CLAIMS

1. A method for encoding, the method comprising:

(a) determining from a mapping table a codeword corresponding to a first bit from a string of bits, the mapping table comprising a codeword of type 1 and a codeword of type 2, wherein the codeword of type 1 and the codeword of type 2 are orthogonal bit vectors, wherein the length of the codeword of type 1 and the length of the codeword of type 2 are equal integers greater than 1;

(b) sending the codeword corresponding to the first bit to a port;

(c) repeating steps (a) and (b) for each subsequent bit from the string of bits.

2. The method of claim 1 , further comprising transmitting the codeword corresponding to the first bit from the port via a wireless or physical medium.

3. The method of claim 2, further comprising receiving, by a receiver, the transmitted codeword corresponding to the first bit.

4. The method of claim 3, further comprising comparing, by the receiver, the received codeword corresponding to the first bit to the mapping table to determine the identity of the first bit from the string of bits.

5. The method of claim 3, further comprising identifying, by the receiver, a single bit and corresponding bit position from the received codeword, and estimating the identity of the received codeword based on the single bit and bit corresponding position.

6. The method of claim 3, further comprising identifying, by the receiver, a total number of bits of type 0 or type 1 within the received codeword, and estimating the identity of the received codeword based on the total number of bits of type 0 or type 1.

7. The method of claim 3, comprising deciding an estimated input bit to be a bit 0 or a bit 1 if a majority of the bits in the codeword is a bit 0 or a bit 1.

8. The method of claim 3, further comprising selection decoding by the receiver, the selection decoding comprising detecting one bit from the codeword at a time, where only a received signal with the highest power is decoded as a bit 1 or a bit 0 and the position of that decoded bit in the received signal is recorded as a decoded bit position.

9. The method of claim 1 , wherein the method generates a set of codewords, each codeword in the set of codewords corresponding to a bit in the string of bits, and wherein the method comprises sending the set of codewords to the port.

10. The method of claim 1 , wherein the length of the codeword of type 1 and the length of the codeword of type 2 are equal integers in the range of 2-6.

11. The method of claim 1 , further comprising transmitting the codeword corresponding to the first bit from the port via a wireless or physical medium a predetermined number of times, wherein the transmitting comprises transmitting the predetermined number of times such that a receiver will know the predetermined number of times.

12. A method for encoding, the method comprising:

generating a set of codewords from an input string of bits by determining, from a mapping table, a corresponding codeword for each bit from the input string of bits, wherein the mapping table comprising a codeword of type 1 and a codeword of type 2, wherein the length of the codeword of type 1 and the length of the codeword of type 2 are equal integers greater than 1 ;

formatting the set of codewords for transmission by a medium; and

sending the formatted set of codewords to a port.

13. The method of claim 12, further comprising:

transmitting the set of codewords from the port via a wireless or physical medium; receiving, by a receiver, the transmitted set of codewords;

comparing, by the receiver, the received set of codeword to the mapping table to determine the identity of the bits in the string of bits.

14. A method for encoding communications, the method comprising:

receiving an electromagnetic communication signal, wherein the communication signal is an electromagnetic signal or an electronic signal including embedded digital information, wherein the digital information is a codeword comprising at least two bits and is selected from a mapping table based on an input bit from an input string of bits;

extracting the at least two bits of the codeword; and

determining the input bit by comparing the extracted at least two bits of the codeword to the mapping table.

15. The method of claim 14, the method comprising repeating the receiving, extracting, and determining for a plurality of codewords corresponding to a plurality of bits in an input string of bits.

16. A method for encoding, the method comprising:

(a) determining from a mapping table a codeword corresponding to a first bit from a string of bits, the mapping table comprising a codeword of type 1 and a

codeword of type 2, wherein the codeword of type 1 and the codeword of type 2 are orthogonal bit vectors of length n such that the codeword corresponding to the first bit from a string of bits is a bit vector of length n;

(b) sending each bit from the codeword corresponding to the first bit to a separate port in an array of at least n ports;

(c) repeating steps (a) and (b) for each subsequent bit from the string of bits.

17. The method of claim 16, wherein each port in the array of at least n ports that receives a bit is configured to transmit the received bit, and wherein the transmitting by the array of ports is configured for Time Division Multiplexing.

18. The method of claim 16, wherein each port in the array of at least n ports that receives a bit is configured to transmit the received bit, and wherein the n ports transmit in a predetermined sequence.

19. The method of claim 16, further comprising transmitting the codeword corresponding to the first bit from the array of at least n ports via a wireless or physical medium.

20. The method of claim 19, further comprising receiving, by a receiver, the transmitted codeword corresponding to the first bit.

21. The method of claim 20, further comprising comparing, by the receiver, the received codeword corresponding to the first bit to the mapping table to determine the identity of the first bit from the string of bits.

22. The method of claim 16, wherein each port in the array of at least n ports that receives a bit is configured to transmit the received bit, and wherein the transmitting by the array of ports is configured for Time Division Multiplexing, and further comprising transmitting the codeword corresponding to the first bit from the array of at least n ports via a wireless or physical medium.

23. The method of claim 16, wherein each port in the array of at least n ports that receives a bit is configured to transmit the received bit, and wherein the transmitting by the array of ports is configured for Time Division Multiplexing, and further comprising transmitting the codeword corresponding to the first bit from the array of at least n ports via a wireless or physical medium, and further comprising receiving, by a receiver, the transmitted codeword corresponding to the first bit, and further comprising comparing, by the receiver, the received codeword corresponding to the first bit to the mapping table to determine the identity of the first bit from the string of bits.

24. A method for encoding, the method comprising:

(a) generating a set of codewords from an input string of bits by determining, from a mapping table, a corresponding codeword for each bit from the input string of bits, wherein the mapping table comprising a codeword of type 1 and a codeword of type 2, wherein the codeword of type 1 and the codeword of type 2 are orthogonal bit vectors of length n;

(b) formatting the set of codewords for transmission by a medium;

(c) sending the formatted set of codewords to an array of at least n ports such that, for each codeword from the set of codewords, each bit in the codeword is sent to a separate port.

25. The method of claim 24, wherein the at least n ports are interlinked and configured such that they transmit according to a Time Division Multiplexing scheme.

26. The method of claim 24, wherein the at least n ports are interlinked and configured such that they transmit according to a predetermined sequence.

27. A method for encoding communications, the method comprising:

receiving an electromagnetic communication signal, wherein the communication signal is an electromagnetic signal or an electronic signal including embedded digital information, wherein the digital information is a codeword comprising n bits, wherein n is at least two, and the codeword is selected from a mapping table based on an input bit from an input string of bits, and wherein the n bits of the codeword have been transmitted via n transmit antenna connected to n ports on a transmitter;

extracting the n bits of the codeword; and

determining the input bit by comparing the extracted n bits of the codeword to the mapping table.

28. The method of claim 27, wherein the digital information comprises a set of codewords, each codeword containing n bits transmitted via n transmit antenna connected to n ports on a transmitter, and wherein the method further comprises: extracting n bits for each codeword in the set of codewords; and determining a string of input bits by comparing the extracted n bits for each codeword in the set of codewords to the mapping table.

29. The method of claim 27, wherein the electromagnetic communication signal comprises variable signal strengths, and where the method further comprises isolating a relatively strongest signal strength and determining the embedded digital information from the relatively strongest signal strength.

30. The method of claim 27, further comprising decoding, through a detector, the received electromagnetic communication signal by detecting a minimum noise signal formed from two orthogonal codewords of type 1 and type 2; where only the noise signal with the smallest absolute value is detected as a codeword type 1 or type 2.

31. A method for encoding, the method comprising:

(a) generating, from a mapping table, a codeword corresponding to a bit from an input string of bits, wherein the mapping table comprises a codeword of type 1 and a codeword of type 2, wherein the codeword of type 1 is a vector containing n elements in a predetermined order and the codeword of type 2 is a vector containing n elements in a predetermined order, and wherein the element in each position in the codeword of type 1 is different from the element in the corresponding position in the codeword of type 2;

(b) formatting the codeword for transmission by a medium;

(c) sending the formatted codeword to a port.

32. The method of claim 31 , wherein the elements are selected from frequencies and ports.

33. The method of claim 31 , further comprising transmitting the formatted codeword via a medium such that the predetermined order of the elements forming the codeword is maintained during the transmission.

34. The method of claim 33, further comprising receiving the n elements of the codeword and maintaining, at the receiver, the transmitted order of the n elements.

35. The method of claim 34, further comprising decoding the codeword by comparing the received formatted codeword to the mapping table.

36. The method of claim 31 , comprising repeating steps (a)-(c) for each bit in the input string of bits.

37. A method for encoding, the method comprising:

(a) generating, from a mapping table, a codeword corresponding to a bit from an input string of bits, wherein the codeword is a frequency vector containing n frequencies in a predetermined order,

(b) sending the codeword corresponding to the bit from an input string of bits to a port,

wherein the mapping table comprises a codeword of type 1 containing n frequencies and a codeword of type 2 containing n frequencies, and the

frequency in each position in the codeword of type 1 is different from the frequency in the corresponding position in the codeword of type 2.

38. The method of claim 37, comprising repeating transmission in each frequency of the

codeword through a channel between a sender and a receiver, where the number of repetitions is known to both the sender and the receiver and the frequencies in the sequence of the codeword is transmitted one frequency at a time until all the frequencies in the codeword have been transmitted to the receiver.

39. The method of claim 37, further comprising formatting the codeword by applying an inverse Fourier Transform (IFT) function prior to transmission.

40. The method of claim 37, wherein the n frequencies in the codeword of type 1 and the n frequencies in the codeword of type 2 are selected from two or three different frequencies.

41. A method for encoding communications, the method comprising:

receiving an electromagnetic communication signal, wherein the communication signal is an electromagnetic signal or an electronic signal including embedded information, wherein the embedded information is a codeword comprising n elements, wherein n is at least two, and the codeword is selected from a mapping table and represents an input bit from an input string of bits, and wherein the n elements of the codeword are assigned a discrete transmission time slot in a prearranged sequence;

extracting the n elements of the codeword; and

determining the input bit by comparing the extracted n elements of the codeword to the mapping table.

42. The method of claim 41 , wherein the elements are frequencies or ports.

43. The method of claim 41 , wherein the extracting comprises applying a FT function to the received electromagnetic communication signal.

44. The method of claim 41 , wherein the extracting comprises applying a FT function to the received electromagnetic communication signal, where only the frequency with the highest power beyond a predetermined threshold is decoded as a frequency 1 or a frequency 2 and the position of that decoded frequency 1 or frequency 2 in the received signal is recorded;

45. The method of claim 41, wherein the embedded information comprises a plurality of codewords, and wherein the method comprises repeating the extracting for each codeword.

46. A method for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) communications, the method comprising:

receiving an electromagnetic OFDM communication signal, wherein the OFDM communication signal is an electromagnetic signal or an electronic signal including embedded digital information, wherein the digital information comprises a bit from an input string of bits and is encoded by selecting, from a mapping table, an ordered set of frequencies corresponding to the bit from the input string of bits, and applying an inverse FT function to the ordered set of frequencies;

extracting the ordered set of frequencies from the OFDM communication signal by applying a FT function; and

determining the bit from the input string of bits by comparing the extracted ordered set of frequencies to the mapping table.

47. The method of claim 46, wherein the ordered set of frequencies comprises at least three frequencies that may be the same or different and are independently selected from a group consisting of at least two unique frequencies.

48. The method of claim 46, wherein the inverse FT function is used to form a sub-OFDM

symbol from the ordered set of frequencies.

49. The method of claim 46, wherein the ordered set of frequencies forms a codeword

representing the bit from the input string of bits, and wherein the digital information comprises a set of codewords representing the input string of bits.

50. The method of claim 46, wherein the inverse FT function is used to form a sub-OFDM

symbol from the ordered set of frequencies, and the method further comprises receiving a plurality of sub-OFDM symbols, where the total number of sub-OFDM symbols is known to both a sender and a receiver as a sequence length.

51. The method of claim 46, wherein determining the bit from the input string of bits comprises estimating the ordered set of frequencies and comparing the estimated ordered set of frequencies to the mapping table.

52. A method for encoding, the method comprising:

(a) generating, from a mapping table, a codeword corresponding to a bit from an input string of bits, wherein the mapping table comprises a plurality of codeword types, each codeword type in the mapping table comprising a unique sequence of n orthogonal frequencies;

(b) formatting the codeword for transmission by a medium by applying an inverse Fourier Transform function on the codeword;

(c) sending the formatted codeword to a port.

53. The method of claim 52, further comprising transmitting via a medium the formatted codeword for receipt by a receiver.

54. The method of claim 52, further comprising receiving, by a receiver, the formatted codeword and applying a Fourier Transform function on the formatted codeword to recover a sequence of n orthogonal frequencies corresponding in a mapping table to the bit from the input string of bits.

55. A method for communicating information, comprising:

a. using a mapping table at a sender, encoding an input bit 0 to a codeword type 1 and an input bit 1 to a codeword type 2, wherein the codeword type 1 is a block containing a frequency vector of frequency 1 and frequency 2, and where the codeword type 2 is a block containing a frequency vector of frequency 1 and frequency 2, but the position of frequency 1 and frequency 2 in the codeword type 1 is not the same as the position of frequency 1 and frequency 2 in the codeword type 2;

b. forming a sub-OFDM symbol from the encoded codeword type 1 and codeword type 2, through an inverse Fourier transform algorithm; and

c. transmitting the sub-OFDM symbol through a channel between a sender and a receiver, where the total number of transmissions is known to both the sender and the receiver as a sequence length.

56. The method of claim 55, where the transmitted sub-OFDM symbols are received as received signals at the receiver.

57. The method of claim 56, further comprising:

decoding, through a detector and Fourier transform, the received signals by detecting the frequencies in the received signal, wherein only the frequency of the received signal with the highest power beyond a given threshold is decoded as a frequency 1 or a frequency 2 and a position or positions of that decoded frequency 1 or frequency 2 in the received signals is recorded; and repeating the decoding for all sub-OFDM symbols in the received signal.

58. The method of claim 57, further comprising comparing, via a comparator module, the decoded frequency positions to the positions of frequencies in the mapping table, and recording an estimated codeword if the positions of the decoded frequencies are similar to positions of similar frequencies in a codeword in the mapping table.

59. The method of claim 58, further comprising de-mapping, with the mapping table, the sub- OFDM symbol by reading out bit 0 or bit 1 that corresponds to each of the recorded estimated codeword types.

60. The method of claim 55, wherein the mapping table may contain a plurality of frequencies other than frequency 1 and frequency 2, and a plurality of bit 0 or plurality of bit 1 are assigned to these frequencies in the mapping table.

61. A system for carrying out any of the methods of claims 1 -60.