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1. (WO2018100452) INTRAOCULAR LENSES HAVING ZONE-BY-ZONE STEP HEIGHT CONTROL
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FIELD

[0001] The present disclosure relates generally to intraocular lenses and more particularly to intraocular lenses having zone by zone step height control,

BACKGROUND

[0002] intraocular lenses (iOLs) are implanted in patients' eyes either to replace a patient's lens or to complement the patient's lens. The IOL may be implanted in place of the patient's lens during cataract surgery. Alternatively, an IOL may be implanted in a patient's eye to augment the optical power of the patient's own lens.

[0003] Some conventional IOLs are single focal length IOLs, while others are multifocal IOLs. Single focal length IOLs have a single focal length or single power. Objects at the focal length from the eye/IOL are in focus, while objects nearer or further away may be out of focus. Although objects are in perfect focus only at the focal length, objects within the depth of focus (within a particular distance of the focal length) are still acceptably in focus for the patient to consider the objects in focus. Multifocal IOLs have at least two focal lengths. For example, a bifocal IOL has two focal lengths for improving focus in two ranges: a distance focus corresponding to a larger focal length and a near focus corresponding to a smaller focal length. Thus, a patient's distance vision and near vision may be improved. Trifocal IOLs have three focuses: a far focus for distance vision, a near focus for near vision and an intermediate focus for intermediate vision. The intermediate focus has an intermediate focal length between that of the near and far focuses. Multifocal IOLs may improve the patient's ability to focus on distant and nearby objects.

[0004] in order to fabricate a conventional IOL, optical design software is generally employed. The desired focal lengths and locations of zones on the lens surface are provided. Given these inputs, the entire lens is analytically optimized using the optical software. Stated differently, the diffraction structures for multiple zones are simultaneously optimized using analytic tools. As a result, an IOL may be provided.

[0005] Although useful in addressing optical conditions, lOLs may suffer from various drawbacks such as longitudinal chromatic aberration and/or a limited depth of focus. Different colors of light have different wavelengths and, therefore, different frequencies. As a result, the IOL focuses light of different colors at different distances from the lens. The IOL may be unable to focus light of different colors at the patient's retina. The polychromatic image contrast for the IOL may be adversely affected, in addition, the depth of focus of the IOL may not be as large as desired. The patient's vision for ranges further from the focal length may be adversely affected. Consequently, an extended depth of focus (EDOF) may be desired.

[0006] Accordingly, what is needed is a system and method for improving lOLs.

SUMMARY

[0007] A method and system provide an ophthalmic device. The ophthalmic device includes an ophthalmic lens having anterior surface, a posterior surface and at least one diffractive structure including a plurality of zones. The at least one diffractive structure is for at least one of the anterior surface and the posterior surface. Each zone includes at least one echeiette having a least one step height. The step height(s) are individually provided for each zone. The at least one step height is also folded by a phase, which is an integer multiple of two multiplied by π.

[0008] The lens may having the diffractive strucfure(s) described above may have reduced chromatic aberration and greater EDOF. As a result, performance may be improved.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0009] For a more complete understanding of the present disclosure and the advantages thereof, reference is now made to the following description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings in which like reference numerals indicate like features and wherein:

[0010] FIGS. 1A and 1 B depict a plan and side views of an exemplary embodiment of a multifocal ophthalmic device that includes individually optimized zones and phase folding;

[0011] FIG. 2 depicts an exemplary embodiment of a sag profile for a diffractive structure of a multifocal ophthalmic lens that includes individually optimized zones and phase folding.

[0012] FIGS. 3A-3B depict exemplary embodiments of the intensity versus focus shift for a multifocal ophthalmic lens that includes individually optimized zones and phase folding;

[0013] FIG. 4 depicts an exemplary embodiment of sag profile for a diffractive structure of an ophthalmic lens having an extended depth of focus and that includes individually optimized zones and phase folding;

[0014] FIGS. 5A-5B depict exemplary embodiments of the intensity versus focus shift a lens that includes individually optimized zones and phase folding;

[001 S] FIG. 6 is flow chart depicting an exemplary embodiment of a method for fabricating an ophthalmic device that includes individually optimized zones and phase folding;

[0016] FIG. 7 depicts an exemplary embodiment of a sag profile for diffractive structure during design that includes individually optimized zones;

[0017] FIG. 8 depicts an exemplary embodiment of a sag profile for diffractive structure during design that includes individually optimized zones and phase folding; and

[0018] FIG. 9 is flow chart depicting an exemplary embodiment of a method for utilizing an ophthalmic device including a multifocal lens that may have reduced chromatic aberration.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0019] The exemplary embodiments relate to ophthalmic devices such as lOLs and contact lenses. The following description is presented to enable one of ordinary skill in the art to make and use the invention and is provided in the context of a patent application and its requirements. Various modifications to the exemplary embodiments and the generic principles and features described herein will be readily apparent. The exemplary embodiments are mainly described in terms of particular methods and systems provided in particular implementations. However, the methods and systems will operate effectively in other implementations. For example, the method and system are described primarily in terms of iOLs. However, the method and system may be used with contact lenses. Phrases such as "exemplary embodiment", "one embodiment" and "another embodiment" may refer to the same or different embodiments as well as to multiple embodiments. The embodiments will be described with respect to systems and/or devices having certain components. However, the systems and/or devices may include more or less components than those shown, and variations in the arrangement and type of the components may be made without departing from the scope of the invention. The exempiary embodiments will also be described in the context of particular methods having certain steps. However, the method and system operate effectively for other methods having different and/or additional steps and steps in different orders that are not inconsistent with the exemplary embodiments. Thus, the present invention is not intended to be limited to the embodiments shown, but is to be accorded the widest scope consistent with the principles and features described herein.

[0020] A method and system provide an ophthalmic device. The ophthalmic device includes an ophthalmic lens having anterior surface, a posterior surface and at least one diffractive structure including a plurality of zones. The diffractive structure(s) are for at least one of the anterior surface and the posterior surface. Each zone includes at least one echeiette having a least one step height. The step height(s) are individually determined for each zone. The step height(s) are also folded by a phase, which is an integer multiple of two multiplied by π.

[0021] FIGS. 1A-1 B depict an exempiary embodiment of an ophthalmic device 100 that may be used as an iOL. FIG. 1A depicts a plan view of the ophthalmic device 100, while FIG. 1 B depicts a side view of the ophthalmic lens 1 10. For clarity, FIGS. 1A and 1 B are not to scale, for explanatory purposes only and depict only some features. The ophthalmic device 100 includes an ophthalmic lens 1 10 (herein after lens") as well as haptics 102 and 104. The lens 1 10 may be made of a variety of optical materials including but not limited to one or more of silicone, a hydrogei, an acrylic and AcrySof®. Haptics 102 and 104 are used to hold the ophthalmic device 100 in place in a patient's eye (not explicitly shown). In other embodiments, other mechanism(s) might be used to retain the ophthalmic device in position in the eye. Thus, the haptics 102 and/or 104 might be omitted. For clarity, the haptics are not depicted in the remaining drawings. Although the lens 1 10 is depicted as having a circular cross section in the plan view of FIG. 1 A, in other embodiments, other shapes may be used. Although described in the context of an IOL, the lens 1 10 may be a contact lens. In such a case, the haptics 102 would be omitted and the lens 1 10 sized and otherwise configured to reside on the surface of the eye.

[0022] The lens 1 10 may, but need not, be a multifocal lens. The lens 1 10 has an anterior surface 1 12 a posterior surface 1 14 and an optic axis 1 16. The lens is also characterized by a diffractive structure 120 and a base curvature 121 . The lens 1 10 may provide a base power, astigmatism correction and/or other vision correction(s). The lens 1 10 may be aspheric and/or toroidal, have the same or different base curvatures on the surfaces 1 12 and 1 14 and/or other characteristics that are not shown or discussed in detail for simplicity. Although one diffractive structure 120 is shown on the anterior surface 1 12, the diffractive structure 120 might be located on the posterior surface 1 14. in still other embodiments, diffractive structures may be located on the anterior surface 1 12 and the posterior surface 1 14, Such diffractive structures may be the same or different. The diffractive structure 120 may, but need not, be partial aperture diffractive structure. Further, although shown as a physical diffractive structure, in other embodiments, the diffractive structure 120 may be formed by a change in the index of refraction of the lens 1 10,

[0023] The diffractive structure 120 may provide a single focal length or multiple focal lengths, in some embodiments, the diffractive structure 120 is used to provide a bifocal (two focal lengths for near and distance vision) lens 1 10. in other embodiments, the diffractive structure 120 may provide a trifocal (three focal lengths for near, intermediate and distance vision) lens 1 10. A quadrifocai or other multifocal lens might also be provided. The diffractive structure 120 may be configured for particular wavelength(s). For example, different zones 1 1 1 of the diffractive structure 120 may be configured for light of different wavelengths. Alternatively, the diffractive structure 120 may be designed for light of a single wavelength.

[0024] The diffractive structure 120 includes multiple zones 122A, 122B and 122C (collectively zones 122) corresponding to different ranges in distance perpendicular to the optic axis 1 16 (i.e. different radii). Although three zones 122 are shown, the lens 1 10 may have another number of zones. A zone 122A, 122B and/or 122C is a circle or an annular ring along the surface from a minimum radius to a maximum radius from the optic axis 1 16. For example, in some embodiments, the diffractive structure 120 may have ring diameters for the zones 122 set by the Fresnei diffractive lens criteria. Alternatively, other criteria may be used to determine the size and location of each of the zones 122.

[0025] Each of the zones 122 includes steps, or echelettes 124. The echelettes 124 have step heights that correspond to phase differences. The step height of an echelette 124 is the physical step height (h) multiplied by the difference in index of refraction between the lens 1 10 and the surrounding media (Δη). In other words, the step height = h-Δη. The phase difference, φ, for an echelette 124 is proportional to the step height divided by the wavelength, λ. ore specifically, φ = (2-π-η-Δη)/λ. A phase difference of 2π thus corresponds to one wavelength in step height. Thus, the terms step height and phase are considered to be effectively synonymous herein.

[0026] The echelettes 124 of one or more of the zones 122 are individually optimized. Stated differently, one or more of the characteristics of the echelettes 124 for a zone 122A, 122B and/or 122C are determined for that zone 122A, 122B and/or 122C, respectively, independent of the characteristics of the echelettes 124 in another zone, in some embodiments, the step heights (phases) of the echelettes 124 in the zones 122 are separately determined on a zone-by-zone basis. Thus, the step height(s) for each zone 122A, 122B and/or 122C are determined independently of the step height(s) for another zone. In other embodiments, additional or other characteristics of the echelettes 124 may be separately configured on a zone-by-zone basis. For example, the spacing between echelettes 124 may also be independently controlled for each zone 122.

[0027] The characteristic(s) of the echelettes 124 for each of the zones 122A, 122B and 122C may be independently optimized based on selected criteria. For example, particular focal length(s) for the lens 1 10, target focus positions, location and amount of constructive interference, target phases and/or other criteria may be used to separately determine the step height(s) for each of the zones 122. These criteria may change between the zones 122. In other embodiments, these criteria may be the same for each of the zones 122. Because of the locations of the zones 122 differ, different step heights may be determined for different zones 122 even if the criteria stay the same.

[0028] In some embodiments, the phases (i.e. step heights) for the echelettes 124 in each zone can be individually optimized such that each of the zones 122 constructively interferes at different target positions. As a result, the depth of focus may be improved for the lens 1 10. In some instances, a relatively uniform through-focus may be achieved. Each of the zones 122 may be separately optimized for one or more of the focal lengths of a multifocal lens 1 10. For example, each of the zones 122 may be optimized to provide different intermediate focal lengths. Thus, the depth of focus may be improved.

[0029] Although discussed in the context of independently configuring the echelettes 124 for each of the zones 122, one of ordinary skill in the art will recognize that not ail of the zones 122 must be so configured. For example, in some embodiments, echelettes 124 for only the zones 122A and 122B might be separately determined. In other embodiments, echelettes 124 for only the zones 122A and 122C may be separately configured, in still other embodiments, characteristics of the echelettes 124 for only the zones 122B and 122C might be independently determined, in other embodiments, ail of the zones 122 of the lens 1 10 might be separately manipulated. Thus, the specific zones 122 having echelettes 124 that are independently manipulated may change between embodiments.

[0030] The zones 122 may undergo phase folding in addition to separate, zone-by-zone optimization of the step height(s). The individually determined step height(s) for one or more of the zones 122 may be large. The corresponding phases may exceed 2-π. In some cases, the optimized step heights may correspond to phases of at least 3-π, at least 4·π, or more.

Therefore, the step heights are folded by a phase of 2-π- η, where n is a positive integer, if the step height is sufficiently large. In some embodiments, the step heights of the echelettes 124 may be reduced to provide a maximum phase of 2·π. Thus, in addition to being separately controlled, the step heights of the echelettes 124 of each zone 122A, 122B and/or 122C are folded. This reduction in the step height may reduce the light interference from light far from the optic axis 1 16. The phase folding may also provide a negative dispersion that may partially or wholly compensate for the positive dispersion of the material from which the lens 1 10 is formed.

[0031] The ophthalmic lens 1 10 may have improved performance. The ophthalmic lens 1 10 may be a multifocal lens. The ophthalmic device 100 may be used to treat conditions such as presbyopia. Other conditions such as astigmatism may be treated and performance of the lens 1 10 may be improved through the use of the base curvature 121 , asphericity of the lens 1 10, toricity of the lens 1 10, apodization of the echelettes 122 and other characteristics of the lens, in addition, the lens 1 10 may have improved EDOF as well as reduced chromatic aberration. Separately controlling the step height(s) of the echelettes 124 in each of the zones 122 may allow the image to be sufficiently in focus over a larger range of distances. Thus, depth of focus may be improved. Because the echelettes are also phase folded, chromatic aberrations introduced by the lens 1 10 may be compensated for. This use of the superzone and phase wrapping may compensate a chromatic aberration of the eye through strong negative dispersion of a diffractive lens and correcting chromatic aberration from distance to a range of vision. Thus, depth of focus may be increased while a more achromatic lens 1 10 may be provided. Consequently, performance may be improved.

[0032] The benefits of the ophthalmic lens 1 10 may be better understood with respect to certain embodiments. FIG. 2 depicts a sag profile 130 for another exemplary embodiment of a diffractive structure that includes individually controlled zones and phase folding. Thus, the sag profile 130 and diffractive structure 130 are referred to interchangeably. The diffractive structure 130 may take the place of the diffractive structure 120 in the lens 1 10. The sag profile 130 indicates that there are zones 134, 136 and 138, each of

which includes one or more echelettes 132. FIGS. 3A and 3B are graphs 140 and 150, respectively, depicting exemplary embodiments of the monochromatic and photopic intensity, respectively, versus focus shift for a trifocal lens 1 10 made with the diffractive structure 130. The curves 142 and 152 are for one set of line pairs, while the curves 144 and 154 are for another set of line pairs having twice the frequency, FIGS. 2-3B are not to scale and for explanatory purposes only.

[0033] As can be seen in the graphs 140 and 150, the thru focus modulation transfer function (MTF) curves 142/152 and 144/154 are shifted due to separate, zone-by-zone control of the step heights of the echelettes 132 in the sag profile 130. This shift compensates for valleys in the MTF curves. Thus, the depth of focus for a lens incorporating the sag profile 130 has been improved. Because of phase folding of the diffractive structure 130, chromatic aberration may also be compensated for. As a result, the MTF is shown as dropping by a smaller amount over the extended distance in the graphs 140 and 150. Thus, the depth of focus and achromatization of the lens 1 10 having the sag profile 130 may be improved. The performance of the lens 1 10 employing a diffractive structure having the sag profile 130 may be enhanced.

[0034] FIG. 4 depicts a sag profile 130' for another exemplary embodiment of a diffractive that includes individually controlled zones and phase folding. Thus, the sag profile 130' and diffractive structure 130' are referred to interchangeably. The diffractive structure 130' may take the place of the diffractive structure 120 in the lens 1 10. The sag profile 130' indicates that there are zones 134', 136' and 138', each of which includes one or more echelettes 132'. FIGS. 5A and 5B are graphs 140' and 150', respectively, depicting exemplary embodiments of MTF versus focus shift for a trifocal lens 1 10 made with the diffractive structure 130'. The curve 142' depicts the monochromatic MTF, while the curve 152' is for photopic MTF. FIGS. 4-5B are not to scale and for explanatory purposes only. In the embodiment shown, the near power may be set by adding power to the lens 1 10, while the intermediate power may be provided by separate, zone-by-zone optimization of the step heights for the sag profile 130'. In addition, the step height for the echelettes 132' may be folded by an integer multiple of 2 π. For example, the maximum phase corresponding to the echelettes 132' may be 2-π.

[0035] As can be seen in the graphs 140' and 150' , the curves 142' and 152' provide for an intermediate focus. This is due to separate control of the echelette step heights for the zones 134', 136" and 138" as shown in the sag profile 130'. Thus, the depth of focus has been improved. Because of phase folding of the diffractive structure 130', chromatic aberration may also be compensated for the depth of focus and achromatization of the lens 1 10 having the sag profile 130' may be improved. Thus performance of the lens 1 10 employing a diffractive structure having the sag profile 130 may be enhanced.

[0036] FIG. 6 is an exemplary embodiment of a method 200 for providing a multifocal diffractive lens having reduced chromatic aberration. For simplicity, some steps may be omitted, interleaved, and/or combined. FIGS. 7 and 8 depict sag profiles 170 and 170' for a lens designed using the method 200. The sag profiles 170 and 170' are for explanatory purposes only and are not intended to represent specific devices. Referring to FIGS. 6-8, the method 200 may be used to provide the ophthalmic device 100 and lens 1 10 and diffractive structure 120. However, the method 200 may be used with one or more other diffractive structure 130 and/or 130" and/or an analogous ophthalmic device.

[0037] The method 200 may be executed using a system including one or more processors and a memory. The one or more processors may be configured to execute instructions stored in the memory to cause and control some or all of the process(es) set forth in the drawings and described herein. As used herein, a processor may include one or more microprocessors, field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), controllers, or any other suitable computing devices or resources, and memory may take the form of volatile or non-volatile memory including, without limitation, magnetic media, optical media, random access memory (RAM), read-only memory (ROM), removable media, or any other suitable memory component. Memory may store instructions for programs and algorithms that, when executed by a processor, implement the functionality described herein with respect to any such processor, memory, or component that includes processing functionality. Further, aspects of the method and system may take the form of an entirely hardware embodiment, an entirely software embodiment (including firmware, resident software, micro-code, etc.) or an embodiment combining software and hardware aspects. Furthermore, aspects of the method and system may take the form of a software component(s) executed on at least one processor and which may be embodied in one or more computer readable medium(s) having computer readable program code embodied thereon.

[0038] The diffractive structure for the lens 1 10 is designed using steps 202 and 204. The step height(s) for the echeiettes are determined by individually configuring each of the zones, via step 202. Step 202 may be performed analytically, using processor(s) that executes instructions. For example, the desired target focus locations, focal lengths, zone locations and/or other criteria may be provided as inputs to software for designing optical gratings and an optimization performed. As a result, optimized step heights that correspond to optimized phases are independently determined for each zone of some or ail of the diffractive structure being formed. Although termed an optimization process, one of ordinary skill in the art will recognize that the step height(s) determined may not be optimal for every possible set of criteria used. Instead, the optimization process is one that can use analytic tools to determine the step height based on criteria provided by the user. FIG. 7 is a graph 170 depicting a simplified, superzone sag profile 172 resulting from step 202. The profile 172 is simplified as a linear profile but more generally would be curved. Thus, the sag profile 172 has three zones. The optimization process has resulted in echeiettes for the sag profile 172 having large optimized step heights. The sag profile 172 includes first and second orders as the main orders. For comparison, a sag profile 174 for a monofocal Fresnel lens and a sag profile 176 for a bifocal diffractive lens are shown. The sag profile 174 utilizes the first order, while the sag profile 176 utilizes the zeroth and first orders. The phases corresponding to the echeiettes of the sag profile 172 have optimized phases that are greater than 2·π.

[0039] The optimized step heights are folded if the optimized phases exceed 2 π, via step 204. The phase used in folding is a positive integer multiplied by 2-π. in the embodiment shown, all of the zones have large optimized step heights. Consequently, the optimized step heights for ail zones are folded. In another embodiment, the optimized step height for only some zones may be folded. FIG. 8 is a graph 170' depicting the resultant simplified sag profile 172' after folding has been performed. The profile 172' is simplified as a linear profile but more generally would be curved. Thus, the echelettes of the sag profile 172' all have reduced phases. Also shown with dashed lines is the original curve 172 and the direction the sag profile 172 is moved to form the final curve 172' [0040] The iens(es) 1 10 are fabricated, via step 206. Thus, the desired diffractive structure 120 having the sag profile 170' may be formed. The diffractive structure(s) 120, 130, 130' and/or an analogous diffractive structure may be provided and the benefits thereof achieved.

[0041] FIG. 9 is an exemplary embodiment of a method 210 for treating an ophthalmic condition in a patient. For simplicity, some steps may be omitted, interleaved, and/or combined. The method 210 is also described in the context of using the ophthalmic device 100 and ophthalmic lens 1 10. However, the method 210 may be used with one or more of diffractive structures 130, 130', 170' and/or an analogous diffractive structure.

[0042] An ophthalmic device 100 for implantation in an eye of the patient is selected, via step 212. The ophthalmic device 100 includes an ophthalmic lens 1 10 having a diffractive structure 120 that has individually optimized zones 122 that have also been folded. A lens having a diffractive structure 120, 130, 130', 170' and/or an analogous diffractive structure may thus be selected for use, [0043] The ophthalmic device 100 is implanted in the patient's eye, via step 204. Step 204 may include replacing the patient's own lens with the ophthalmic device 100 or augmenting the patient's lens with the ophthalmic device. Treatment of the patient may then be completed. In some embodiments implantation in the patient's other eye of another analogous ophthalmic device may be carried out.

[0044] Using the method 200, the diffractive structure 120, 130, 130', 170' and/or analogous diffractive structure may be used. Thus, the benefits of one or more of the ophthalmic lens 1 10 may be achieved.

[0045] A method and system for providing an ophthalmic device have been described. The method and systems have been described in accordance with the exemplary embodiments shown, and one of ordinary skill in the art will

readily recognize that there could be variations to the embodiments, and any variations would be within the spirit and scope of the method and system. Accordingly, many modifications may be made by one of ordinary skill in the art without departing from the spirit and scope of the appended claims.