Disclosed are a cold-chain vehicle monitoring system and particularly, a cold-chain vehicle wireless monitoring system based on a single-chip microcomputer. The cold-chain vehicle wireless monitoring system comprises a remote control system and an on-board single-chip microcomputer system. The remote control system receives a variety of information from the on-board single-chip microcomputer system, displays a driving path and the driving condition of a cold-chain vehicle, displays the temperature of a carriage of the cold-chain vehicle, calculates the fuel consumption of the cold-chain vehicle, and sends, to the on-board single-chip microcomputer system, scheduling information comprising unloading and loading information as well as other instructions. The on-board single-chip microcomputer system navigates and records the driving path, the driving condition and the temperature of the carriage of the cold-chain vehicle, detects the driving speed and the fuel consumption, displays the scheduling information and the instructions, gives an alarm prompt, and transmits data to the remote control system through a wireless network. The system implements real-time and seamless remote control and management of the running state of the cold-chain vehicle, greatly improves the computing and analysis efficiency, reduces the operating costs of cold-chain logistics, reduces management loopholes and improves the safety. Also disclosed is a cold-chain vehicle wireless monitoring method.