Coupling devices and related methods are disclosed herein, e.g., for coupling a surgical instrument to a navigation array or other component. The coupling device can reduce or eliminate movement between the instrument and the navigation array, improving navigation precision. The coupling device can be quick and easy to use, reducing or eliminating the need for extra steps or additional tools to attach or detach the instrument from the coupling device. In some embodiments, the single step of inserting an instrument into the coupling device can automatically lock the instrument within the coupling device in a toggle-free manner. The coupling device can include features for consistently attaching instruments thereto at a known or predetermined location and/or orientation.