Non-invasive systems can be used to estimate cardiac output and stroke volume. For example, this document provides cuff occlusion systems and methods for their use so that cardiac output and stroke volume can be estimated in a non-invasive fashion. In some implementations, a patient's brachial artery is occluded by an inflatable cuff device for a period of time. A heart rate and a plurality of blood pressure pulse wave measurement curves can be measured using the cuff device. The data collected can be used to calculate an estimate of the patient's cardiac output and stroke volume.