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1. WO2017136494 - METHOD AND INSTRUMENTS FOR INTERBODY FUSION AND POSTERIOR FIXATION THROUGH A SINGLE INCISION

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METHOD AND INSTRUMENTS FOR INTERBODY FUSION AND POSTERIOR FIXATION THROUGH A SINGLE INCISION

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Articulating and expandable interbody fusion devices (IBDs) make it possible to perform interbody fusion procedures through a relatively small unilateral skin-and-facia incision compared to non-articulating or non-expandable IBDs. However, interbody fusion procedures are often supplemented with bilateral posterior fixation via pedicle screw-and-rod constructs whose large sizes require alteration of the IBD surgical access plan to accommodate posterior construct placement. The large size of the pedicle screw construct, when paired with interbody fusion, typically requires either lengthening of the incision used for IBD placement (mini-open) or additional incisions (percutaneous) through which the pedicle screws and rods are placed. These alterations may inhibit articulating and expandable IBD technology from realizing their full potentials as minimally invasive interbody fusion solutions. Therefore, a need exists for a means of achieving interbody fusion and posterior fixation through a single incision.

In addition, when minimally invasive spinal surgery procedures are used, the procedures typically include inserting a port through the initial incision and then passing the relevant tools and implants through the port on their way to the spine. Typically, the port is anchored to surgical table with large and bulky assembly components, thereby causing obstruction of the surgeon’s view and workspace. Table mounts also have to be adjusted by a non-sterile member of the operating team, which takes control from the surgeon.

US 2011-0130634 (Solitario) discloses a patient-mounted retraction system.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

A method of providing access to an intervertebral disc has been developed that involves using the patient’s bony pedicle as an anchoring spot for an anchor (such as a pedicle screw) that temporarily attaches to the access port via an anchor extension (such as a screw

extension). Because this new procedure eliminates the need for the surgical table as an anchor, it also eliminates the assembly components extending from the table to the port at the access site, thereby freeing the surgeon’s view and workspace from bulky instruments while providing minimally invasive access. Preferably, the anchor extension is pivotally attached to the proximal end of the port so that it can pivot towards the center of the port and thereby provides access to two vertically-adjacent pedicles and to the intervertebral space therebetween.

Therefore, in accordance with the present invention, there is provided an assembly comprising:

a) an anchor extension comprising a shaft having a distal end portion comprising a receiver adapted for receiving an anchor and a proximal end portion comprising a pivoting feature,

b) a port comprising:

i) a tubular wall defining a central passageway,

ii) a longitudinal slot in the wall defining opposed ends of the wall,

iii) opposed flanges extending radially from each end of the wall, and

iv) a mating feature disposed in each opposed flanges adapted to pivotally mate with the pivoting feature of the screw extension.

wherein the mating feature of the tube pivotally mates with the pivoting feature of the anchor extension..

Also in accordance with the present invention, there is provided a method of mounting a port to a patient having spinal surgery, comprising:

a) passing a dilator through an incision in the skin of the patient towards a pedicle,

b) passing a port having a passageway over the dilator, wherein the port comprises a tubular wall defining a central passageway,

c) removing the dilator,

d) passing an anchor assembly comprising a distal anchor and a proximal extension at least partially through the incision,

e) inserting the distal anchor into the pedicle,

f) pivotally attaching the proximal extension to the port.

Also in accordance with the present invention, there is provided a spinal assembly comprising:

a) an anchor extension comprising a shaft having a distal end portion comprising a receiver adapted for receiving an anchor and a proximal end portion comprising a pivoting feature,

b) an anchor received in the receiver of the screw extension.

c) a port comprising:

i) a tube defining a first longitudinal passageway,

ii) a flange extending radially from the tube and having a throughole longitudinally disposed therein,

iii) a bushing having an inner perimeter and an outer perimeter, wherein the outer perimeter radially contacts the throughhole, and

wherein the anchor extension passes through the inner perimeter of the gasket.

Also in accordance with the present invention, there is provided an instrument assembly for performing MIS surgery on a spine, comprising:

a) a port having a proximal end portion, a distal end portion, and an axial passageway defining a centerline, and

b) an anchor extension having a distal end portion,

wherein the anchor extension is pivotally attached to the proximal end portion of the port.

DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES

FIG.1 discloses a first step of an embodiment wherein a paramedian skin and fascia incisions is made over the site through which interbody access is planned.

FIG. 2 discloses a second step wherein a conventional dilator is used to dilate and wand over the facet through which interbody access is planned.

FIG. 3 discloses a third step in which an integrated tubular dilator port is placed over the standard dilator, and the inner dilator is removed.

FIG.4 discloses a step in which pedicle preparation is performed through the integrated dilator port for at least one pedicle screw.

FIG. 5 discloses a step in which a pedicle screw attached to a screw extension is inserted into one pedicle through the integrated dilator port, resulting in anchoring of the screw extension.

FIG. 6a discloses a step in which the integrated dilator port is proximally engaged with the screw extension via a spherical male feature on the extension and a proximally-located slotted cylindrical female feature on the dilator port. The dilator port height and angle are adjusted via the sphere-in-cylinder configuration, and the assembly is tightened via one of a variety of clamping mechanisms (such as a threaded clamping mechanism).

FIGS.6b-d disclose different embodiments and views of the assembly.

FIGS.6e and 6f disclose alternate views of a port.

FIG.6g-i disclose side and cross-sectional views of a screw extension having a bulb.

FIG. 7 discloses a step in which facetectomy and discectomy are performed and the IBD is placed through the integrated dilator port.

FIG. 8 discloses a step in which the angle and height of the dilator port are adjusted, for subsequent screw placement. Access to the adjacent screw trajectory is afforded by the slot in the dilator port that allows it to pass over the screw extension.

FIG.9 discloses a step in which an adjacent level screw is placed through the dilator port,

FIG. 10 discloses a step in which the dilator port is disengaged from the screw extension and the screw extension is removed from the screw.

FIG. 11 discloses a step in which heads are assembled to the screw shanks through the dilator port.

FIG.12 discloses a step in which a rod is inserted through the dilator port, which is afforded by the slot in the dilator port.

FIG. 13 discloses a step in which set screws are placed through the dilator port and the screw/rod construct is tightened.

FIG. 14 discloses a step in which the dilator port is removed from the incision for subsequent closure.

FIG. 15 discloses an alternate embodiment of the assembly in which the port has a fully enclosed passageway and the screw extension is received in a gasket disposed in a flange extending from the port tube.

FIGS.16-17 are alternate views of the assembly of FIG.15 implanted in a patient’s spine.

FIGS. 18a-b disclose the screw extension of the invention attached to a pedicle screw in a monoaxial or co-axial fashion.

FIGS. 19a-b disclose the screw extension of the invention attached to a pedicle screw in a polyxial (lockable) fashion.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

Now referring to FIG. 1, a paramedian skin and fascia incision I00 is made over the site through which interbody access is planned. Now referring to FIG.2, a conventional dilator 99 is used to dilate and wand over the facet through which interbody access is planned. Now referring to FIG.3, an integrated tubular dilator port 21 is placed over the standard dilator, and the inner dilator is removed.

FIG.4 discloses a step in which pedicle preparation is performed through the integrated dilator port 21 for at least one pedicle screw. Thus, in some embodiments, the assembly further comprises a pedicle-preparation tool 101 at least partially disposed in the passageway. In some embodiments thereof, the tubular wall has a distal end, the pedicle-preparation tool has a working end, and the working end of the tool extends past the distal end of the tubular wall.

Now referring to FIG.5, a pedicle screw 35 is attached to a screw extension 3 is inserted into one pedicle through the integrated dilator port.

FIG. 6a discloses a step in which the integrated dilator port is proximally engaged with the screw extension via a spherical male feature on the extension and a proximally-located slotted cylindrical female feature on the dilator port. The dilator port height and angle are adjusted via the sphere-in-cylinder configuration, and the assembly is tightened via a threaded clamping mechanism.

FIGS.6b-d disclose an assembly 1 comprising:

a) a screw extension 3 comprising a shaft 5 having i) a distal portion 7 comprising a threaded receiver 9 located at the distal end portion 10 and adapted for receiving a screw and ii) a proximal portion 11 comprising a pivoting feature 13 and a head 14 located at the proximal end 15 of the screw extension,

b) a port 21 comprising:

i) a tubular wall 23 defining a central passageway 25,

ii) a longitudinal slot 27 in the wall defining opposed ends 29 of the wall, iii) opposed flanges 31 extending radially from each end of the wall, and

iv) a mating feature 33 disposed in each opposed flanges adapted to pivotally mate with the pivoting feature of the screw extension.

wherein the mating feature of the tube pivotally mates in a joint with the pivoting feature of the screw extension.

Fig. 6B also comprises a locking feature 36 that locks the axial position of the screw extension vis-à-vis the port.

In some embodiments, the pivoting feature comprises a substantially spherically-shaped portion or bulb 13 extending from the shaft, as shown in FIGS. 6b-d. The spherical nature of this pivoting feature allows polyaxial pivoting (or“wanding”) about the joint. The ability to wand the screw extension ( i.e., pivot the screw extension about the joint) allows the surgeon to reach a vertically- adjacent pedicle with the same screw extension, thereby allowing two screws to be placed through a single port location.

Also as seen in FIG.6b, the port has a circumferential ridge 37, which allows for controlling the rigidity required for clamping. The ridge helps transmit the clamping load.

FIG. 6c discloses an assembly substantially similar to that of FIG. 6b, except that the port does not have a circumferential ridge, and the locking feature have been omitted for clarity.

FIG.6d shows a cross-section of an assembly substantially similar to that of FIGS.6b and c. The FIG. 6d cross-section shows the bulb 13 of the screw extension as pivotally contacting the hemicylindrically-shaped longitudinal depressions 33 of the port.

FIGs 6e and 6f show alternate embodiments of the port component 21 disattached from the screw extension.

In FIGS.6e and 6f, the mating features of the port flanges that allow mating with the screw extension are hemicylindrically-shaped longitudinal depressions 33 disposed in each of the opposed flanges adapted to pivotally mate with the pivoting feature of the screw extension. The hemicylindrical nature of the depressions allow the bulb 13 of the screw extension to slide in a proximal-distal (axial) direction, thereby facilitating initial attachment of the bulb to the port and allowing the surgeon freedom to choose the height of the joint in the assembly so as to reduce tissue creep distal to the port. Also in FIGs.6e and 6f, the flanges have opposed holes 41 adapted to receive the pin of a locking feature (not shown).

In some embodiments, each mating feature comprises a depression. Preferably, the depression has a curve that allows the screw extension to pivot therein. In some embodiments, each mating feature comprises a substantially hemicylindrically-shaped depression extending in the proximal-distal direction that allows the screw extension to polyaxially pivot therein, thereby allowing wanding.

In some embodiments, each mating feature 33 comprises a substantially cylindrically-shaped depression having a longitudinal axis extending in a direction substantially parallel to the central passageway, as shown in FIGS. 6e and 6f. The shape of this depression not only allows the above-mentioned pivoting, it also allows axial movement of the pivoting feature of the screw extension in a direction parallel to the longitudinal axis of the passageway. This freedom of axial movement in the screw extension is important because it allows the surgeon to mate the distal end of the port with the bony anatomy to minimize soft tissue creep without having to adjust the screw depth.

FIGS. 6g-6i disclose different views of a screw extension. In FIG. 6g, the shaft of the screw extension has a substantially spherically-shaped bulb extending therefrom. This bulb, which is located on the proximal portion of the screw extension, is the pivoting feature of the screw extension that pivots with the depressions of the flanges of the port. FIG. 6f also discloses a threaded receiver on the distal end portion of the extension that is adapted for attaching to a pedicle screw. FIG. 6h is a cross-section of FIG. 6g, which reveals a bore 45 adapted for passage of a pedicle screw. Proximal to the bulb of FIGS. 6g and 6h is a head located at the proximal end of the screw extension and adapted to attach to a screw driver. The head has a pair of diametrically aligned holes 47 adapted to retain the extension on the screw driver during insertion. FIG. 6i shows a screw extension having a spherical bulb pivoting feature 13, and distal threads 9.

In some embodiments, as in FIG.6i, the assembly further comprises a screw 35 received in the receiver of the screw extension.

Now referring to FIGS. 6j-k, in preferred embodiments, the assembly further comprises a locking feature 36 adapted to lock the screw extension between the flanges of the port. This locking mechanism keeps the screw extension attached to the port with its axial position maintained while allowing the screw extension to pivot about the joint. In some embodiments, the locking feature is produced by providing opposed holes in the opposed flanges, inserting a threaded pin 39 through the opposed holes, and tightening a nut 41 over a distal end of the threaded pin. The resulting locking feature of is shown in FIG.6b.

FIG. 6k further shows, in addition to the locking feature, the slot 27 defined in the port by the two ends 29 of its wall.

Now referring to FIG. 7, facetectomy and discectomy are performed and the IBD is placed through the integrated dilator port 21.

Now referring to FIG. 8, the angle and height of the dilator port are adjusted, for subsequent screw placement. Access to the adjacent screw trajectory is afforded by the slot in the dilator port that allows it to pass over the screw extension.

Now referring to FIG.9, an adjacent level screw is placed through the dilator port,

Now referring to FIG.10, the dilator port is disengaged from the screw extension and the screw extension is removed from the screw.

Now referring to FIG.11, heads are assembled to the screw shanks through the dilator port.

Now referring to FIG.12, a rod is inserted through the dilator port, which is afforded by the slot in the dilator port.

Now referring to FIG. 13, set screws are placed through the dilator port and the screw/rod construct is tightened.

Now referring to FIG. 14, the dilator port is removed from the incision for subsequent closure. Although FIG. 14 shows final tightening as well, final tightening can occur before or after the port is removed.

Referring now to FIG.15-17, there is provided an assembly comprising:

a) a screw extension comprising a shaft having a distal end portion comprising a receiver adapted for receiving a screw and a proximal end portion comprising a pivoting feature,

b) a screw received in the receiver of the screw extension.

c) a port 51 comprising:

j) a tube 53 defining a first longitudinal passageway 55,

ii) a flange 57 extending radially from the tube and having a throughole 59 longitudinally disposed therein,

iii) a bushing 61 having an inner perimeter 63 and an outer perimeter 65, wherein the outer perimeter radially contacts the throughhole, and

wherein the screw extension passes through the inner perimeter of the bushing.

In alternate embodiments related to FIGS.15-17, a vertical slot is provided in the port so as to fulfill the need of being able to perofrm the complete procedure through a single incision.

Preferably, the bushing is a split bushing intended to transmit a clamping load from the port housing to the screw extension to maintain both rotational and axial stability of the port relative to the screw extension. Preferably, the bushing is flexible to allow wanding of the screw extension. Also preferably, the bushing is located adjacent a proximal end of the tube, again to allow wanding of the screw extension. The ability to wand the screw extension (i.e., pivot the screw extension about the bushing) allows the surgeon to reach an adjacent pedicle with the screw extension, thereby enabling two screws to be placed through a single port location.

The instruments associated with the proposed solution would likely be classified as general surgical instruments. The screw extension would interface with a pedicle screw system, such as the MATRIX or EXPEDIUM systems marketed by DePuy Synthes Spine (Raynham, MA). Similar to the MATRIX system distraction tips, the screw extension could interface with a headless screw shank 75 in a monoaxial fashion ( as shown in FIGS.18a-b) or with a polyaxial screw head 77 in a lockable polyaxial fashion ( as shown in FIGS.19a-b).