The present invention discloses a UWB high-precision positioning system, a positioning method and apparatus, and a computer readable medium. The positioning system comprises at least one UWB positioning signal transmitter group, and at least one central controller for synchronously controlling the UWB positioning signal transmitter group. Each UWB positioning signal transmitter group comprises N UWB positioning signal transmitters, where N is an integer equal to or greater than three. Wireless communication is performed between any two UWB positioning signal transmitters and between any UWB positioning signal transmitter and the central controller. The positioning system further comprises at least one positioning terminal. The positioning terminal is used for receiving a UWB positioning signal sent by each UWB positioning signal transmitter. Wireless communication is executed between the positioning terminal and the central controller. The system structure of the present invention enables highly precise positioning, reduces networking difficulties, has a simplified structure and reduces costs.