An easily attachable/detachable food waste filtering device according to the present invention comprises: an annular support table having an opening formed at the center thereof; and a filtration mesh surrounding the entire annular support table. The filtration mesh comprises: an openable portion formed such that the annular support table can be placed into the filtration mesh; a filtration mesh front portion and a filtration mesh rear portion formed in envelope shapes such that both the upper and lower sides of the annular support table can be surrounded and enclosed; a plurality of moisture discharge holes formed through the filtration mesh front portion and the filtration mesh rear portion so as to discharge moisture from food waste; and handle portions formed on two ends of the openable portion of the filtration mesh such that the filtration mesh can be easily separated from the annular support table. The filtration mesh is formed in a quadrangular envelope shape. The handle portions formed on two ends of the openable portion are formed on two adjacent corners among the four corners of the quadrangle. Bursting prevention portions may be additionally formed on two adjacent corners, on which no handle portions are formed, so as to prevent the filtration mesh from being burst by food waste and moisture contained therein. The filtration mesh may further comprise an engaging portion formed to be able to engage with a filtration mesh hanger such that, after being separated from the annular support table, moisture is discharged from the food waste contained in the filtration mesh, and the same can be easily stored. The annular support table may comprise an inner support table made of plastic or metal so as to maintain the shape of the annular support table and an outer support table made of silicone so as to surround the entire surface of the inner support table.