Methods, systems, and devices described herein enable single-image optical sectioning, even at depth within turbid media, such as human skin or other tissue. Embodiments can eliminate the need for multiple image samples or raster scans, making in-vivo or live biological imaging easier and faster than multi-image sectioning techniques. Better contrast and resolution than traditional three-phase structured illumination microscopy (SIM) is possible in turbid media. Embodiments enable imaging of cell nuclei. Resolution and contrast resulting from disclosed embodiments are less sensitive to motion of or within patients or other targets than confocal microscopy and three-phase SIM techniques. Three-dimensional images of target specimens can be provided based on a group of single-image optical sections. Real-time imaging can also be provided.