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1. (WO2017136950) DECELLULARISED CELL WALL STRUCTURES FROM PLANTS AND FUNGUS AND USE THEREOF AS SCAFFOLD MATERIALS
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WHAT IS CLAIMED IS:

1. A scaffold biomaterial comprising a decellularised plant or fungal tissue from which cellular materials and nucleic acids of the tissue are removed, the decellularised plant or fungal tissue comprising a cellulose- or chitin-based 3-dimensional porous structure.

2. The scaffold biomaterial of claim 1, wherein the decellularised plant or fungal tissue comprises a plant or fungal tissue which has been decellularised by thermal shock, treatment with detergent, osmotic shock, lyophilisation, physical lysing, electrical disruption, or enzymatic digestion, or any combination thereof.

3. The scaffold biomaterial of claim 1 or 2, wherein the decellularised plant or fungal tissue comprises a plant or fungal tissue which has been decellularised by treatment with sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS).

4. The scaffold biomaterial of claim 3, wherein residual SDS has been removed by using an aqueous divalent salt solution to precipitate a salt residue containing SDS micelles out of the scaffold..

5. The scaffold biomaterial of claim 4, wherein dH20, acetic acid, DMSO, or sonication treatment, or any combination thereof, has been used to remove the aqueous divalent salt solution, salt residue, and/or SDS micelles.

6. The scaffold biomaterial of claim 5, wherein the divalent salt of the aqueous divalent salt solution comprises MgCl2 or CaCl2.

7. The scaffold biomaterial of claim 6, wherein the plant or fungal tissue has been decellularised by treatment with an SDS solution of about 1% or about 0.1% SDS in water, and the residual SDS has been removed using an aqueous CaCl2 solution at a concentration of about lOOmM followed by incubation in dH20.

8. The scaffold biomaterial of any one of claims 1-7, wherein the decellularised plant or fungal tissue is processed to introduce further architecture and/or is functionalized at at least one free hydroxyl functional group through acylation, alkylation, or other covalent

modification, to provide a functionalized scaffold biomaterial.

9. The scaffold biomaterial of claim 8, wherein the decellularised plant or fungal tissue is processed to introduce microchannels, and/or is functionalized with collagen, a factor for promoting cell-specificity, a cell growth factor, or a pharmaceutical agent.

10. The scaffold biomaterial of any one of claims 1-9, wherein the plant or fungal tissue is an apple hypanthium (Malus pumila) tissue, a fern (Monilophytes) tissue, a turnip (Brassica rapa) root tissue, a gingko branch tissue, a horsetail (equisetum) tissue, a hermocallis hybrid leaf tissue, a kale (Brassica oleracea) stem tissue, a conifers Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) tissue, a cactus fruit (pitaya) flesh tissue, a Maculata Vinca tissue, an Aquatic Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) tissue, a Tulip (Tulipa gesneriana) petal tissue, a Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) tissue, a broccoli (Brassica oleracea) stem tissue, a maple leaf (Acer psuedoplatanus) stem tissue, a beet (Beta vulgaris) primary root tissue, a green onion (Allium cepa) tissue, a orchid (Orchidaceae) tissue, turnip (Brassica rapa) stem tissue, a leek (Allium ampeloprasum) tissue, a maple (Acer) tree branch tissue, a celery (Apium graveolens) tissue, a green onion (Allium cepa) stem tissue, a pine tissue, an aloe vera tissue, a watermelon

(Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) tissue, a Creeping Jenny (Lysimachia nummularia) tissue, a cactae tissue, a Lychnis Alpina tissue, a rhubarb (Rheum rhabarbarum) tissue, a pumpkin flesh (Cucurbita pepo) tissue, a Dracena (Asparagaceae) stem tissue, a Spiderwort (Tradescantia virginiana) stem tissue, an Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) stem tissue, a mushroom (Fungi) tissue, a fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) tissue, a rose (Rosa) tissue, a carrot

(Daucus carota) tissue, or a pear (Pomaceous) tissue, or a genetically altered tissue produced via direct genome modification or through selective breeding to create an additional plant or fungal architecture which is configured to physically mimic a tissue and/or to functionally promote a target tissue effect.

11. The scaffold biomaterial of any one of claims 1-10, further comprising living animal cells adhered to the cellulose- or chitin-based 3-dimensional porous structure.

12. The scaffold biomaterial of claim 11, wherein the living animal cells are mammalian cells.

13. The scaffold biomaterial of claim 12, wherein the living animal cells are human cells.

14. A method for preparing a decellularised plant or fungal tissue from which cellular materials and nucleic acids of the tissue are removed, the decellularised plant or fungal tissue comprising a cellulose- or chitin-based 3-dimensional porous structure, said method comprising:

providing a plant or fungal tissue having a predetermined size and shape; and

decellularlising the plant or fungal tissue by thermal shock, treatment with detergent, osmotic shock, lyophilisation, physical lysing, electrical disruption, or enzymatic digestion, or any combination thereof,

thereby removing cellular materials and nucleic acids from the plant or fungal tissue to form the decellularised plant or fungal tissue comprising a cellulose- or chitin-based 3- dimensional porous structure.

15. The method of claim 14, wherein the step of decellularising comprises treatment of the plant or fungal tissue with sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS).

16. The method of claim 15, wherein residual SDS is removed by using an aqueous divalent salt solution to precipitate a salt residue containing SDS micelles out of the scaffold.

17. The method of claim 16, wherein dH20, acetic acid, DMSO, or sonication treatment, or any combination thereof, has been used to remove the aqueous divalent salt solution, the salt residue, and/or the SDS micelles.

18. The method of claim 17, wherein the divalent salt of the aqueous divalent salt solution comprises MgCl2 or CaCl2.

19. The method of claim 18, wherein the step of decellularising comprises treatment with an SDS solution of about 0.1% or about 1% SDS in water, and the residual SDS is removed following decellularisation using an aqueous CaCl2 solution at a concentration of about lOOmM, followed by incubation in dH20.

20. The method of any one of claims 14-19, further comprising a step of processing the decellularised plant or fungal tissue to introduce further micro-architecture, and/or a step of functionalizing at least some free hydroxyl functional groups of the decellularised plant or fungal tissue by acylation, alkylation, or other covalent modification.

21. The method 20, wherein the decellularised plant or fungal tissue is processed to introduce microchannels, and/or wherein hydroxyl functional groups of the decellularised plant or fungal tissue are functionalized with collagen, a factor for promoting cell-specificity, a cell growth factor, or a pharmaceutical agent.

22. The method of any one of claims 14-21, further comprising a step of introducing living animal cells to the cellulose- or chitin-based 3-dimensional porous structure, and allowing the living animal cells to adhere to the cellulose- or chitin-based 3-dimensional porous structure.

23. The method of claim 22, wherein the living animal cells are mammalian cells.

24. The method of claim 23, wherein the living animal cells are human cells.

25. A scaffold biomaterial comprising a decellularised plant or fungal tissue prepared by the method of any one of claims 14-24.

26. Use of the scaffold biomaterial of any one of claims 1-13 or 25 as an implantable scaffold for supporting animal cell growth, for promoting tissue regeneration, for promoting angiogenesis, for a tissue replacement procedure, or as a structural implant for cosmetic surgery.

27. Use of the scaffold biomaterial of any one of claims 1-13 or 25 as a structural implant for repair or regeneration following spinal cord injury.

28. Use of the scaffold biomaterial of any one of claims 1-13 or 25 as a structural implant for tissue replacement surgery and/or for tissue regeneration following surgery.

29. Use of the scaffold biomaterial of any one of claims 1-13 or 25 as a structural implant for skin graft and/or skin regeneration surgery.

30. Use of the scaffold biomaterial of any one of claims 1-13 or 25 as a structural implant for regeneration of blood vasculature in a target tissue or region.

31. Use of the scaffold biomaterial of any one of claims 1-13 or 25 as a bone replacement, bone filling, or bone graft material, and/or for promoting bone regeneration.

32. Use of the scaffold biomaterial of any one of claims 1-13 or 25 as a tissue replacement for skin, bone, spinal cord, heart, muscle, nerve, blood vessel, or other damaged or malformed tissue.

33. Use of the scaffold biomaterial of any one of claims 1-13 or 25, in hydrogel form, as a vitreous humour replacement.

34. Use of the scaffold biomaterial of any one of claims 1-13 or 25 as an artificial bursae, wherein the scaffold biomaterial forms a sac-like structure containing scaffold biomaterial in hydrogel form.

35. Use of the scaffold biomaterial of any one of claims 1-13 or 25 as a structural implant for cosmetic surgery.

36. The use of any one of claims 26-35, wherein the scaffold biomaterial is a scaffold biomaterial for which the decellularised plant or fungal tissue of the scaffold biomaterial is configured to physically mimic a tissue of the subject and/or to functionally promote a target tissue effect in the subject.

37. A method for supporting animal cell growth, for promoting tissue regeneration, for promoting angiogenesis, for replacement of a tissue, or for providing a structural scaffold in a cosmetic surgery, in a subject in need thereof, said method comprising:

providing a scaffold biomaterial according to any one of claims 1-13 or 25; and

implanting the scaffold biomaterial into the subject.

38. The method of claim 37, wherein the scaffold biomaterial is implanted at the spinal cord, and promotes repair or regeneration following spinal cord injury.

39. The method of claim 37, wherein the scaffold biomaterial provides a structural implant for tissue replacement and/or for tissue regeneration in the subject.

40. The method of claim 37, wherein the scaffold biomaterial provides a structural implant for skin graft and/or skin regeneration in the subject.

41. The method of claim 37, wherein the scaffold biomaterial provides a structural implant for regeneration of blood vasculature in a target tissue or region or the subject.

42. The method of claim 37, wherein the scaffold biomaterial provides a bone replacement, bone filling, or bone graft material, and/or promotes bone regeneration, in the subject.

43. The method of claim 37, wherein the scaffold biomaterial provides a tissue replacement for skin, bone, spinal cord, heart, muscle, nerve, blood vessel, or other damaged or malformed tissue in the subject.

44. The method of claim 37, wherein the scaffold biomaterial, in hydrogel form, provides a vitreous humour replacement in the subject.

45. The method of claim 37, wherein the scaffold biomaterial provides an artificial bursae in the subject, wherein the scaffold biomaterial forms a sac-like structure containing scaffold biomaterial in hydrogel form.

46. The method of claim 37, wherein the scaffold biomaterial provides a structural implant for cosmetic surgery.

47. The method of any one of claims 37-46, wherein the step of providing a scaffold biomaterial includes:

selecting a scaffold biomaterial according to any one of claims 1-13 or 25 for which the decellularised plant or fungal tissue of the scaffold biomaterial is configured to physically mimic a tissue of the subject and/or to functionally promote a target tissue effect in the subject.

48. A kit comprising a scaffold biomaterial according to any one of claims 1-13 or 25 and at least one of a container or instructions for performing a method according to any one of claims 37-47.

49. The kit according to claim 48, wherein the kit is a surgical kit.

50. A kit comprising one or more of an SDS solution, a CaCb solution, a PBS solution, and optionally further comprising instructions for performing a method according to any one of claims 14-24.

51. A kit comprising a pre-loaded sterile dispensable implant comprising a scaffold biomaterial as defined in any one of claims 1-13 or 25, and instructions for performing a method according to any one of claims 14-24 or 37-47.