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1. WO2018140367 - SUPERCAPACITORS CONTAINING CARBON BLACK PARTICLES CLEANED WITH AN ACID

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[ EN ]

CLAIMS

1. A supercapacitor, comprising:

an electrode comprising activated carbon and carbon black particles comprising less than or equal to about 100 ppm of calcium.

2. The supercapacitor of claim 1, wherein the carbon black particles further comprise less than or equal to about 100 ppm of potassium and/or less than or equal to about 100 ppm of sodium.

3. The supercapacitor of 1 or 2, wherein the carbon black particles comprise one or more of the following characteristics:

(a) less than or equal to about 30 ppm of iron;

(b) less than or equal to about 2 ppm of nickel;

(c) less than or equal to about 2 ppm of copper;

(d) less than or equal to about 2 ppm of lead; and/or

(e) less than or equal to about 2 ppm of manganese.

4. The supercapacitor of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the carbon black particles have a Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) surface area ranging from about 600 m2/g to about 2,100 m2/g.

5. The supercapacitor of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the carbon black particles have a BET surface area ranging from about 750 m2/g to about 1500 m2/g.

6. The supercapacitor of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the carbon black particles have a crushed dibutyl phthalate (CDBP) value ranging from about 50 mL/100 g to about 300 mL/100 g.

7. The supercapacitor of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the carbon black particles have a CDBP value ranging from about 200 mL/100 g to about 300mL/100 g.

8. The supercapacitor of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the carbon black particles have a D50 agglomerate particle size distribution of less than about 50 micrometers, and/or a D95 agglomerate particle size distribution of less than about 250 micrometers.

9. The supercapacitor of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the carbon black particles comprise one or more of the following characteristics:

(a) an average primary particle size of from about 8 nm to about 50 nm;

(b) an average aggregate particle size of from about 50 nm to about 500 nm;

(c) an iodine number value of from about 1,000 mg/g to about 2,200 mg/g;

(d) an ash content of less than about 0.5 wt %; and/or

(e) a pH of about 3 to about 7.

10. The supercapacitor of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the ratio of carbon black particles to activated carbon ranges from about 1 :99 to about 15:85.

11. The supercapacitor of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the activated carbon has a BET surface area ranging from about 1,000 m2/g to about 2,500 m2/g.

12. The supercapacitor of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the activated carbon has pore volume equal to or greater than about 0.7 cm3/gram and/or a microporosity equal to or greater than 60%.

13. The supercapacitor of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the activated carbon comprise one or more of the following characteristics:

(a) less than or equal to about 100 ppm of calcium;

(b) less than or equal to about 100 ppm of potassium;

(c) less than or equal to about 100 ppm of sodium;

(d) less than or equal to about 30 ppm of iron;

(e) less than or equal to about 2 ppm of nickel;

(f) less than or equal to about 2 ppm of copper;

(g) less than or equal to about 2 ppm of lead; and/or

(h) less than or equal to about 2 ppm of manganese.

14. The supercapacitor of any one of the preceding claims, wherein the supercapacitor is a pseudo-capacitor or a hybrid supercapacitor.

15. A method, comprising:

treating base carbon black particles to form treated carbon black particles comprising less than or equal to about 100 ppm of calcium; and

using the treated carbon black particles to form an electrode of a supercapacitor.

16. The method of claim 15, wherein the treated carbon black particles further comprise less than or equal to about 100 ppm of potassium and/or less than or equal to about 100 ppm of sodium.

17. The method of claim 15 or 16, wherein the treated carbon black particles comprise one or more of the following characteristics:

(a) less than or equal to about 30 ppm of iron;

(b) less than or equal to about 2 ppm of nickel;

(c) less than or equal to about 2 ppm of copper;

(d) less than or equal to about 2 ppm of lead; and/or

(e) less than or equal to about 2 ppm of manganese.

18. The method of any one of claims 15-17, wherein treating the base carbon black particles comprises contacting the base carbon black particles with an acid.

19. The method of claim 18, wherein the acid is selected from the group consisting of hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, citric acid, formic acid, acetic acid, and oxalic acid.

20. The method of any one of claims 15-19, wherein the treated carbon black particles have a BET surface area ranging from about 600 m2/g to about 2, 100 m2/g.

21. The method of any one of claims 15-20, wherein the treated carbon black particles have a BET surface area ranging from about 750 m2/g to about 1500 m2/g.

22. The method of any one of claims 15-21, wherein the treated carbon black particles have a CDBP value ranging from about 50 mL/100 g to about 300 mL/100 g.

23. The method of any one of claims 15-22, wherein the treated carbon black particles have a CDBP value ranging from about 200 mL/100 g to about 300 mL/100 g.

24. The method of any one of claims 15-23, wherein the treated carbon black particles have a D50 agglomerate particle size distribution of less than about 50 micrometers, and/or a D95 agglomerate particle size distribution of less than about 250 micrometers.

25. The method of any one of claims 15-24, wherein the treated carbon black particles comprise one or more of the following characteristics:

(a) an average primary particle size of from about 8 nm to about 50 nm;

(b) an average aggregate particle size of from about 50 nm to about 500 nm;

(c) an iodine number value of from about 1,000 mg/g to about 2,200 mg/g;

(d) an ash content of less than about 0.5 wt %; and/or

(e) a pH of about 3 to about 7.

26. The method of any one of claims 15-25, further comprising using activated carbon to form the electrode.

27. The method of claim 26, wherein the ratio of treated carbon black particles to activated carbon ranges from about 1 :99 to about 15:85.

28. The method of claim 25 or 26, wherein the activated carbon has a BET surface area ranging from about 1,000 m2/g to about 2,500 m2/g.

29. The method of any one of claims 26-28, wherein the activated carbon has pore volume equal to or greater than about 0.7 cm3/gram and/or a microporosity equal to or greater than 60%.

30. The method of any one of claims 26-29, wherein the activated carbon comprises one or more of the following characteristics:

(a) less than or equal to about 100 ppm of calcium;

(b) less than or equal to about 100 ppm of potassium;

(c) less than or equal to about 100 ppm of sodium;

(d) less than or equal to about 30 ppm of iron;

(e) less than or equal to about 2 ppm of nickel;

(f) less than or equal to about 2 ppm of copper;

(g) less than or equal to about 2 ppm of lead; and/or

(h) less than or equal to about 2 ppm of manganese.

31. The method of any one of claims 15-30, wherein the supercapacitor is a pseudo-capacitor or a hybrid supercapacitor.

32. Carbon black particles having a Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) surface area ranging from about 600 m2/g to about 2, 100 m2/g, and comprising less than or equal to about 100 ppm of calcium.

33. The carbon black particles of claim 32, further comprising less than or equal to about 100 ppm of potassium and/or less than or equal to about 100 ppm of sodium.

34. The carbon black particles of claim 32 or 33, further comprising one or more of the following characteristics:

(a) less than or equal to about 30 ppm of iron;

(b) less than or equal to about 2 ppm of nickel;

(c) less than or equal to about 2 ppm of copper;

(d) less than or equal to about 2 ppm of lead; and/or

(e) less than or equal to about 2 ppm of manganese.

35. The carbon black particles of any one of claims 32-34, having a BET surface area ranging from about 750 m2/g to about 1500 m2/g.

36. The carbon black particles of any one of claims 32-35, having a crushed dibutyl phthalate (CDBP) value ranging from about 50 mL/100 g to about 300 mL/100 g.

37. The carbon black particles of any one of claims 32-36, having a CDBP value ranging from about 200 mL/100 g to about 300 mL/100 g.

38. The carbon black particles of any one of claims 32-37, having a Dso agglomerate particle size distribution of less than about 50 micrometers, and/or a D95 agglomerate particle size distribution of less than about 250 micrometers.

39. The carbon black particles of any one of claims 32-38, further having one or more of the following characteristics:

(a) an average primary particle size of from about 8 nm to about 50 nm;

(b) an average aggregate particle size of from about 50 nm to about 500 nm;

(c) an iodine number value of from about 1,000 mg/g to about 2,200 mg/g;

(d) an ash content of less than about 0.5 wt %; and/or

(e) a pH of about 3 to about 7.