Embodiments of the present invention provide a wireless communication system for structure monitoring, and an adaptive wireless communication method. The wireless communication system for structural monitoring comprises a convergence node and at least one ordinary node. The convergence node and the ordinary node each comprise a controller, an ultra-wideband communication chip, and a power supply. The controllers are connected to the ultra-wideband communication chips. The power supplies are correspondingly connected to the controllers and the ultra-wideband communication chips. The convergence node also comprises a serial communication interface and/or a long-distance wireless communication interface. The system performs data transmission by using an ultra-wideband communication technology, has a very wide communication bandwidth, and can automatically switch a wireless communication channel in real time according to communication condition, so as to implement adaptive communication, and work failures due to interference are avoided, so that the system has very strong adaptability and a dynamic anti-interference capability. Accordingly, the problem in the prior art of poor data transmission quality due to a narrow bandwidth and interference easiness of a wireless communication manner for structure monitoring is resolved.