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1. (WO2018039229) COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS FOR RESTORING EPIDERMAL INTEGRITY AND FUNCTION AND TREATING DERMATOLOGICAL DISEASES
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I claim:

1. A composition intended for topical application to the skin comprising: a) at least one isohexide according to Structure 1


wherein R1 or R2 , which may be the same or different, are each independently selected from H and a C15 to C19 saturated or unsaturated n-alkyl group, provided that both R1 or R2 are not H different, one of R1 or R2 may also be hydrogen and b) a dermatoiogicaily acceptable carrier; provided said composition is free of isosorbide mono-methylfumarate or isosorbide di-methylfumarate .

2. A composition intended for topical application in treating skin diseases associated with cell differentiation comprising:

a) at least one isohexide according to Structure 1


wherein R1 or R2 which may be the same or different, are each independently selected from H and a C15 to C19 saturated or unsaturated n-alkyl group, provided that both R1 or R2 are not H different, one of R1 or R2 may also be hydrogen and b) a dermatoiogicaily acceptable carrier; provided said composition is free of isosorbide mono-methylfumarate or isosorbide di-methylfumarate .

3. A composition intended lor topical application in order to delay and/or counteract the manifestation of skin aging comprising:

a) at least one isohexide according to Structure 1


wherein R1 or R2 , which may be the same or different, are each independently selected from H and a C15 to C19 saturated or unsaturated n-alkyl group, provided that both R1 or R2 are not H different, one of R1 or R2 may also be hydrogen and b) a dermatologically acceptable carrier; provided said composition is free of isosorbide mono-methylfumarate or isosorbide di-methylfumarate .

4. A composition intended for topical application for improving, repairing and/or rejuvenating barrier function in the skin comprising:

a) at least one isohexide according to Structure 1


wherein R1 or R2 which may be the same or different, are each independently selected from H and a C15 to C19 saturated or unsaturated n-alkyl group, provided that both R1 or R2 are not H different, one of R1 or R2 may also be hydrogen and b) a dermatologically acceptable carrier; provided said composition is free of isosorbide mono-methylfumarate or isosorbide di-methylfumarate .

5. A composition intended lor topical application for treating atopic dermatitis comprising:

a) at least one isohexide according to Structure 1


wherein R1 or R2 , which may be the same or different, are each independently selected from H and a C15 to C19 saturated or unsaturated n-alkyl group, provided that both R1 or R2 are not H different, one of R1 or R2 may also be hydrogen and b) a dermatologicaily acceptable carrier; provided said composition is free of isosorbide mono-methylfumarate or isosorbide di-methylfumarate .

6. The composition of any of claims 1 to 5 wherein one of R1 or R2 is H.

7. The composition of any of claims 1 to 5 wherein R1 or R2 are the same and are selected from n-alkyl groups having from 16 to 19 carbon atoms.

8. The composition of any of claims 1 to 5 wherein the n-alkyl group(s) has 17 carbon atoms.

9. The composition of any of claims 1 to 5 wherein the n-alkyl group(s) is a mono- or poly- unsaturated n-alkyl group.

10. The composition of any of claims 1 to 5 wherein the n-alkyl group(s) is a polyunsaturated n-alkyl group.

11. The composition of any of claims 1 to 5 wherein the isohexide is at least 50 mole % isosorbide,

12. The composition of any of claims 1 to 5 wherein the isohexide is an isosorbide, an isomannide or an isoidide or a combination of any two or all three.

13. The composition of any of claims 1 to 5 wherein the isohexide is isosorbide.

14. The composition of any of claims 1 to 5 wherein at least two isohexides are present and a portion of one of R1 or R2 is H.

15. The composition of any of claims 1 to 5 wherein at least two isohexides are present and a portion of both R1 or R2 are the same n-alkyi groups however, not all of the R1 or R2 groups are the same n-a!kyl group.

16. The composition of any of claims 1 to 5 wherein at least two isohexides are present and at least 50 mole % of the isohexides are the same.

17. The composition of any of claims 1 to 16 wherein the Isohexide (a) comprises the reaction product of a dianhydrohexitol material and a natural oil containing a plurality of fatty acids having from 16 to 20 carbon atoms and/or the triglyceride precursor of said fatty acids.

18. The composition of claim 17 wherein the natural oil contains a combination saturated and/or unsaturated fatty acids of from 16 to 20 carbon atoms.

19. The composition of claim 17 wherein the natural oil contains a combination of mono- and/or poly-unsaturated fatty acids of 16 to 20 carbon atoms.

20 The composition of claim 17 wherein the natural oil is selected from the group consisting of oils isolated from safftower, grape seed, silybum marianum, hemp, sunflower, wheat germ, pumpkin seed, sesame, rice bran, almond, rapeseed, peanut olive, and coconut.

21. The composition of any of claims 1 thru 21 further comprising

a) an isohexide similar to those of Structure 1 except that R1 or R2 which may be the same or different, are each independently selected from H and a C1 to C9 n-alkyl group provided that both R1 or R2 are not H.

22. The composition of claim 21 wherein the similar isohexide is not an isosorbide.

23. The composition of either of claims 21 or 22 wherein isohexides

corresponding to Structure 1 account for at least 50% by weight of ail isohexides present in the composition.

24. The composition of any of claims 1 to 23 wherein the composition is free of isosorbide mono-caprylate and isosorbide dtcaprylate.

25. The composition of any of claims 1 to 20 wherein the composition is free of isohexides other than those corresponding to Structure 1.

26. A method of treating skin diseases associated with cell differentiation comprising applying to the afflicted skin an efficaceous amount of a topical skin treatment composition comprising

a) at least one isohexide according to Structure 1


wherein R1 or R2 which may be the same or different, are each independently selected from H and a C15 to C19 saturated or unsaturated n-alkyl group, provided that both R1 or R2 are not H different, one of R1 or R2 may also be hydrogen and b) a dermatologicaily acceptable carrier; provided said composition is free of isosorbide mono-methylfumarate or isosorbide di-methylfumarate .

27. A method of delaying and/or counteracting the manifestation of skin aging comprising applying to the skin an efficaceous amount of a topical skin treatment composition comprising

a) at ieast one isohexide according to Structure 1


wherein R1 or R2 which may be the same or different, are each independently selected from H and a C15 to C19 saturated or unsaturated n-alkyl group, provided that both R1 or R2 are not H different, one of R1 or R2 may also be hydrogen and b) a dermatologicaily acceptable carrier; provided said composition is free of isosorbide mono-methylfumarate or isosorbide di-methylfumarate .

28. A method of improving, repairing and/or rejuvenating barrier function in the skin comprising applying to the skin an efficaceous amount of a topical skin treatment composition comprising

a) at least one isohexide according to Structure 1


wherein R1 or R2 which may be the same or different, are each independently selected from H and a C15 to C19 saturated or unsaturated n-alkyl group, provided that both R1 or R2 are not H different, one of R1 or R2 may also be hydrogen and b) a dermatologlcaliy acceptable carrier; provided said composition is free of isosorbide mono-methylfumarate or isosorbide di-methylfumaraie .

29. The method of claim 28 wherein the method is employed to treat atopic dermatitis.

30. The method of any of claims 26 to 29 wherein one of R1 or R2 is H.

31. The method of any of claims 26 to 29 wherein R1 or R2 are the same and are selected from n-alkyl groups having from 16 to 19 carbon atoms.

32. The method of any of claims 26 to 29 wherein the n-a!kyl group(s) has 17 carbon atoms.

33. The method of any of claims 26 to 29 wherein the n-aikyl group(s) is a mono- or poly- unsaturated n-alkyl group.

34. The method of any of claims 26 to 29 wherein the n-aikyl group(s) is a polyunsaturated n-alkyl group.

35. The method of any of claims 26 to 29 wherein the isohexide is at least 50 mole % isosorbide.

36. The method of any of claims 26 to 29 wherein the isohexide is an isosorbide, an isomannide or an isoidide or a combination of any two or all three.

37. The method of any of claims 26 to 29 wherein the isohexide is isosorbide.

38. The method of any of claims 26 to 29 wherein at least two isohexides are present and a portion of one of R1 or R2 is H.

39. The method of any of claims 26 to 29 wherein at least two isohexides are present and a portion of both R1 or R2 are the same n-alkyl groups however, not all of the R1 or R2 groups are the same n-alkyl group.

40. The method of any of claims 26 to 29 wherein at least two isohexides are present and at least 50 mole % of the isohexides are the same.

41. The method of any of claims 26 to 40 wherein the isohexide (a) comprises the reaction product of a dianhydrohexUo! material and a natural oil containing a plurality of fatty acids having from 16 to 20 carbon atoms and/or the triglyceride precursor of said fatty acids.

42. The method of claim 41 wherein the natural oil contains a combination saturated and/or unsaturated fatty acids of from 16 to 20 carbon atoms.

43. The method of claim 41 wherein the natural oil contains a combination of mono- and/or pofy-unsaturated fatty adds of 16 to 20 carbon atoms.

44 The method of claim 41 wherein the natural oii is selected from the group consisting of oils isolated from safflower, grape seed, sitybum marianum, hemp, sunflower, wheat germ, pumpkin seed, sesame, rice bran, almond, rapeseed, peanut, olive, and coconut.

45. The method of any of claims 26 to 44 wherein the composition further comprises an isohexide similar to those of Structure 1 except mat R1 or R2 , which may be the same or different, are each independently selected from H and a C1 to C9 n-alkyi group provided that both R1 or R2 are not H.

46. The method of claim 45 wherein the similar isohexide is not an isosorbide.

47. The method of either of claim 45 or 46 wherein isohexides corresponding to Structure 1 account for at least 50% by weight of at! isohexides present in the composition.

48. The method of any of claims 26 to 47 wherein the composition is free of isosorbide mono-capry!ate and isosorbide dtcapryiate.

49. The method of any of claims 26 to 44 wherein the composition is free of isohexides other than those corresponding to Structure 1.