricting a probe response to a restricted response area, in accordance with some demonstrative embodiments.

[0012] Fig. 8 is a schematic flow-chart illustration of a method of restricting a probe response to a restricted response area, in accordance with some demonstrative embodiments.

[0013] Fig. 9 is a schematic illustration of a product of manufacture, in accordance with some demonstrative embodiments.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0014] In the following detailed description, numerous specific details are set forth in order to provide a thorough understanding of some embodiments. However, it will be understood by persons of ordinary skill in the art that some embodiments may be practiced without these specific details. In other instances, well-known methods, procedures, components, units and/or circuits have not been described in detail so as not to obscure the discussion.

[0015] Discussions herein utilizing terms such as, for example, "processing", "computing", "calculating", "determining", "establishing", "analyzing", "checking", or the like, may refer to operation(s) and/or process(es) of a computer, a computing platform, a computing system, or other electronic computing device, that manipulate and/or transform data represented as physical (e.g., electronic) quantities within the computer's registers and/or memories into other data similarly represented as physical quantities within the computer's registers and/or memories or other information storage medium that may store instructions to perform operations and/or processes.

[0016] The terms "plurality" and "a plurality", as used herein, include, for example, "multiple" or "two or more". For example, "a plurality of items" includes two or more items.

[0017] References to "one embodiment", "an embodiment", "demonstrative embodiment", "various embodiments" etc., indicate that the embodiment(s) so described may include a particular feature, structure, or characteristic, but not every embodiment necessarily includes the particular feature, structure, or characteristic. Further, repeated use of the phrase "in one embodiment" does not necessarily refer to the same embodiment, although it may.

[0018] As used herein, unless otherwise specified the use of the ordinal adjectives "first", "second", "third" etc., to describe a common object, merely indicate that different instances of like objects are being referred to, and are not intended to imply that the objects so described must be in a given sequence, either temporally, spatially, in ranking, or in any other manner.

[0019] Some embodiments may be used in conjunction with various devices and systems, for example, a User Equipment (UE), a Mobile Device (MD), a wireless station (STA), a Personal Computer (PC), a desktop computer, a mobile computer, a

laptop computer, a notebook computer, a tablet computer, a server computer, a handheld computer, a handheld device, an Internet of Things (IoT) device, a sensor device, a wearable device, a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) device, a handheld PDA device, an on-board device, an off-board device, a hybrid device, a vehicular device, a non-vehicular device, a mobile or portable device, a consumer device, a non-mobile or non-portable device, a wireless communication station, a wireless communication device, a wireless Access Point (AP), a wired or wireless router, a wired or wireless modem, a video device, an audio device, an audio-video (A/V) device, a wired or wireless network, a wireless area network, a Wireless Video Area Network (WVAN), a Local Area Network (LAN), a Wireless LAN (WLAN), a Personal Area Network (PAN), a Wireless PAN (WPAN), and the like.

[0020] Some embodiments may be used in conjunction with devices and/or networks operating in accordance with existing IEEE 802.11 standards (including IEEE 802.11-2016 {IEEE 802.11-2016, IEEE Standard for Information technology-Telecommunications and information exchange between systems Local and metropolitan area networks— Specific requirements, Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications, December 7, 2016)) and/or future versions and/or derivatives thereof, devices and/or networks operating in accordance with existing Wireless-Gigabit-Alliance (WGA) specifications (Wireless Gigabit Alliance, Inc WiGig MAC and PHY Specification Version 1.1, April 2011, Final specification) and/or future versions and/or derivatives thereof, devices and/or networks operating in accordance with existing WiFi Alliance (WFA) Peer-to-Peer (P2P) specifications (WiFi P2P technical specification, version 1.5, August 2014) and/or future versions and/or derivatives thereof, devices and/or networks operating in accordance with existing cellular specifications and/or protocols, e.g., 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3 GPP), 3 GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) and/or future versions and/or derivatives thereof, units and/or devices which are part of the above networks, and the like.

[0021] Some embodiments may be used in conjunction with one way and/or two-way radio communication systems, cellular radio-telephone communication systems, a mobile phone, a cellular telephone, a wireless telephone, a Personal Communication Systems (PCS) device, a PDA device which incorporates a wireless communication device, a mobile or portable Global Positioning System (GPS) device, a device which incorporates a GPS receiver or transceiver or chip, a device which incorporates an RFID element or chip, a Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) transceiver or device, a Single Input Multiple Output (SIMO) transceiver or device, a Multiple Input Single Output (MISO) transceiver or device, a device having one or more internal antennas and/or external antennas, Digital Video Broadcast (DVB) devices or systems, multi- standard radio devices or systems, a wired or wireless handheld device, e.g., a Smartphone, a Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) device, or the like.

[0022] Some embodiments may be used in conjunction with one or more types of wireless communication signals and/or systems, for example, Radio Frequency (RF), Infra Red (IR), Frequency-Division Multiplexing (FDM), Orthogonal FDM (OFDM), Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiple Access (OFDMA), FDM Time-Division Multiplexing (TDM), Time-Division Multiple Access (TDMA), Multi-User MIMO (MU-MIMO), Spatial Division Multiple Access (SDMA), Extended TDMA (E-TDMA), General Packet Radio Service (GPRS), extended GPRS, Code-Division Multiple Access (CDMA), Wideband CDMA (WCDMA), CDMA 2000, single-carrier CDMA, multi-carrier CDMA, Multi-Carrier Modulation (MDM), Discrete Multi-Tone (DMT), Bluetooth®, Global Positioning System (GPS), Wi-Fi, Wi-Max, ZigBee™, Ultra- Wideband (UWB), Global System for Mobile communication (GSM), 2G, 2.5G, 3G, 3.5G, 4G, Fifth Generation (5G), or Sixth Generation (6G) mobile networks, 3GPP, Long Term Evolution (LTE), LTE advanced, Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE), or the like. Other embodiments may be used in various other devices, systems and/or networks.

[0023] The term "wireless device", as used herein, includes, for example, a device capable of wireless communication, a communication device capable of wireless communication, a communication station capable of wireless communication, a portable or non-portable device capable of wireless communication, or the like. In some demonstrative embodiments, a wireless device may be or may include a peripheral that is integrated with a computer, or a peripheral that is attached to a computer. In some demonstrative embodiments, the term "wireless device" may optionally include a wireless service.

[0024] The term "communicating" as used herein with respect to a communication signal includes transmitting the communication signal and/or receiving the

communication signal. For example, a communication unit, which is capable of communicating a communication signal, may include a transmitter to transmit the communication signal to at least one other communication unit, and/or a communication receiver to receive the communication signal from at least one other communication unit. The verb communicating may be used to refer to the action of transmitting or the action of receiving. In one example, the phrase "communicating a signal" may refer to the action of transmitting the signal by a first device, and may not necessarily include the action of receiving the signal by a second device. In another example, the phrase "communicating a signal" may refer to the action of receiving the signal by a first device, and may not necessarily include the action of transmitting the signal by a second device.

[0025] Some demonstrative embodiments may be used in conjunction with a WLAN, e.g., a WiFi network. Other embodiments may be used in conjunction with any other suitable wireless communication network, for example, a wireless area network, a "piconet", a WPAN, a WVAN and the like.

[0026] Some demonstrative embodiments may be used in conjunction with a wireless communication network communicating over a frequency band of 2.4 or 5 Gigahertz (GHz). However, other embodiments may be implemented utilizing any other suitable wireless communication frequency bands, for example, a 60GHz band, a millimeterWave (mmWave) frequency band, a Sub 1 GHz (S1G) frequency band, a WLAN frequency band, a WPAN frequency band, and the like.

[0027] As used herein, the term "circuitry" may refer to, be part of, or include, an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC), an integrated circuit, an electronic circuit, a processor (shared, dedicated, or group), and/or memory (shared, dedicated, or group), that execute one or more software or firmware programs, a combinational logic circuit, and/or other suitable hardware components that provide the described functionality. In some embodiments, the circuitry may be implemented in, or functions associated with the circuitry may be implemented by, one or more software or firmware modules. In some embodiments, circuitry may include logic, at least partially operable in hardware.

[0028] The term "logic" may refer, for example, to computing logic embedded in circuitry of a computing apparatus and/or computing logic stored in a memory of a

computing apparatus. For example, the logic may be accessible by a processor of the computing apparatus to execute the computing logic to perform computing functions and/or operations. In one example, logic may be embedded in various types of memory and/or firmware, e.g., silicon blocks of various chips and/or processors. Logic may be included in, and/or implemented as part of, various circuitry, e.g. radio circuitry, receiver circuitry, control circuitry, transmitter circuitry, transceiver circuitry, processor circuitry, and/or the like. In one example, logic may be embedded in volatile memory and/or non-volatile memory, including random access memory, read only memory, programmable memory, magnetic memory, flash memory, persistent memory, and/or the like. Logic may be executed by one or more processors using memory, e.g., registers, buffers, stacks, and the like, coupled to the one or more processors, e.g., as necessary to execute the logic.

[0029] The term "antenna", as used herein, may include any suitable configuration, structure and/or arrangement of one or more antenna elements, components, units, assemblies and/or arrays. In some embodiments, the antenna may implement transmit and receive functionalities using separate transmit and receive antenna elements. In some embodiments, the antenna may implement transmit and receive functionalities using common and/or integrated transmit/receive elements. The antenna may include, for example, a phased array antenna, a single element antenna, a set of switched beam antennas, and/or the like.

[0030] Reference is made to Fig. 1, which schematically illustrates a system 100, in accordance with some demonstrative embodiments.

[0031] As shown in Fig. 1, in some demonstrative embodiments, system 100 may include one or more wireless communication devices. For example, system 100 may include at least a wireless communication device 102 and/or a wireless communication device 140.

[0032] In some demonstrative embodiments, device 140 may include a mobile device or a non-mobile, e.g., a static, device.

[0033] For example, device 140 may include, for example, a UE, an MD, a STA, an AP, a PC, a desktop computer, a mobile computer, a laptop computer, an Ultrabook™ computer, a notebook computer, a tablet computer, a server computer, a handheld computer, an Internet of Things (IoT) device, a sensor device, a handheld device, a wearable device, a PDA device, a handheld PDA device, an on-board device, an off-board device, a hybrid device (e.g., combining cellular phone functionalities with PDA device functionalities), a consumer device, a vehicular device, a non-vehicular device, a mobile or portable device, a non-mobile or non-portable device, a mobile phone, a cellular telephone, a PCS device, a PDA device which incorporates a wireless communication device, a mobile or portable GPS device, a DVB device, a relatively small computing device, a non-desktop computer, a "Carry Small Live Large" (CSLL) device, an Ultra Mobile Device (UMD), an Ultra Mobile PC (UMPC), a Mobile Internet Device (MID), an "Origami" device or computing device, a device that supports Dynamically Composable Computing (DCC), a context-aware device, a video device, an audio device, an A/V device, a Set-Top-Box (STB), a Blu-ray disc (BD) player, a BD recorder, a Digital Video Disc (DVD) player, a High Definition (HD) DVD player, a DVD recorder, a HD DVD recorder, a Personal Video Recorder (PVR), a broadcast HD receiver, a video source, an audio source, a video sink, an audio sink, a stereo tuner, a broadcast radio receiver, a flat panel display, a Personal Media Player (PMP), a digital video camera (DVC), a digital audio player, a speaker, an audio receiver, an audio amplifier, a gaming device, a data source, a data sink, a Digital Still camera (DSC), a media player, a Smartphone, a television, a music player, or the like.

[0034] In some demonstrative embodiments, device 102 may include a mobile device.

[0035] For example, device 102 may include, for example, a UE, an MD, a STA, an AP, a mobile computer, a laptop computer, an Ultrabook™ computer, a notebook computer, a tablet computer, a handheld computer, an IoT device, a sensor device, a handheld device, a wearable device, a PDA device, a handheld PDA device, a hybrid device, a consumer device, a mobile or portable device, a mobile phone, a cellular telephone, a PCS device, a PDA device which incorporates a wireless communication device, a mobile or portable GPS device, an UMD, an UMPC, a MID, a PMP, a media player, a Smartphone, a music player, or the like.

[0036] In some demonstrative embodiments, device 102 may include, for example, one or more of a processor 191, an input unit 192, an output unit 193, a memory unit 194, and/or a storage unit 195; and/or device 140 may include, for example, one or more of a processor 181, an input unit 182, an output unit 183, a memory unit 184, and/or a storage unit 185. Devices 102 and/or 140 may optionally include other suitable hardware components and/or software components. In some demonstrative embodiments, some or all of the components of one or more of devices 102 and/or 140 may be enclosed in a common housing or packaging, and may be interconnected or operably associated using one or more wired or wireless links. In other embodiments, components of one or more of devices 102 and/or 140 may be distributed among multiple or separate devices.

[0037] In some demonstrative embodiments, processor 191 and/or processor 181 may include, for example, a Central Processing Unit (CPU), a Digital Signal Processor (DSP), one or more processor cores, a single-core processor, a dual-core processor, a multiple-core processor, a microprocessor, a host processor, a controller, a plurality of processors or controllers, a chip, a microchip, one or more circuits, circuitry, a logic unit, an Integrated Circuit (IC), an Application-Specific IC (ASIC), or any other suitable multi-purpose or specific processor or controller. Processor 191 may execute instructions, for example, of an Operating System (OS) of device 102 and/or of one or more suitable applications. Processor 181 may execute instructions, for example, of an OS of device 140 and/or of one or more suitable applications.

[0038] In some demonstrative embodiments, input unit 192 and/or input unit 182 may include, for example, a keyboard, a keypad, a mouse, a touch-screen, a touch-pad, a track-ball, a stylus, a microphone, or other suitable pointing device or input device. Output unit 193 and/or output unit 183 may include, for example, a monitor, a screen, a touch-screen, a flat panel display, a Light Emitting Diode (LED) display unit, a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) display unit, a plasma display unit, one or more audio speakers or earphones, or other suitable output devices.

[0039] In some demonstrative embodiments, memory unit 194 and/or memory unit 184 includes, for example, a Random Access Memory (RAM), a Read Only Memory (ROM), a Dynamic RAM (DRAM), a Synchronous DRAM (SD-RAM), a flash memory, a volatile memory, a non- volatile memory, a cache memory, a buffer, a short term memory unit, a long term memory unit, or other suitable memory units. Storage unit 195 and/or storage unit 185 may include, for example, a hard disk drive, a floppy disk drive, a Compact Disk (CD) drive, a CD-ROM drive, a DVD drive, or other suitable removable or non-removable storage units. Memory unit 194 and/or storage

unit 195, for example, may store data processed by device 102. Memory unit 184 and/or storage unit 185, for example, may store data processed by device 140.

[0040] In some demonstrative embodiments, wireless communication devices 102 and/or 140 may include, operate as, perform a role of, and/or perform one or more functionalities of, one or more STAs. For example, device 102 may include at least one STA, and/or device 140 may include at least one STA.

[0041] In one example, a station (STA) may include a logical entity that is a singly addressable instance of a medium access control (MAC) and physical layer (PHY) interface to the wireless medium (WM). The STA may perform any other additional or alternative functionality.

[0042] In some demonstrative embodiments, device 140 may include an Access point (AP) STA, and/or device 102 may include a non-AP STA.

[0043] In one example, an AP STA may include an entity that contains a station (STA), e.g., one STA, and provides access to distribution services, via the wireless medium (WM) for associated STAs. The AP may perform any other additional or alternative functionality.

[0044] In one example, a non-access-point (non-AP) station (STA) may include a STA that is not contained within an AP. The non-AP STA may perform any other additional or alternative functionality.

[0045] In other embodiments, device 102 and/or device 140 may operate as, perform a role of, and/or perform one or more functionalities of, any other additional or alternative device and/or station.

[0046] In other embodiments, device 102 may include, operate as, perform a role of, and/or perform one or more functionalities of, any wireless device and/or station, e.g., a WLAN STA, a WiFi STA, and the like.

[0047] In some demonstrative embodiments, wireless communication devices 102 and/or 140 may be capable of communicating content, data, information and/or signals via a wireless medium (WM) 103. In some demonstrative embodiments, wireless medium 103 may include, for example, a radio channel, a cellular channel, an RF channel, a WiFi channel, an IR channel, a Bluetooth (BT) channel, a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Channel, and the like.

[0048] In some demonstrative embodiments, device 102 and/or device 140 may include one or more radios including circuitry and/or logic to perform wireless communication between devices 102, 140 and/or one or more other wireless communication devices. For example, device 102 may include at least one radio 114, and/or device 140 may include at least one radio 144.

[0049] In some demonstrative embodiments, radio 114 and/or radio 144 may include one or more wireless receivers (Rx) including circuitry and/or logic to receive wireless communication signals, RF signals, frames, blocks, transmission streams, packets, messages, data items, and/or data. For example, radio 114 may include at least one receiver 116, and/or radio 144 may include at least one receiver 146.

[0050] In some demonstrative embodiments, radio 114 and/or radio 144 may include one or more wireless transmitters (Tx) including circuitry and/or logic to transmit wireless communication signals, RF signals, frames, blocks, transmission streams, packets, messages, data items, and/or data. For example, radio 114 may include at least one transmitter 118, and/or radio 144 may include at least one transmitter 148.

[0051] In some demonstrative embodiments, radio 114 and/or radio 144, transmitters 118 and/or 148, and/or receivers 116 and/or 146 may include circuitry; logic; Radio Frequency (RF) elements, circuitry and/or logic; baseband elements, circuitry and/or logic; modulation elements, circuitry and/or logic; demodulation elements, circuitry and/or logic; amplifiers; analog to digital and/or digital to analog converters; filters; and/or the like. For example, radio 114 and/or radio 144 may include or may be implemented as part of a wireless Network Interface Card (NIC), and the like.

[0052] In some demonstrative embodiments, radios 114 and/or 144 may be configured to communicate over a directional band, for example, an mmWave band, and/or any other band, for example, a 2.4GHz band, a 5GHz band, a SIG band, and/or any other band.

[0053] In some demonstrative embodiments, radios 114 and/or 144 may include, or may be associated with one or more antennas.

[0054] In one example, device 102 may include a single antenna 107. In another example, device 102 may include two or more antennas 107.

[0055] In one example, device 140 may include a single antenna 147. In another example, device 140 may include two or more antennas 147.

[0056] Antennas 107 and/or 147 may include any type of antennas suitable for transmitting and/or receiving wireless communication signals, blocks, frames, transmission streams, packets, messages and/or data. For example, antennas 107 and/or 147 may include any suitable configuration, structure and/or arrangement of one or more antenna elements, components, units, assemblies and/or arrays. Antennas 107 and/or 147 may include, for example, antennas suitable for directional communication, e.g., using beamforming techniques. For example, antennas 107 and/or 147 may include a phased array antenna, a multiple element antenna, a set of switched beam antennas, and/or the like. In some embodiments, antennas 107 and/or 147 may implement transmit and receive functionalities using separate transmit and receive antenna elements. In some embodiments, antennas 107 and/or 147 may implement transmit and receive functionalities using common and/or integrated transmit/receive elements.

[0057] In some demonstrative embodiments, device 102 may include a controller 124, and/or device 140 may include a controller 154. Controller 124 may be configured to perform and/or to trigger, cause, instruct and/or control device 102 to perform, one or more communications, to generate and/or communicate one or more messages and/or transmissions, and/or to perform one or more functionalities, operations and/or procedures between devices 102, 140 and/or one or more other devices; and/or controller 154 may be configured to perform, and/or to trigger, cause, instruct and/or control device 140 to perform, one or more communications, to generate and/or communicate one or more messages and/or transmissions, and/or to perform one or more functionalities, operations and/or procedures between devices 102, 140 and/or one or more other devices, e.g., as described below.

[0058] In some demonstrative embodiments, controllers 124 and/or 154 may include, or may be implemented, partially or entirely, by circuitry and/or logic, e.g., one or more processors including circuitry and/or logic, memory circuitry and/or logic, Media-Access Control (MAC) circuitry and/or logic, Physical Layer (PHY) circuitry and/or logic, baseband (BB) circuitry and/or logic, a BB processor, a BB memory, Application Processor (AP) circuitry and/or logic, an AP processor, an AP memory, and/or any other circuitry and/or logic, configured to perform the functionality of controllers 124 and/or 154, respectively. Additionally or alternatively, one or more functionalities of controllers 124 and/or 154 may be implemented by logic, which

may be executed by a machine and/or one or more processors, e.g., as described below.

[0059] In one example, controller 124 may include circuitry and/or logic, for example, one or more processors including circuitry and/or logic, to cause, trigger and/or control a wireless device, e.g., device 102, and/or a wireless station, e.g., a wireless STA implemented by device 102, to perform one or more operations, communications and/or functionalities, e.g., as described herein.

[0060] In one example, controller 154 may include circuitry and/or logic, for example, one or more processors including circuitry and/or logic, to cause, trigger and/or control a wireless device, e.g., device 140, and/or a wireless station, e.g., a wireless STA implemented by device 140, to perform one or more operations, communications and/or functionalities, e.g., as described herein.

[0061] In some demonstrative embodiments, device 102 may include a message processor 128 configured to generate, process and/or access one or messages communicated by device 102.

[0062] In one example, message processor 128 may be configured to generate one or more messages to be transmitted by device 102, and/or message processor 128 may be configured to access and/or to process one or more messages received by device 102, e.g., as described below.

[0063] In some demonstrative embodiments, device 140 may include a message processor 158 configured to generate, process and/or access one or messages communicated by device 140.

[0064] In one example, message processor 158 may be configured to generate one or more messages to be transmitted by device 140, and/or message processor 158 may be configured to access and/or to process one or more messages received by device 140, e.g., as described below.

[0065] In some demonstrative embodiments, message processors 128 and/or 158 may include, or may be implemented, partially or entirely, by circuitry and/or logic, e.g., one or more processors including circuitry and/or logic, memory circuitry and/or logic, Media-Access Control (MAC) circuitry and/or logic, Physical Layer (PHY) circuitry and/or logic, BB circuitry and/or logic, a BB processor, a BB memory, AP circuitry and/or logic, an AP processor, an AP memory, and/or any other circuitry and/or logic, configured to perform the functionality of message processors 128 and/or 158, respectively. Additionally or alternatively, one or more functionalities of message processors 128 and/or 158 may be implemented by logic, which may be executed by a machine and/or one or more processors, e.g., as described below.

[0066] In some demonstrative embodiments, at least part of the functionality of message processor 128 may be implemented as part of radio 114, and/or at least part of the functionality of message processor 158 may be implemented as part of radio 144.

[0067] In some demonstrative embodiments, at least part of the functionality of message processor 128 may be implemented as part of controller 124, and/or at least part of the functionality of message processor 158 may be implemented as part of controller 154.

[0068] In other embodiments, the functionality of message processor 128 may be implemented as part of any other element of device 102, and/or the functionality of message processor 158 may be implemented as part of any other element of device 140.

[0069] In some demonstrative embodiments, at least part of the functionality of controller 124 and/or message processor 128 may be implemented by an integrated circuit, for example, a chip, e.g., a System on Chip (SoC). In one example, the chip or SoC may be configured to perform one or more functionalities of radio 114. For example, the chip or SoC may include one or more elements of controller 124, one or more elements of message processor 128, and/or one or more elements of radio 114. In one example, controller 124, message processor 128, and radio 114 may be implemented as part of the chip or SoC.

[0070] In other embodiments, controller 124, message processor 128 and/or radio 114 may be implemented by one or more additional or alternative elements of device 102.

[0071] In some demonstrative embodiments, at least part of the functionality of controller 154 and/or message processor 158 may be implemented by an integrated circuit, for example, a chip, e.g., a System on Chip (SoC). In one example, the chip or SoC may be configured to perform one or more functionalities of radio 144. For example, the chip or SoC may include one or more elements of controller 154, one or more elements of message processor 158, and/or one or more elements of radio 144.

In one example, controller 154, message processor 158, and radio 144 may be implemented as part of the chip or SoC.

[0072] In other embodiments, controller 154, message processor 158 and/or radio 144 may be implemented by one or more additional or alternative elements of device 140.

[0073] In some demonstrative embodiments, a wireless communication station, e.g., a station implemented by device 102, may be configured to perform a scan operation, for example, to discover one or more neighbor APs to which device 102 may connect.

[0074] In some demonstrative embodiments, while device 102 may be connected and/or associated with an AP, device 102 may perform additional scan operations, for example, to discover better candidates to communicate with. This process is referred to as a roaming procedure, a roaming process, and/or a scan procedure.

[0075] In some demonstrative embodiments, one use case for the roaming procedure may be, for example, when device 102 is in movement, and getting away from an associated AP. According to this case, a wireless connection between device 102 and the associated AP may degrade, and device 102 may initiate the roaming procedure, for example, to find another AP to associate with, e.g., before the wireless connection is lost.

[0076] In some demonstrative embodiments, it may be disadvantages, for example, in some use, cases, scenarios and/or deployments, to have a STA in movement perform a roaming procedure (also referred to as "unrestricted response roaming procedure"), in which the STA may transmit a broadcast probe request, to which all neighbor APs within a reception range from the STA may respond with a probe response, e.g., as describes below.

[0077] In some demonstrative embodiments, for example, for a STA in movement, there may be an interest that the STA is to discover only APs that are located in an area towards which the STA is moving. For example, there may be no need for the STA to discover APs that the STA is getting away from.

[0078] Reference is made to Figs. 2A, 2B, and 2C, which schematically illustrate a deployment of a STA and a plurality of APs to demonstrate one or more technical problems of an unrestricted response roaming procedure, which may be solved in accordance with some demonstrative embodiments.

[0079] As shown in Fig. 2A, a STA 202, denoted Roaming STA, may be associated with an AP 240, denoted AP#8, of a plurality of APs, denoted AP#1-AP#9.

[0080] As shown in Fig. 2 A, STA 202 may move in a direction 211 away from AP 240, e.g., towards an area 212.

[0081] In one example, the STA 202 may initiate the unrestricted response roaming procedure, for example, when a wireless connection between STA 202 and AP 240 degrades.

[0082] As shown in Fig. 2B, the STA 202 may broadcast a probe request 210 to be received by one or more of the plurality of APs.

[0083] As shown in Fig. 2B, the plurality of APs may be in an area 215, e.g., in a reception range from the STA, and, accordingly, the plurality of APs may receive the broadcast probe request 210, and may reply with a plurality of respective probe responses.

[0084] As shown in Fig. 2C, the plurality of APs may transmit a plurality of respective probe responses 215 to STA 202.

[0085] As shown in Fig. 2C, STA 202 may receive and process the plurality of probe responses 215, and may select an AP, e.g., a most suitable AP, to communicate with.

[0086] In one example, if STA 202 is static, for example, STA 202 may select an AP based on Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI) information corresponding to the received probe responses. For example, STA 202 may select an AP from which a probe response having the greatest RSSI was received, e.g., in addition to any other criteria.

[0087] In another example, if STA 202 is moving, which may be common in mobile devices, the RSSI information may not be very helpful. For example, a closest AP to STA 202, which may have the greatest RSSI, e.g., during transmission of the broadcast probe request 210, may be in a direction opposite to direction 211.

[0088] For example, based on a the RSSI of the plurality of probe responses 215 from the plurality of APs, Roaming STA 202 may prefer AP#9 over AP#3, e.g., since AP#9 is closer to STA 202 than AP#3, e.g., during the transmission of the broadcast probe responses 215. However, AP#3 may be more suitable, for example, when STA 202 is moving away from AP#9, and AP#3 is in area 212, e.g., an area towards which STA 202 is moving.

[0089] As shown in Fig. 2C, only AP#2, AP#3 and AP#4 may be relevant for the STA 202, e.g., since they are in area 212. The other APs, e.g., AP#1 and AP#5-AP#9, which may be close to STA 202, e.g., when STA 202 transmits the Probe request, may not be good candidates when the association process will actually begin, e.g., since they will be far from STA 202.

[0090] As shown in Fig. 2C, during the unrestricted response roaming procedure of Figs. 2A-2C, STA 202 may receive non-relevant information from non-relevant APs, e.g., APs which are not in area 212.

[0091] In some demonstrative embodiments, the non-relevant information from the non-relevant APs may complicate an AP selection algorithm, and/or may result with a poor selection of an AP.

[0092] In one example, as a number of wireless networks increases, a number of neighbor APs of a roaming STA may increase. Accordingly, a number of non-relevant probe responses, which may be transmitted, e.g., in response to a broadcast probe request from the roaming STA, may also increase. The non-relevant probe response frames may share the same wireless medium as data transmissions. Therefore, the more medium resources of the wireless medium may be used by the non-relevant probe response frames, less medium resources may be available for the data transmissions.

[0093] In some demonstrative embodiments, using the unrestricted response roaming procedure of Fig. 2, over a wireless medium in crowded locations, such as offices, corporate facilities, malls, subways, stadiums, and/or airports, where people are in movement, and the unrestricted response roaming procedure may be frequently applied, may significantly decrease a total throughput of the wireless medium.

[0094] In some demonstrative embodiments, in some use, cases, scenarios and/or deployments, reducing the number of probe responses, for example, by setting an RSSI threshold in a probe request (also referred to as an "RSSI threshold roaming procedure"), may have one or more disadvantages, as described below.

[0095] In one example, the RSSI threshold roaming procedure may define that only APs that receive a probe request with an RSSI that is above the RSSI threshold, may answer with a probe response.

[0096] For example, during the RSSI threshold roaming procedure only APs that are currently close to the Roaming STA may answer, regardless of the direction that the Roaming STA is moving to.

[0097] Reference is made to Fig. 3, which schematically illustrates a deployment of a STA and a plurality of APs to demonstrate one or more technical problems of an RSSI threshold roaming procedure, which may be solved in accordance with some demonstrative embodiments.

[0098] As shown in Fig. 3, a STA 302, denoted, Roaming STA, may be associated with an AP 340, denoted AP#8.

[0099] As shown in Fig. 3, STA 302 may move in a direction 311 away from AP 340, e.g., towards an area 312.

[00100] In one example, the STA 302 may initiate a roaming procedure, for example, when a wireless connection between STA 302 and AP 340 degrades.

[00101] As shown in Fig. 3, the STA 302 may broadcast a probe request including an RSSI threshold.

[00102] As shown in Fig. 3, a plurality of APs, denoted AP#1-AP#9, which may be in an area 315, e.g., in a reception range from the STA, may receive the broadcast probe request.

[00103] As shown in Fig. 3, only AP#3, AP#6, and/or AP#9 may respond with a probe response, for example, when AP#3, AP#6, and/or AP#9 are in an area 317, in which the RSSI of the probe request may be above the RSSI threshold.

[00104] As shown in Fig. 3, AP#6 and AP#9 may not be relevant for STA 302, e.g., since they are far from area 312.

[00105] As shown in Fig. 3, AP#4 and/or AP#2, which may be relevant for STA 302, e.g., since they are located in area 312, may not respond to the probe request, for example, since the RSSI of the probe request as measured at AP#4 and/or AP#5 may be below the RSSI threshold, e.g., since AP#4 and/or AP#2 are not in area 317. [00106] Referring back to Fig. 1, in some demonstrative embodiments, devices 102 and/or 140 may be configured to restrict a probe response to a restricted area, e.g., as described below.

[00107] In some demonstrative embodiments, devices 102 and/or 140 may be configured to communicate a probe request including information to define a restricted area from which APs are to respond to the probe request, e.g., as described below.

[00108] In some demonstrative embodiments, a wireless station, e.g., a station implemented by device 102, may be configured to include in a broadcast probe request, for example, area information corresponding to the restricted area, e.g., as described below.

[00109] In some demonstrative embodiments, a wireless station, e.g., a station implemented by device 102, may be configured to include in a broadcast probe request, for example, when performing a roaming procedure due to a movement of the station, area information corresponding to a location towards which the station is moving, e.g., as described below.

[00110] In some demonstrative embodiments, only APs that are located in the restricted area may respond with a probe response, e.g., as described below.

[00111] In one example, only APs that are aware of their location, and/or may easily decide whether they should respond to the probe request may respond with a probe response, e.g., as described below.

[00112] In some demonstrative embodiments, restricting the location of APs, which are to respond to the probe response may significantly decrease a number of probe responses, which may be communicated in response to the probe request from the station, e.g., as described below.

[00113] In some demonstrative embodiments, decreasing the number of probe responses may reduce usage of wireless medium, and/or may facilitate an AP selection algorithm of the STA.

[00114] in some demonstrative embodiments, a roaming STA, e.g., a STA implemented by device 102, may include in a broadcast probe request center coordinates of a location towards which the STA is moving, and a range parameter,

e.g., a radius, for example, to define a restricted response area (also referred to as a "Probe-Request Targe ted- Area"), e.g., as described below.

[00115] In some demonstrative embodiments, one or more APs, e.g., within a broadcast range of device 102, may receive the broadcast probe request, however, only APs that are located in the restricted response area may respond with a probe response, e.g., as described below.

[00116] In some demonstrative embodiments, defining the restricted response area may simplify and/or improve an AP selection algorithm, and/or may significantly reduce a number of non-relevant probe responses, which may consume medium resources, e.g., as described below.

[00117] In some demonstrative embodiments, an AP, e.g., an AP implemented by device 140, which may be aware of its location, may calculate a distance between its location and the center coordinates of the restricted response area in the probe request, e.g., as described below.

[00118] In some demonstrative embodiments, the AP may answer with a probe response, for example, only if the AP is in the restricted response area, e.g., only if the distance from the center coordinates is less than the range parameter, e.g., as described below.

[00119] In some demonstrative embodiments, device 102 may initiate a roaming procedure to scan for one or more APs, for example, when a wireless connection with an associated AP is lost or degraded, e.g., as described below.

[00120] In some demonstrative embodiments, controller 124 may be configured to control, cause and/or trigger device 102 to broadcast a probe request including area information defining a restricted response area to indicate that only APs that are in the restricted response area are to respond to the probe request, e.g., as described below.

[00121] In some demonstrative embodiments, the area information may indicate that APs that are not in the restricted response area may not respond to the probe request, e.g., as described below.

[00122] In some demonstrative embodiments, the area information may include latitude information, longitude information, and/or floor information of a floor of the restricted response area, e.g., if the restricted response area is in a building. In other embodiments, the area information may include any other information to identify and/or define the restricted response area.

[00123] In some demonstrative embodiments, the restricted response area may include an expected location of device 102 after a predefined time period from transmission of the probe request, e.g., as described below.

[00124] In some demonstrative embodiments, controller 124 may be configured to control, cause and/or trigger device 102 to determine the restricted response area, for example, based on one or more parameters of a detected movement of device 102, e.g., as described below.

[00125] In some demonstrative embodiments, the one or more parameters may include a direction of the detected movement of device 102 and/or a speed of the detected movement of device 102, e.g., as described below.

[00126] In other embodiments, the one or more parameters of the detected movement may include any additional or alternative parameters.

[00127] In some demonstrative embodiments, the probe request may include a probe-request targeted-area field including the area information, e.g., as described below.

[00128] In some demonstrative embodiments, the probe request may include a parameter control bitmap field including a bit to indicate the probe request is to include the area information, e.g., as described below.

[00129] In some demonstrative embodiments, device 140 may receive the broadcast probe request from device 102, e.g., as described below.

[00130] In some demonstrative embodiments, device 140 may transmit a probe response, e.g., in response to the broadcast probe request from device 102, for example, if device 140 is in the restricted response area.

[00131] In some demonstrative embodiments, controller 154 may be configured to control, cause and/or trigger device 140 to process the broadcast probe request including the area information defining the restricted response area to indicate that only APs that are in the restricted response area are to respond to the probe request, e.g., as described below.

[00132] In some demonstrative embodiments, controller 154 may be configured to control, cause and/or trigger device 140 to select whether or not to allow device 140 to transmit a probe response in response to the probe request, for example, based on whether device 140 is in the restricted response area, e.g., as described below.

[00133] In some demonstrative embodiments, controller 154 may be configured to control, cause and/or trigger device 140 to transmit the probe response, for example, only when device 140 is in the restricted response area, or when a location of device 140 is unknown, e.g., as described below.

[00134] In some demonstrative embodiments, controller 154 may be configured to control, cause and/or trigger device 140 to select not to respond to the probe request, for example, when device 140 is not in the restricted response area.

[00135] In some demonstrative embodiments, controller 154 may be configured to control, cause and/or trigger device 140 to transmit the probe response, for example, if device 140 is on the floor defined in the area information, e.g., as described below.

[00136] In one example, controller 154 may be configured to control, cause and/or trigger device 140 to transmit the probe response, for example, if a distance of device 140 from the center of the restricted response area is less than the radius of the restricted response area and device 140 is on the floor defined in the area information.

[00137] In other embodiments, controller 154 may be configured to control, cause and/or trigger device 140 to select whether or not to transmit the probe response based on any other additional or alternative criteria relating to the restricted response area and/or any additional or alternative parameter.

[00138] In some demonstrative embodiments, device 102 may receive the probe response from device 140 and/or one or more other probe responses from one or more other APs in the restricted response area.

[00139] In some demonstrative embodiments, controller 124 may be configured to control, cause and/or trigger device 102 to receive, in response to the probe request, one or more probe responses from one or more APs in the restricted response area.

[00140] In some demonstrative embodiments, based on the one or more probe responses, device 102 may select an AP to communicate with, e.g., from the one or more APs from which a probe response has been received, e.g., as described below.

[00141] In some demonstrative embodiments, controller 124 may be configured to control, cause and/or trigger device 102 to broadcast the probe request when device 102 is not in the restricted response area, to receive a probe response from an AP, e.g., device 140, of the one or more APs in the restricted response area, and to communicate with the AP when the device 102 is in the restricted response area, e.g., as described below.

[00142] Reference is made to Fig. 4A and Fig. 4B, which schematically illustrate a deployment of a roaming STA and a plurality of APs, in accordance with some demonstrative embodiments.

[00143] As shown in Fig. 4A, a STA 402, denoted, Roaming STA, may be associated with an AP 440, denoted AP#8 of a plurality of APs, denoted AP#l-9.

[00144] In some demonstrative embodiments, STA 402 may move in a direction 411 away from AP 440, e.g., towards an area 412.

[00145] In some demonstrative embodiments, the STA 402 may initiate a roaming procedure, for example, as a wireless connection between STA 402 and AP 440 degrades, and/or based on any other additional or alternative criterion.

[00146] In some demonstrative embodiments, as shown in Fig. 4A, the STA 402 may broadcast a probe request 410.

[00147] In some demonstrative embodiments, STA 402 may include in the probe request 410 area information defining a restricted response area 412, denoted "probe request targeted area".

[00148] In one example, the area information may include, for example, center coordinates of a location towards which the STA 402 is moving, e.g., area 412, and a range parameter, e.g., a radius of area 412. In other embodiments, the area information may include any other additional or alternative information relating to restricted response area 412.

[00149] In some demonstrative embodiments, as shown in Fig. 4A, the plurality of APs, which may be in an area 415, e.g., an area within a reception range of STA 402, may receive the broadcast probe request 410.

[00150] In some demonstrative embodiments, only APs that are located in area 412 may select to respond with a probe response, e.g., as described below.

[00151] In some demonstrative embodiments, as shown in Fig. 4B, only AP#2, AP#3 and/or AP#4 may select to respond to the roaming STA 402 with a plurality of respective probe responses 422.

[00152] In some demonstrative embodiments, as shown in Fig. 4B, one or more APs which receive the probe request 410 but are not in area 412, may select not to respond to the roaming STA 402.

[00153] Reference is made to Fig. 5, which schematically illustrates a structure of an information element (IE) 510, in accordance with some demonstrative embodiments.

[00154] In some demonstrative embodiments, device 102 (Fig. 1) may generate, process, and/or transmit the broadcast probe request including information element 510.

[00155] In some demonstrative embodiments, information element 510 may include a Fast Initial Link Setup (FILS) request parameters information element. In other embodiments, information element 510 may include any other information element.

[00156] In some demonstrative embodiment, as shown in Fig. 5, IE 510 may include a probe-request targeted-area field 504 including the area information, e.g., as described below.

[00157] In some demonstrative embodiment, as shown in Fig. 5, information element 510 may include a parameter control bitmap field 502 including a bit 512 to indicate the probe request is to include area information defining a restricted response area.

[00158] In one example, parameter control bitmap field 512 may be configured to indicate which optional fields are included in information element 510. For example, bit 512 may be configured to indicate if the probe-request targeted-area field 504 is included in information element 510. For example, bit 512 may be set to a value of zero to indicate that information element 510 does not include the probe-request targeted-area field 504, and/or bit 512 may be set to a value of one to indicate that information element 510 includes the probe-request targeted-area field 504. In other embodiments, any other indication may be used to indicate whether or not probe-request targeted-area field 504 is included in information element 510.

[00159] In some demonstrative embodiment, as shown in Fig. 5, information element 510 may include an Element ID field 506, e.g., including a value "255" or any other value, and/or an Element ID Extension field 508, e.g., including a value "2" or any other value.

[00160] In some demonstrative embodiment, as shown in Fig. 5, probe -request targeted-area field 504 may include 11 octets at an end of information element 510. In other embodiments, probe-request targeted-area field 504 may have any other size and/or may be located at any other location in information element 510.

[00161] In some demonstrative embodiment, as shown in Fig. 5, probe -request targeted-area field 504 may include one or more subfields, e.g., as described below.

[00162] In some demonstrative embodiment, as shown in Fig. 5, probe -request targeted-area field 504 may include a latitude field 522, e.g., including 34 bits or any other number of bits, a longitude field 524, e.g., including 34 bits or any other number of bits, a floor number field 526, e.g., including 14 bits or any other number of bits, and/or a range field 528, e.g., including 6 bits or any other number of bits.

[00163] In some demonstrative embodiments, latitude field 522, longitude field 524, and/or floor number field 526 may define a location, which may be used to define the restricted response area, e.g., the center of the restricted response area.

[00164] In one example, latitude field 522, longitude field 524, and floor number field 526 may be defined in accordance with an IEEE 802.11 Standard, for example, as part of a Location Configuration Information (LCI) IE, and may be used in probe-request targeted-area field 504. For example, only a subset of the LCI IE, which may be used under different, and/or not related scenarios, may be used in probe-request targeted-area field 504, e.g., using a same format and structure, for example, for implementation efficiency.

[00165] In some demonstrative embodiments, range field 528 may define a radius, e.g., in meters or any other dimension, of the restricted repose area, e.g., from the center of the restricted repose area.

[00166] Reference is made to Fig. 6, which schematically illustrates a sequence diagram 600 of operations and communications between a STA 602 and an AP 640, in accordance with some demonstrative embodiments. For example, device 102 (Fig. 1) may perform one or more operations and/or functionalities of the STA 602, and/or device 140 (Fig. 1) may perform one or more operations and/or functionalities of the AP 640.

[00167] In some demonstrative embodiments, as indicated at block 601, STA 602 may initiate, operate and/or activate location services and/or motion detection sensors of STA 602. For example, controller 124 (Fig. 1), may initiate, operate and/or activate location services and/or motion detection sensors of device 102 (Fig. 1).

[00168] In some demonstrative embodiments, as indicated at block 604, STA 602 may detect movement of STA 602. For example, a movement sensor of device 102 (Fig. 1) may detect movement of device 102 (Fig. 1).

[00169] In some demonstrative embodiments, as indicated at block 606, STA 602 may identify a direction of the movement of STA 602. For example, controller 124 (Fig. 1) may identify the direction of movement of device 102 (Fig. 1).

[00170] In some demonstrative embodiments, as indicated at block 608, STA 602 may determine a restricted response area, for example, based on the direction of the movement. For example, controller 124 (Fig. 1) may determine a restricted response area, for example, based on the direction of the movement of device 102 (Fig. 1), e.g., as described above.

[00171] In some demonstrative embodiments, as indicated at block 610, STA 602 may generate a broadcast probe request including the probe-request targeted-area field defining the restricted response area. For example, controller 124 (Fig. 1) may control, cause and/or trigger device 102 (Fig. 1) to generate the broadcast probe request including the probe-request targeted-area field defining the restricted response area, e.g., as described above.

[00172] In some demonstrative embodiments, as shown in Fig. 6, STA 602 may transmit (611) the broadcast probe request including the probe-request targeted-area field. For example, controller 124 (Fig. 1) may control, cause and/or trigger device 102 (Fig. 1) to transmit the broadcast probe request including the probe-request targeted-area field 505 (Fig. 5), e.g., as described above.

[00173] In some demonstrative embodiments, as indicated at block 612, AP 640 may be aware of its location. For example, controller 154 (Fig. 1) may be aware of the location of device 140, e.g., as described above.

[00174] In some demonstrative embodiments, as indicated at block 614, AP 640 may receive and process the broadcast probe request including the probe-request targeted-area field from STA 602. For example, controller 154 (Fig. 1) may control, cause

and/or trigger device 140 (Fig. 1) to receive and process the broadcast probe request including the probe-request targeted-area field 504 (Fig. 5), e.g., as described above.

[00175] In some demonstrative embodiments, as indicated at block 616, AP 640 may determine whether the location of AP 640 is in the restricted response area. For example, controller 154 (Fig. 1) may control, cause and/or trigger device 140 (Fig. 1) to determine whether the location of device 140 (Fig. 1) is in the restricted response area, e.g., as described above.

[00176] In some demonstrative embodiments, as indicated at block 620, AP 640 may select not to transmit a probe response to STA 602, for example, if the location of AP 640 is not in the restricted response area. For example, controller 154 (Fig. 1) may control, cause and/or trigger device 140 (Fig. 1) to select not to transmit a probe response to device 102 (Fig. 1), for example, if the location of device 140 (Fig. 1) is not in the restricted response area, e.g., as described above.

[00177] In some demonstrative embodiments, as indicated at block 618, AP 640 may transmit a probe response 622 to STA 602, for example, if the location of AP 640 is in the restricted response area. For example, controller 154 (Fig. 1) may control, cause and/or trigger device 140 (Fig. 1) to transmit the probe response to device 102 (Fig. 1), for example, if the location of device 140 (Fig. 1) is in the restricted response area, e.g., as described above.

[00178] In some demonstrative embodiments, including the area information defining the restricted response area in a broadcast probe request may enable a STA to transmit to APs a broadcast probe-request including an indication to a receiving AP that the receiving AP should ignore the received Probe-request, e.g., and not to transmit a Probe-Response, for example, if the receiving AP is not located in the restricted response area set by the STA in the broadcast probe request.

[00179] In some demonstrative embodiments, the area information may enable the STA to specify, e.g., within the probe request, the restricted response area, e.g., including a geographical location and/or range that cover APs that are expected to answer the probe request.

[00180] In some demonstrative embodiments, an AP, when receiving a probe -request including the area information, e.g., in the form of a FILS Request Parameters

information element 510 (Fig. 5) including the Probe- Request Targeted- Area field 504 (Fig. 5), may determine whether the AP is located in the restricted response area.

[00181] In one example, if the AP is not located in the restricted response area, the AP may ignore the probe-request, and may not transmit a probe-response to the STA. In all other scenarios the AP may not ignore the probe request.

[00182] In another example, if the AP is unaware of its location, the AP may ignore the restricted response area and may reply with a Probe Response.

[00183] Reference is made to Fig. 7, which schematically illustrates a method of restricting a probe response to a restricted response area, in accordance with some demonstrative embodiments. For example, one or more of the operations of the method of Fig. 7 may be performed by one or more elements of a system, e.g., system 100 (Fig. 1), for example, one or more wireless devices, e.g., device 102 (Fig. 1), and/or device 140 (Fig. 1); a controller, e.g., controller 124 (Fig. 1), and/or controller 154 (Fig. 1); a radio, e.g., radio 114 (Fig. 1), and/or radio 144 (Fig. 1); a transmitter, e.g., transmitter 118 (Fig. 1), and/or transmitter 148 (Fig. 1); a receiver, e.g., receiver 116 (Fig. 1), and/or receiver 146 (Fig. 1); and/or a message processor, e.g., message processor 128 (Fig. 1), and/or message processor 158 (Fig. 1).

[00184] As indicated at block 702, the method may include broadcasting a probe request including area information defining a restricted response area to indicate that only APs that are in the restricted response area are to respond to the probe request. For example, controller 124 (Fig. 1) may control cause and/or trigger device 102 (Fig. 1) to broadcast the probe request including the area information defining the restricted response area to indicate that only APs that are in the restricted response area are to respond to the probe request, e.g., as described above.

[00185] As indicated at block 704, the method may include receiving, in response to the probe request, one or more probe responses from one or more APs in the restricted response area. For example, controller 124 (Fig. 1) may control cause and/or trigger device 102 (Fig. 1) to receive, in response to the probe request 410 (Fig. 4), the one or more probe responses 422 (Fig. 4) from the one or more APs in the restricted response area 412 (Fig. 4), e.g., as described above.

[00186] Reference is made to Fig. 8, which schematically illustrates a method of restricting a probe response to a restricted response area, in accordance with some

demonstrative embodiments. For example, one or more of the operations of the method of Fig. 8 may be performed by one or more elements of a system, e.g., system 100 (Fig. 1), for example, one or more wireless devices, e.g., device 102 (Fig. 1), and/or device 140 (Fig. 1); a controller, e.g., controller 124 (Fig. 1), and/or controller 154 (Fig. 1); a radio, e.g., radio 114 (Fig. 1), and/or radio 144 (Fig. 1); a transmitter, e.g., transmitter 118 (Fig. 1), and/or transmitter 148 (Fig. 1); a receiver, e.g., receiver 116 (Fig. 1), and/or receiver 146 (Fig. 1); and/or a message processor, e.g., message processor 128 (Fig. 1), and/or message processor 158 (Fig. 1).

[00187] As indicated at block 802, the method may include processing a broadcast probe request from a mobile station, the broadcast probe request including area information defining a restricted response area to indicate that only APs that are in the restricted response area are to respond to the probe request. For example, controller 154 (Fig. 1) may control cause and/or trigger device 140 (Fig. 1) to process the broadcast probe request from device 102 (Fig. 1) including the area information defining the restricted response area to indicate that only APs that are in the restricted response area are to respond to the probe request, e.g., as described above.

[00188] As indicated at block 804, the method may include, based on whether the AP is in the restricted response area, selecting whether or not to allow the AP to transmit a probe response in response to the probe request. For example, controller 154 (Fig. 1) may control cause and/or trigger device 140 (Fig. 1) to select whether or not to allow device 140 (Fig. 1) to transmit the probe response in response to the probe request, for example, based on whether device 140 (Fig. 1) is in the restricted response area, e.g., as described above.

[00189] Reference is made to Fig. 9, which schematically illustrates a product of manufacture 900, in accordance with some demonstrative embodiments. Product 900 may include one or more tangible computer-readable ("machine-readable") non-transitory storage media 902, which may include computer-executable instructions, e.g., implemented by logic 904, operable to, when executed by at least one computer processor, enable the at least one computer processor to implement one or more operations at device 102 (Fig. 1), device 140 (Fig. 1), radio 114 (Fig. 1), radio 144 (Fig. 1), transmitter 118 (Fig. 1), transmitter 148 (Fig. 1), receiver 116 (Fig. 1), receiver 146 (Fig. 1), controller 124 (Fig. 1), controller 154 (Fig. 1), message processor 128 (Fig. 1), and/or message processor 158 (Fig. 1), to cause device 102

(Fig. 1), device 140 (Fig. 1), radio 114 (Fig. 1), radio 144 (Fig. 1), transmitter 118 (Fig. 1), transmitter 148 (Fig. 1), receiver 116 (Fig. 1), 1), receiver 146 (Fig. 1), controller 124 (Fig. 1), controller 154 (Fig. 1), message processor 128 (Fig. 1), and/or message processor 158 (Fig. 1) to perform one or more operations, and/or to perform, trigger and/or implement one or more operations, communications and/or functionalities described above with reference to Figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and/or 8, and/or one or more operations described herein. The phrase "non-transitory machine-readable medium" is directed to include all computer-readable media, with the sole exception being a transitory propagating signal.

[00190] In some demonstrative embodiments, product 900 and/or storage media 902 may include one or more types of computer-readable storage media capable of storing data, including volatile memory, non-volatile memory, removable or non-removable memory, erasable or non-erasable memory, writeable or re-writeable memory, and the like. For example, storage media 902 may include, RAM, DRAM, Double-Data-Rate DRAM (DDR-DRAM), SDRAM, static RAM (SRAM), ROM, programmable ROM (PROM), erasable programmable ROM (EPROM), electrically erasable programmable ROM (EEPROM), Compact Disk ROM (CD-ROM), Compact Disk Recordable (CD-R), Compact Disk Rewriteable (CD-RW), flash memory (e.g., NOR or NAND flash memory), content addressable memory (CAM), polymer memory, phase-change memory, ferroelectric memory, silicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-silicon (SONOS) memory, a disk, a floppy disk, a hard drive, an optical disk, a magnetic disk, a card, a magnetic card, an optical card, a tape, a cassette, and the like. The computer-readable storage media may include any suitable media involved with downloading or transferring a computer program from a remote computer to a requesting computer carried by data signals embodied in a carrier wave or other propagation medium through a communication link, e.g., a modem, radio or network connection.

[00191] In some demonstrative embodiments, logic 904 may include instructions, data, and/or code, which, if executed by a machine, may cause the machine to perform a method, process and/or operations as described herein. The machine may include, for example, any suitable processing platform, computing platform, computing device, processing device, computing system, processing system, computer,

processor, or the like, and may be implemented using any suitable combination of hardware, software, firmware, and the like.

[00192] In some demonstrative embodiments, logic 904 may include, or may be implemented as, software, a software module, an application, a program, a subroutine, instructions, an instruction set, computing code, words, values, symbols, and the like. The instructions may include any suitable type of code, such as source code, compiled code, interpreted code, executable code, static code, dynamic code, and the like. The instructions may be implemented according to a predefined computer language, manner or syntax, for instructing a processor to perform a certain function. The instructions may be implemented using any suitable high-level, low-level, object-oriented, visual, compiled and/or interpreted programming language, such as C, C++, Java, BASIC, Matlab, Pascal, Visual BASIC, assembly language, machine code, and the like.

EXAMPLES

[00193] The following examples pertain to further embodiments.

[00194] Example 1 includes an apparatus comprising logic and circuitry configured to cause a mobile station to broadcast a probe request comprising area information defining a restricted response area to indicate that only Access Points (APs) which are in the restricted response area are to respond to the probe request; and receive, in response to the probe request, one or more probe responses from one or more APs in the restricted response area.

[00195] Example 2 includes the subject matter of Example 1, and optionally, wherein the area information is to indicate that APs that are not in the restricted response area are not to respond to the probe request.

[00196] Example 3 includes the subject matter of Example 1 or 2, and optionally, wherein the area information comprises latitude information, longitude information, and floor information of a floor of the restricted response area.

[00197] Example 4 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 1-3, and optionally, wherein the area information comprises one or more location parameters to define a center of the restricted response area, and a radius parameter to define a radius of the restricted response area.

[00198] Example 5 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 1-4, and optionally, wherein the restricted response area comprises an expected location of the mobile station after a predefined time period from transmission of the probe request.

[00199] Example 6 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 1-5, and optionally, wherein the apparatus is configured to cause the mobile station to determine the restricted response area based on one or more movement parameters of a detected movement of the mobile station.

[00200] Example 7 includes the subject matter of Example 6, and optionally, wherein the one or more movement parameters comprise at least one of a direction of the detected movement of the mobile station or a speed of the detected movement of the mobile station.

[00201] Example 8 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 1-7, and optionally, wherein the apparatus is configured to cause the mobile station to broadcast the probe request when the mobile station is connected to a first AP, which is not in the restricted response area, to receive a probe response from a second AP, which is in the restricted response area, and to communicate with the second AP when the mobile station is to be in the restricted response area.

[00202] Example 9 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 1-8, and optionally, wherein the probe request comprises a probe-request targeted-area field comprising the area information.

[00203] Example 10 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 1-9, and optionally, wherein the probe request comprises a parameter control bitmap field comprising a bit to indicate that the probe request comprises the area information.

[00204] Example 11 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 1-10, and optionally, comprising a radio.

[00205] Example 12 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 1-11, and optionally, comprising a memory, a processor, and one or more antennas.

[00206] Example 13 includes a system of wireless communication comprising a mobile station, the mobile station comprising one or more antennas; a radio; a memory; a processor; and a controller configured to cause the mobile station to broadcast a probe request comprising area information defining a restricted response area to indicate that only Access Points (APs) which are in the restricted response area are to respond to the probe request; and receive, in response to the probe request, one or more probe responses from one or more APs in the restricted response area.

[00207] Example 14 includes the subject matter of Example 13, and optionally, wherein the area information is to indicate that APs that are not in the restricted response area are not to respond to the probe request.

[00208] Example 15 includes the subject matter of Example 13 or 14, and optionally, wherein the area information comprises latitude information, longitude information, and floor information of a floor of the restricted response area.

[00209] Example 16 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 13-15, and optionally, wherein the area information comprises one or more location parameters to define a center of the restricted response area, and a radius parameter to define a radius of the restricted response area.

[00210] Example 17 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 13-16, and optionally, wherein the restricted response area comprises an expected location of the mobile station after a predefined time period from transmission of the probe request.

[00211] Example 18 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 13-17, and optionally, wherein the controller is configured to cause the mobile station to determine the restricted response area based on one or more movement parameters of a detected movement of the mobile station.

[00212] Example 19 includes the subject matter of Example 18, and optionally, wherein the one or more movement parameters comprise at least one of a direction of the detected movement of the mobile station or a speed of the detected movement of the mobile station.

[00213] Example 20 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 13-19, and optionally, wherein the controller is configured to cause the mobile station to broadcast the probe request when the mobile station is connected to a first AP, which is not in the restricted response area, to receive a probe response from a second AP, which is in the restricted response area, and to communicate with the second AP when the mobile station is to be in the restricted response area.

[00214] Example 21 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 13-20, and optionally, wherein the probe request comprises a probe-request targeted-area field comprising the area information.

[00215] Example 22 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 13-21, and optionally, wherein the probe request comprises a parameter control bitmap field comprising a bit to indicate that the probe request comprises the area information.

[00216] Example 23 includes a method to be performed at a mobile station, the method comprising broadcasting a probe request comprising area information defining a restricted response area to indicate that only Access Points (APs) which are in the restricted response area are to respond to the probe request; and receiving, in response to the probe request, one or more probe responses from one or more APs in the restricted response area.

[00217] Example 24 includes the subject matter of Example 23, and optionally, wherein the area information is to indicate that APs that are not in the restricted response area are not to respond to the probe request.

[00218] Example 25 includes the subject matter of Example 23 or 24, and optionally, wherein the area information comprises latitude information, longitude information, and floor information of a floor of the restricted response area.

[00219] Example 26 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 23-25, and optionally, wherein the area information comprises one or more location parameters to define a center of the restricted response area, and a radius parameter to define a radius of the restricted response area.

[00220] Example 27 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 23-26, and optionally, wherein the restricted response area comprises an expected location of the mobile station after a predefined time period from transmission of the probe request.

[00221] Example 28 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 23-27, and optionally, comprising determining the restricted response area based on one or more movement parameters of a detected movement of the mobile station.

[00222] Example 29 includes the subject matter of Example 28, and optionally, wherein the one or more movement parameters comprise at least one of a direction of the detected movement of the mobile station or a speed of the detected movement of the mobile station.

[00223] Example 30 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 23-29, and optionally, comprising broadcasting the probe request when the mobile station is connected to a first AP, which is not in the restricted response area, receiving a probe response from a second AP, which is in the restricted response area, and communicating with the second AP when the mobile station is to be in the restricted response area.

[00224] Example 31 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 23-30, and optionally, wherein the probe request comprises a probe-request targeted-area field comprising the area information.

[00225] Example 32 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 23-31, and optionally, wherein the probe request comprises a parameter control bitmap field comprising a bit to indicate that the probe request comprises the area information.

[00226] Example 33 includes a product comprising one or more tangible computer-readable non-transitory storage media comprising computer-executable instructions operable to, when executed by at least one processor, enable the at least one processor to cause a mobile station to broadcast a probe request comprising area information defining a restricted response area to indicate that only Access Points (APs) which are in the restricted response area are to respond to the probe request; and receive, in response to the probe request, one or more probe responses from one or more APs in the restricted response area.

[00227] Example 34 includes the subject matter of Example 33, and optionally, wherein the area information is to indicate that APs that are not in the restricted response area are not to respond to the probe request.

[00228] Example 35 includes the subject matter of Example 33 or 34, and optionally, wherein the area information comprises latitude information, longitude information, and floor information of a floor of the restricted response area.

[00229] Example 36 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 33-35, and optionally, wherein the area information comprises one or more location parameters to define a center of the restricted response area, and a radius parameter to define a radius of the restricted response area.

[00230] Example 37 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 33-36, and optionally, wherein the restricted response area comprises an expected location of the mobile station after a predefined time period from transmission of the probe request.

[00231] Example 38 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 33-37, and optionally, wherein the instructions, when executed, cause the mobile station to determine the restricted response area based on one or more movement parameters of a detected movement of the mobile station.

[00232] Example 39 includes the subject matter of Example 38, and optionally, wherein the one or more movement parameters comprise at least one of a direction of the detected movement of the mobile station or a speed of the detected movement of the mobile station.

[00233] Example 40 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 33-39, and optionally, wherein the instructions, when executed, cause the mobile station to broadcast the probe request when the mobile station is connected to a first AP, which is not in the restricted response area, to receive a probe response from a second AP, which is in the restricted response area, and to communicate with the second AP when the mobile station is to be in the restricted response area.

[00234] Example 41 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 33-40, and optionally, wherein the probe request comprises a probe-request targeted-area field comprising the area information.

[00235] Example 42 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 33-41, and optionally, wherein the probe request comprises a parameter control bitmap field comprising a bit to indicate that the probe request comprises the area information.

[00236] Example 43 includes an apparatus of wireless communication by a mobile station, the apparatus comprising means for broadcasting a probe request comprising area information defining a restricted response area to indicate that only Access Points (APs) which are in the restricted response area are to respond to the probe request; and means for receiving, in response to the probe request, one or more probe responses from one or more APs in the restricted response area.

[00237] Example 44 includes the subject matter of Example 43, and optionally, wherein the area information is to indicate that APs that are not in the restricted response area are not to respond to the probe request.

[00238] Example 45 includes the subject matter of Example 43 or 44, and optionally, wherein the area information comprises latitude information, longitude information, and floor information of a floor of the restricted response area.

[00239] Example 46 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 43-45, and optionally, wherein the area information comprises one or more location parameters to define a center of the restricted response area, and a radius parameter to define a radius of the restricted response area.

[00240] Example 47 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 43-46, and optionally, wherein the restricted response area comprises an expected location of the mobile station after a predefined time period from transmission of the probe request.

[00241] Example 48 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 43-47, and optionally, comprising means for determining the restricted response area based on one or more movement parameters of a detected movement of the mobile station.

[00242] Example 49 includes the subject matter of Example 48, and optionally, wherein the one or more movement parameters comprise at least one of a direction of the detected movement of the mobile station or a speed of the detected movement of the mobile station.

[00243] Example 50 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 43-49, and optionally, comprising means for broadcasting the probe request when the mobile station is connected to a first AP, which is not in the restricted response area, receiving a probe response from a second AP, which is in the restricted response area, and communicating with the second AP when the mobile station is to be in the restricted response area.

[00244] Example 51 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 43-50, and optionally, wherein the probe request comprises a probe-request targeted-area field comprising the area information.

[00245] Example 52 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 43-51, and optionally, wherein the probe request comprises a parameter control bitmap field comprising a bit to indicate that the probe request comprises the area information.

[00246] Example 53 includes an apparatus comprising logic and circuitry configured to cause an Access Point (AP) to process a broadcast probe request from a mobile station, the broadcast probe request comprising area information defining a restricted response area to indicate that only APs that are in the restricted response area are to respond to the broadcast probe request; and based on whether the AP is in the restricted response area, select whether or not to allow the AP to transmit a probe response in response to the broadcast probe request.

[00247] Example 54 includes the subject matter of Example 53, and optionally, wherein the apparatus is configured to allow the AP to transmit the probe response only when the AP is in the restricted response area or when a location of the AP is unknown.

[00248] Example 55 includes the subject matter of Example 53 or 54, and optionally, wherein the apparatus is configured to cause the AP to select not to respond to the broadcast probe request when the AP is not in the restricted response area.

[00249] Example 56 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 53-55, and optionally, wherein the area information comprises latitude information, longitude information, and floor information of a floor of the restricted response area.

[00250] Example 57 includes the subject matter of Example 56, and optionally, wherein the apparatus is configured to allow the AP to transmit the probe response only when the AP is on the floor.

[00251] Example 58 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 53-57, and optionally, wherein the area information comprises one or more location parameters to define a center of the restricted response area, and a radius parameter to define a radius of the restricted response area.

[00252] Example 59 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 53-58, and optionally, wherein the restricted response area comprises an expected location of the mobile station after a predefined time period from transmission of the broadcast probe request.

[00253] Example 60 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 53-59, and optionally, wherein the broadcast probe request comprises a parameter control bitmap field comprising a bit to indicate that the broadcast probe request comprises the area information.

[00254] Example 61 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 53-60, and optionally, wherein the broadcast probe request comprises a probe-request targeted-area field comprising the area information.

[00255] Example 62 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 53-61, and optionally, comprising a radio.

[00256] Example 63 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 53-62, and optionally, comprising a memory, a processor, and one or more antennas.

[00257] Example 64 includes a system of wireless communication comprising an Access Point (AP), the AP comprising one or more antennas; a radio; a memory; a processor; and a controller configured to cause the AP to process a broadcast probe request from a mobile station, the broadcast probe request comprising area information defining a restricted response area to indicate that only APs that are in the restricted response area are to respond to the broadcast probe request; and based on whether the AP is in the restricted response area, select whether or not to allow the AP to transmit a probe response in response to the broadcast probe request.

[00258] Example 65 includes the subject matter of Example 64, and optionally, wherein the controller is configured to allow the AP to transmit the probe response only when the AP is in the restricted response area or when a location of the AP is unknown.

[00259] Example 66 includes the subject matter of Example 64 or 65, and optionally, wherein the controller is configured to cause the AP to select not to respond to the broadcast probe request when the AP is not in the restricted response area.

[00260] Example 67 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 64-66, and optionally, wherein the area information comprises latitude information, longitude information, and floor information of a floor of the restricted response area.

[00261] Example 68 includes the subject matter of Example 67, and optionally, wherein the controller is configured to allow the AP to transmit the probe response only when the AP is on the floor.

[00262] Example 69 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 64-68, and optionally, wherein the area information comprises one or more location parameters

to define a center of the restricted response area, and a radius parameter to define a radius of the restricted response area.

[00263] Example 70 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 64-69, and optionally, wherein the restricted response area comprises an expected location of the mobile station after a predefined time period from transmission of the broadcast probe request.

[00264] Example 71 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 64-70, and optionally, wherein the broadcast probe request comprises a parameter control bitmap field comprising a bit to indicate that the broadcast probe request comprises the area information.

[00265] Example 72 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 64-71, and optionally, wherein the broadcast probe request comprises a probe-request targeted-area field comprising the area information.

[00266] Example 73 includes a method to be performed at an Access Point (AP), the method comprising processing a broadcast probe request from a mobile station, the broadcast probe request comprising area information defining a restricted response area to indicate that only APs that are in the restricted response area are to respond to the broadcast probe request; and based on whether the AP is in the restricted response area, selecting whether or not to allow the AP to transmit a probe response in response to the broadcast probe request.

[00267] Example 74 includes the subject matter of Example 73, and optionally, comprising allowing the AP to transmit the probe response only when the AP is in the restricted response area or when a location of the AP is unknown.

[00268] Example 75 includes the subject matter of Example 73 or 74, and optionally, comprising selecting not to respond to the broadcast probe request when the AP is not in the restricted response area.

[00269] Example 76 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 73-75, and optionally, wherein the area information comprises latitude information, longitude information, and floor information of a floor of the restricted response area.

[00270] Example 77 includes the subject matter of Example 76, and optionally, comprising allowing the AP to transmit the probe response only when the AP is on the floor.

[00271] Example 78 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 73-77, and optionally, wherein the area information comprises one or more location parameters to define a center of the restricted response area, and a radius parameter to define a radius of the restricted response area.

[00272] Example 79 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 73-78, and optionally, wherein the restricted response area comprises an expected location of the mobile station after a predefined time period from transmission of the broadcast probe request.

[00273] Example 80 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 73-79, and optionally, wherein the broadcast probe request comprises a parameter control bitmap field comprising a bit to indicate that the broadcast probe request comprises the area information.

[00274] Example 81 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 73-80, and optionally, wherein the broadcast probe request comprises a probe-request targeted-area field comprising the area information.

[00275] Example 82 includes a product comprising one or more tangible computer-readable non-transitory storage media comprising computer-executable instructions operable to, when executed by at least one processor, enable the at least one processor to cause an Access Point (AP) to process a broadcast probe request from a mobile station, the broadcast probe request comprising area information defining a restricted response area to indicate that only APs that are in the restricted response area are to respond to the broadcast probe request; and based on whether the AP is in the restricted response area, select whether or not to allow the AP to transmit a probe response in response to the broadcast probe request.

[00276] Example 83 includes the subject matter of Example 82, and optionally, wherein the instructions, when executed, allow the AP to transmit the probe response only when the AP is in the restricted response area or when a location of the AP is unknown.

[00277] Example 84 includes the subject matter of Example 82 or 83, and optionally, wherein the instructions, when executed, cause the AP to select not to respond to the broadcast probe request when the AP is not in the restricted response area.

[00278] Example 85 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 82-84, and optionally, wherein the area information comprises latitude information, longitude information, and floor information of a floor of the restricted response area.

[00279] Example 86 includes the subject matter of Example 85, and optionally, wherein the instructions, when executed, allow the AP to transmit the probe response only when the AP is on the floor.

[00280] Example 87 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 82-86, and optionally, wherein the area information comprises one or more location parameters to define a center of the restricted response area, and a radius parameter to define a radius of the restricted response area.

[00281] Example 88 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 82-87, and optionally, wherein the restricted response area comprises an expected location of the mobile station after a predefined time period from transmission of the broadcast probe request.

[00282] Example 89 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 82-88, and optionally, wherein the broadcast probe request comprises a parameter control bitmap field comprising a bit to indicate that the broadcast probe request comprises the area information.

[00283] Example 90 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 82-89, and optionally, wherein the broadcast probe request comprises a probe-request targeted-area field comprising the area information.

[00284] Example 91 includes an apparatus of wireless communication by an Access Point (AP), the apparatus comprising means for processing a broadcast probe request from a mobile station, the broadcast probe request comprising area information defining a restricted response area to indicate that only APs that are in the restricted response area are to respond to the broadcast probe request; and means for, based on whether the AP is in the restricted response area, selecting whether or not to allow the AP to transmit a probe response in response to the broadcast probe request.

[00285] Example 92 includes the subject matter of Example 91, and optionally, comprising means for allowing the AP to transmit the probe response only when the AP is in the restricted response area or when a location of the AP is unknown.

[00286] Example 93 includes the subject matter of Example 91 or 92, and optionally, comprising means for selecting not to respond to the broadcast probe request when the AP is not in the restricted response area.

[00287] Example 94 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 91-93, and optionally, wherein the area information comprises latitude information, longitude information, and floor information of a floor of the restricted response area.

[00288] Example 95 includes the subject matter of Example 94, and optionally, comprising means for allowing the AP to transmit the probe response only when the AP is on the floor.

[00289] Example 96 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 91-95, and optionally, wherein the area information comprises one or more location parameters to define a center of the restricted response area, and a radius parameter to define a radius of the restricted response area.

[00290] Example 97 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 91-96, and optionally, wherein the restricted response area comprises an expected location of the mobile station after a predefined time period from transmission of the broadcast probe request.

[00291] Example 98 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 91-97, and optionally, wherein the broadcast probe request comprises a parameter control bitmap field comprising a bit to indicate that the broadcast probe request comprises the area information.

[00292] Example 99 includes the subject matter of any one of Examples 91-98, and optionally, wherein the broadcast probe request comprises a probe-request targeted-area field comprising the area information.

[00293] Functions, operations, components and/or features described herein with reference to one or more embodiments, may be combined with, or may be utilized in combination with, one or more other functions, operations, components and/or

features described herein with reference to one or more other embodiments, or vice versa.

[00294] While certain features have been illustrated and described herein, many modifications, substitutions, changes, and equivalents may occur to those skilled in the art. It is, therefore, to be understood that the appended claims are intended to cover all such modifications and changes as fall within the true spirit of the disclosure.