A method of determining electromagnetic scattering properties of a finite periodic structure has the steps: 1002: Calculating a single-cell contrast current density, within a unit-cell supporting domain of a single one of a finite collection of unit cells. 1004: Calculating a scattered electric field outside the finite collection of unit cells, by integrating, over the single unit cell's supporting domain, a Green's function with the determined single-cell contrast current density. 1006: The Green's function is obtained for observation points outside the finite collection of unit cells by summation across the finite collection of unit cells. The Green's function integrated with the determined single- cell contrast current density is obtained for observation points above the supporting domain with respect to a substrate underlying the finite periodic structure. 1008: Determining an electromagnetic scattering property, for example a diffraction pattern, of the finite periodic structure using the calculated scattered electric field.