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1. (WO2018102410) MIXTURES OF SABADILLA ALKALOIDS AND INSECT GROWTH REGULATORS AND USES THEREOF
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MIXTURES OF SABADILLA ALKALOIDS AND INSECT GROWTH REGULATORS

AND USES THEREOF FIELD OF THE INVENTION

[0001] The present invention is directed to pesticidal mixtures comprising sabadilla alkaloids and at least one insect growth regulator and methods of controlling pests including insects and mites by application of pesticidal mixtures comprising sabadilla alkaloids and at least one insect growth regulator.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0002] Arthropod pests are one of the major threats to human welfare and exert continued stress on the food supply and transmit a broad array of medical and veterinary diseases. Synthetic insecticides played a significant role and in many ways ushered in modern agriculture and pest control. However, the widespread use of synthetic insecticides also created numerous environmental challenges. The acute effects of synthetic pesticides on professional applicators and other end users are well-known but the chronic long term human health effects can be equally serious. Further, the use of synthetic insecticides has led to the development of resistant insect populations. Insecticide resistance is a complex phenomenon underlined by a diverse array of physiological mechanisms. Major mechanisms that are responsible for the development of insecticide resistance are metabolic detoxification, target site mutation, reduced cuticular penetration and behavioral avoidance.

[0003] Integrated Pest Management ("IPM") is a holistic approach to pest management. A fundamental aspect of insecticide utilization under the broader framework of IPM is the management of insecticide resistance (TRM) by the utilization of insecticide combinations that reduce the rate of resistance development. A combination of insecticides with different modes of action is fundamentally a concept based upon the idea of redundant killing of target insect populations. Insect within the population adapted to one of the active ingredient in the combination product will still be killed by the other active ingredient. This combination effect will result in an overall greater reduction in population size and be more likely to cause eradication of the entire population. Mixtures can also reduce the amount of pesticides applied in the environment and the environmental impact associated with pesticide applications.

[0004] Most botanical insecticides are readily biodegradable and significantly less harmful to the environment and users than synthetic insecticides. The very short environmental persistence, usually less than 24 hours, of plant derived insecticides is favorable to the survival of non-target, beneficial parasites and predators which are important components of IPM. Unlike conventional insecticides which are typically based on a single active ingredient, plant derived insecticides usually comprise an array of chemical compounds that affect both behavioral and physiological functions of the target arthropods. The probability of pest resistance developing to plant derived insecticides is less than that for synthetic pesticides because these mixtures may have a variety of modes of action.

[0005] One effective naturally derived pesticide is found in the tissues of many of the plants of the genus Schoenocaulon, commonly referred to as sabadilla. The species with the longest history of use, and the most readily available, is Schoenocaulon officinale. The plant is indigenous to Central and South America and its seeds have been used for centuries for their insecticidal properties. The seeds contain several alkaloids including veratridine and cevadine, both of which are known to be active against arthropods.

[0006] Insect growth regulators ("IGRs") are another effective group of pesticides with a unique mode of action targeting the growth and developmental processes of arthropod pests. IGRs

inhibit the maturation of the insect from the larvae to the imago stage. Specifically, IGRs interfere with the reproduction, hatching and molting process. IGRs do not affect the nervous system of the insect and thus are not harmful to other animals.

[0007] Thus, there is a need in the art for pesticide combinations that contain pesticides that decrease health concerns to humans and also decrease the risk of the development of pesticide resistance.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0008] In one aspect, the present invention is directed to pesticidal mixtures of sabadilla alkaloids and at least one insect growth regulator ("IGR").

[0009] In another aspect, the present invention is directed to methods of controlling pests, including insects and mites, comprising applying an effective amount of a mixture of sabadilla alkaloids and at least one IGR.

[0010] In a preferred aspect, the sabadilla alkaloids are derived from Schoenocaulon officinale.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0011] Applicant unexpectedly discovered that pesticidal mixtures of sabadilla alkaloids and at least one insect growth regulator ("IGR") provided enhanced pesticidal activity compared to either pesticide alone. Further, Applicant discovered that pesticidal mixtures of sabadilla alkaloids and at least one IGR were capable of controlling a large variety of arthropods.

[0012] The present invention is directed to pesticidal mixtures comprising an effective amount of sabadilla alkaloids and at least one IGR.

[0013] Sabadilla alkaloids may be derived from any species of Schoenocaulon. The genus Schoenocaulon includes the following species: S. calcicola, S. caricifolium, S. comatum, S. conzattii, S. dubium (alt. S. gracile), S. framei, S. ghiesbreghtii (alt. S. drummondii, S. yucatanense), S. ignigenum, S. intermedium, S. jaliscense, S. macrocarpum (alt. S. lauricola), S. madidorum, S. megarrhizum, S. mortonii, S. oaxacense, S. obtusum, S. officinale, S. pellucidum, S. plumosum, S. pringlei, S. rzedowskii, S. tenor ioi, S. tenue, S. tenuifolium, S. texanum, and S. tigrense. In a preferred embodiment the sabadilla alkaloids are derived from S. officinale. In another preferred embodiment the sabadilla alkaloids are veratridine and cevadine.

[0014] Insect growth regulators suitable for use in the present invention include, but are not limited to juvenile hormone analogs, chitin synthesis inhibitors and juvenile hormone inhibitors. In a preferred embodiment the insect growth regulator of the present invention is selected from a group consisting of pyriproxyfen, hydroprene, kinoprene, methoprene, fenoxycarb, bistrifluron, chlorfluazuron, diflubenzuron, flucycloxuron, flufenoxuron, hexaflumuron, lufenuron, novaluron, noviflumuron, teflubenzuron, triflumuron, buprofezin, cyromazine, chromafenozide, halofenozide, methoxyfenozide, tebufenozide, clofentezine, hexythiazox, diflovidazin, salts thereof, isomers thereof, and combinations thereof. In a preferred embodiment, the insect growth regulator is not azadirachtin. In another preferred embodiment, the insect growth regulator is pyriproxyfen. Pyriproxyfen is a juvenile hormone analog.

[0015] As used herein, all numerical values relating to amounts, weight percentages and the like are defined as "about" or "approximately" each particular value, namely, plus or minus 10 %. For example, the phrase "at least 5 % by weight" is to be understood as "at least 4.5 % to 5.5 % by weight." Therefore, amounts within 10 % of the claimed values are encompassed by the scope of the claims.

[0016] As used herein, w/w denotes weight by weight of the total mixture.

[0017] The term "effective amount" means the amount of the formulation that will control the target pest. The "effective amount" will vary depending on the mixture concentration, the type of pest(s) being treated, the severity of the pest infestation, the result desired, and the life stage of the pest during treatment, among other factors. Thus, it is not always possible to specify an exact "effective amount." However, an appropriate "effective amount" in any individual case may be determined by one of ordinary skill in the art.

[0018] In a preferred embodiment, the ratio of sabadilla alkaloids to IGR is from about 1 : 5.5 to about 625: 1, preferably from about 1 :5.5 to about 50: 1, 1 :5.5 to about 7.5: 1, from about 1 :3.4 to about 9.3 : 1, from about 1.7: 1 to about 50: 1 and from about 1.7: 1 to about 625: 1.

[0019] In another preferred embodiment, the pesticidal mixtures of the present invention may contain one or more excipients selected from the group consisting of solvents, anti-caking agents, stabilizers, defoamers, slip agents, humectants, dispersants, wetting agents, thickening agents, emulsifiers, penetrants, adjuvants, polymers, propellants and/or preservatives.

[0020] The present invention is further directed to methods of controlling a pest comprising applying a pesticidal mixture comprising an effective amount of sabadilla alkaloids and IGR to the pest or the pest' s environment.

[0021] In a preferred embodiment, the pest is selected from an insect and a mite.

[0022] In an embodiment, the pest controlled is selected from the group consisting of aphids (Homoptera), whiteflies (Hemiptera), thrips (Thysanoptera), bed bugs (Hemiptera), fleas (Siphonaptera), caterpillars/worms (Lepidoptera), beetles (Coleoptera), cockroaches (Blattodea), flies (Diptera), ants (Hymenoptera), mosquitoes (Culicidae) and mites (Acari). In a preferred embodiment, the pest controlled are selected from the group consisting of common bed bugs (Cimex lectularius), green peach aphids (Myzus persicae), house fly (Musca domestica), yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti), southern house mosquito (Culex quinquefasciatus), African

malaria mosquito {Anopheles gambiae), common malaria mosquito (Anopheles

quadrimaculatus) and German cockroach (Blattella germanica).

[0023] The pesticidal mixtures of the present invention can be applied by any convenient means. Those skilled in the art are familiar with the modes of application including spraying, brushing, soaking, in-furrow treatments, pressurized liquids (aerosols), fogging or side-dressing.

[0024] In a preferred embodiment, sabadilla alkaloids are applied to the pest or the pest's environment at a rate from about 1 to about 1,000 grams per hectare ("g/HA"), preferably from about 10 to about 700 g/HA and most preferably from about 22 to about 560 g/HA.

[0025] In a preferred embodiment, IGR is applied to the pest or the pest's environment at a rate from about 1 to about 1,000 g/HA, more preferably from about 10 to about 500 g/HA and most preferably from about 60 to about 120 g/HA, from about 60 to about 75 g/HA, and from about 75 to about 120 g/HA.

[0026] In another preferred embodiment, pesticidal mixtures of the present invention comprise from about 0.05% to about 0.5% w/w sabadilla alkaloids.

[0027] In another preferred embodiment, pesticidal mixtures of the present invention comprise from about 0.0008%) to about 0.03%> w/w IGR, more preferably from about 0.01%> to about 0.03% w/w IGR.

[0028] As used herein, "control" a pest or "controlling" pest(s) refers to killing, incapacitating, repelling, or otherwise decreasing the negative impact of the pest on plants or animals to a level that is desirable to the grower or animal.

[0029] As used herein, "pest's environment" refers to any area that the pest is present during any life stage. One environment likely to be treated by the methods of the present invention includes the plants that the pest is living on and the surrounding soil. The pest's environment may also include harvested plants, gardens, fields, greenhouses, or other buildings, and various indoor surfaces and structures, such as furniture including beds, and furnishings including books, clothing, etc.

[0030] The articles "a," "an" and "the" are intended to include the plural as well as the singular, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise. For example, the methods of the present invention are directed to controlling "pest" but this can include control of a multiple pests (such as a more than one insect or more than one insect species or more than one mite or more than one mite species).

[0031] The following examples are intended to illustrate the present invention and to teach one of ordinary skill in the art how to use the extracts of the invention. They are not intended to be limiting in any way.

EXAMPLES

Example 1 - German cockroach

[0032] In this study, the response of the German cockroach (Blattella germanica) to application of a 1.7: 1, 5: 1, 16.7: 1 and 50: 1 ratio of sabadilla (S. officinale) alkaloids to at least one IGR will be observed. Specifically, sabadilla alkaloids and at least one IGR will be applied to the pest at the respective rates of: 1) 0.05% w/w to 0.01% w/w, 2) 0.5% w/w to 0.01% w/w, 3) 0.05% w/w to 0.03% w/w and 4) 0.5% w/w to 0.03% w/w.

[0033] The results of the study are predicted to show more than an additive effect. One can determine that the response is synergistic using the following formula: %Cexp = A + B -(AB/100).

[0034] %CexP = A + B - (AB/100), where %CexP is the expected efficacy and "in which A and B are the control levels given by the single [insecticides]. If the ratio between the experimentally

observed efficacy of the mixture Cobs and the expected efficacy of the mixture is greater than 1, synergistic interactions are present in the mixture." (Gisi, Synergisitic Interaction of Fungicides in Mixtures, The American Phytopathological Society, 86: 11, 1273-1279,1996). Adopting a conservative approach, Applicant determined synergy to be present at ratios of >1.1.

Example 2 - Mosquito

[0035] In this study, the response of the mosquito to application of a 1.7: 1, 16.7: 1, 62.5: 1 and 625: 1 ratio of sabadilla (S. officinale) alkaloids to at least one IGR will be observed.

Specifically, sabadilla alkaloids and at least one IGR will be applied to the pest at the respective rates of: 1) 0.05% w/w to 0.03% w/w, 2) 0.5% w/w to 0.03% w/w, 3) 0.05% w/w to 0.0008% w/w and 4) 0.5% w/w to 0.0008% w/w.

[0036] The results of the study are predicted to show more than an additive effect. One can determine that the response is synergistic using the following formula: %Cexp = A + B -(AB/100).

Example 3 - Whiteflies

[0037] In this study, the response of the common whiteflies to application of a 1 :3.4, 1 :2.7, 7.5: 1, and 9.3 : 1 ratio of sabadilla (S. officinale) alkaloids to at least one IGR will be observed.

Specifically, sabadilla alkaloids and at least one IGR will be applied to the pest at the respective rates of: 1) 22 g/HA and 75 g/HA; 2) 560 g/HA and 75 g/HA; 3) 22 g/HA and 60 g/HA; and 4) 560 g/HA and 60g/HA.

[0038] The results of the study are predicted to show more than an additive effect. One can determine that the response is synergistic using the following formula: %Cexp = A + B -(AB/100).

Example 4 - Green Peach Aphid

[0039] In this study, the response of the green peach aphid {Myzus persicae) to application of a 1 :3.4, 1 :5.5, 4.7: 1, and 7.5: 1 ratio of sabadilla (S. officinale) alkaloids to at least one IGR will be observed. Specifically, sabadilla alkaloids and at least one IGR will be applied to the pest at the respective rates of: 1) 22 g/HA and 75 g/HA; 2) 560 g/HA and 75 g/HA; 3) 22 g/HA and 120 g/HA; and 4) 560 g/HA and 120g/HA.

[0040] The results of the study are predicted to show more than an additive effect. One can determine that the response is synergistic using the following formula: %Cexp = A + B -(AB/100).