A system that iteratively performs medical testing is described. During operation the system receives a test resale of a medical test performed on a biological sample associated with an individual, where the test result has an initial uncertainty. Then, the system determines, based on the test result, a second medical test to perform on a second biological sample associated with the individual where the second biological sample was acquired prior to the biological sample. Moreover, the system performs the second medical test on the second biological sample to obtain a second test result of the second medical test. Next, the system computes a revised result for the medical test based on the test result and the second test result, where the revised result has a second uncertainty that is less than the initial uncertainty.