What are proposed are optical beacons arranged at coordinates known in advance in proximity to a trajectory of movement of a vehicle, wherein each beacon comprises two optical radiation sources with a monochrome spectrum of radiation, which are spaced apart at a defined distance, wherein each of the beacons has radiation characteristics differing from the other beacons. At least one optical signal receiver comprising a light-sensitive matrix is mounted on the vehicle. By processing an image which is produced by the above-mentioned matrix and contains at least data from three beacons, the distance of the vehicle from each beacon is determined. Furthermore, the position of the vehicle in a locality is determined taking into account the determined distances from said beacons and the location of the latter, which is obtained on the basis of the optical radiation characteristics of each of the beacons. It is possible to mount two optical signal receivers; in this case, it is possible to determine the position of the vehicle on the basis of two beacons. The result consists in simplifying the implementation of the method with an increase in the accuracy of determining the position of a vehicle, including in unfavourable operating conditions.