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1. (WO2017112535) RULE-BASED NETWORK-THREAT DETECTION FOR ENCRYPTED COMMUNICATIONS
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RULE-BASED NETWORK-THREAT DETECTION FOR ENCRYPTED COMMUNICATIONS

CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application claims priority to U.S. non-provisional application Ser. No. 14/757,638, filed December 23, 2015, entitled "RULE-BASED N ETWORK-THREAT DETECTION FOR ENCRYPTED COMM UN ICATIONS," which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety for all purposes.

BACKGROUN D

Network security is becoming increasingly important as the information age continues to unfold. Network threats may take a variety of forms (e.g., unauthorized requests or data transfers, viruses, malware, large volumes of traffic designed to overwhelm resources, and the like). Network-threat services provide information associated with network threats, for example, reports that include listings of network-threat indicators (e.g., network addresses, domain names, uniform resource identifiers (URIs), and the like). Such information may be utilized to identify network threats. Encrypted communications, however, may obfuscate data corresponding to network threats. Accordingly, there is a need for rule-based network-threat detection for encrypted communications.

SUMMARY

The following presents a simplified summary in order to provide a basic understanding of some aspects of the disclosure. It is intended neither to identify key or critical elements of the disclosure nor to delineate the scope of the disclosure. The following summary merely presents some concepts of the disclosure in a simplified form as a prelude to the description below.

Aspects of this disclosure relate to rule-based network-threat detection for encrypted communications. In accordance with embodiments of the disclosure, a packet-filtering system configured to filter packets in accordance with packet-filtering rules may receive data indicating network-threat indicators and may configure the packet-filtering rules to cause the packet-filtering system to identify packets comprising unencrypted data, and packets comprising encrypted data. A portion of the unencrypted data may correspond to one or more of the network-threat indicators, and the packet-filtering rules may be configured to cause the packet-filtering system to determine, based on the portion of the unencrypted data, that the packets comprising encrypted data correspond to the one or more network-threat indicators.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The present disclosure is pointed out with particularity in the appended claims. Features of the disclosure will become more apparent upon a review of this disclosure in its entirety, including the drawing figures provided herewith.

Some features herein are illustrated by way of example, and not by way of limitation, in the figures of the accompanying drawings, in which like reference numerals refer to similar elements, and wherein:

FIG. 1 depicts an illustrative environment for rule-based network-threat detection for encrypted communications in accordance with one or more aspects of the disclosure;

FIG. 2 depicts an illustrative packet-filtering system for rule-based network-threat detection for encrypted communications in accordance with one or more aspects of the disclosure;

FIGs. 3A-C, 4A-C, 5A-B, and 6A-B depict illustrative event sequences for rule-based network-threat detection for encrypted communications in accordance with one or more aspects of the disclosure; and

FIG. 7 depicts an illustrative method for rule-based network-threat detection for encrypted communications in accordance with one or more aspects of the disclosure.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

In the following description of various illustrative embodiments, reference is made to the accompanying drawings, which form a part hereof, and in which is shown, by way of illustration, various embodiments in which aspects of the disclosure may be practiced. It is to be understood that other embodiments may be utilized, and structural and functional modifications may be made, without departing from the scope of the disclosure.

Various connections between elements are discussed in the following description. These connections are general and, unless specified otherwise, may be direct or indirect, wired or wireless. In this respect, the specification is not intended to be limiting.

FIG. 1 depicts an illustrative environment for rule-based network-threat detection for encrypted communications in accordance with one or more aspects of the disclosure. Referring to FIG. 1, environment 100 may include networks 102 and 104. Network 102 may comprise one or more networks (e.g., Local Area Networks (LANs), Wide Area Networks (WANs), Virtual Private Networks (VPNs), or combinations thereof) associated with one or more individuals or entities (e.g., governments, corporations, service providers, or other organizations). Network 104 may comprise one or more networks (e.g., LANs, WANs, VPNs, or combinations thereof) that interface network 102 with one or more other networks (not illustrated). For example, network 104 may comprise the Internet, a similar network, or portions thereof.

Environment 100 may also include one or more hosts, such as computing or network devices (e.g., servers, desktop computers, laptop computers, tablet computers, mobile devices, smartphones, routers, gateways, firewalls, switches, access points, or the like). For example, network 102 may include hosts 106, 108, and 110, proxy devices 112, 114, and 116, web proxy 118, rule gates 120, 122, 124, 126, and 128, domain name system (DNS) 130, Internet content adaptation protocol (ICAP) server 132, and gateway 134. As used herein, "host" (or "hosts") refers to any type of network device (or node) or computing device; while such devices may be assigned (or configured to be assigned) one or more network-layer addresses, the term "host" (or "hosts") does not imply such devices necessarily are assigned (or configured to be assigned) one or more network-layer addresses.

Gateway 134 may be located at border 136 between networks 102 and 104 and may interface network 102 or one or more hosts located therein with network 104 or one or more hosts located therein. For example, network 104 may include one or more rule providers 138, one or more threat-intelligence providers 140, and hosts 142, 144, and 146, and gateway 134 may interface hosts 106, 108, and 110, proxy devices 112, 114, and 116, web proxy 118, rule gates 120, 122, 124, 126, and 128, DNS 130, and ICAP server 132 with rule providers 138, threat-intelligence providers 140, and hosts 142, 144, and 146.

FIG. 2 depicts an illustrative packet-filtering system for rule-based network-threat detection for encrypted communications in accordance with one or more aspects of the disclosure. Referring to FIG. 2, packet-filtering system 200 may be associated with network 102 and may include one or more of rule gates 120, 122, 124, 126, and 128. Packet-filtering system 200 may comprise one or more processors 202, memory 204, one or more communication interfaces 206, and data bus 208. Data bus 208 may interface processors 202, memory 204, and communication interfaces 206. Memory 204 may comprise one or more program modules 210, rules 212, and logs 214. Program modules 210 may comprise instructions that when executed by processors 202 cause packet-filtering system 200 to perform one or more of the functions described herein. Rules 212 may comprise one or more packet-filtering rules in accordance with which packet-filtering system 200 is configured to filter packets received via communication interfaces 206. Logs 214 may include one or more entries generated by processors 202 in accordance with rules 212 for packets received by packet-filtering system 200 via communication interfaces 206.

Communication interfaces 206 may interface packet-filtering system 200 with one or more communication links of environment 100 (e.g., of networks 102 and 104). In some embodiments, one or more of communication interfaces 206 may interface directly with a communication link of environment 100. For example, interfaces 216 and 224 may interface directly with links 236 and 244, respectively. In some embodiments, one or more of communication interfaces 206 may interface indirectly with a communication link of environment 100. For example, interface 220 may interface with links 236 and 244 via one or more network devices 240. Network devices 240 may provide interface 220 with access to (or copies of) packets traversing one or more of links 236 and 244, for example, via a switched port analyzer (SPAN) port of network devices 240. Additionally or alternatively, interfaces 218 and 222 may interface with links 236 and 244 via tap devices 238 and 242. For example, packet-filtering system 200 may provision tap device 238 with one or more of rules 212 configured to cause tap device 238 to identify packets traversing link 236 that correspond to specified criteria and route (or forward) the packets (or copies thereof) to interface 218, and packet-filtering system 200 may provision tap device 242 with one or more of rules 212 configured to cause tap device 242 to identify packets traversing link 244 that correspond to specified criteria and route (or forward) the packets (or copies thereof) to interface 222. Similarly, interfaces 226 and 234 may interface directly with links 246 and 254, respectively; network devices 250 may provide interface 230 with access to (or copies of) packets traversing one or more of links 246 and 254; packet-filtering system 200 may provision tap device 248 with one or more of rules 212 configured to cause tap device 248 to identify packets traversing link 246 that correspond to specified criteria and route (or forward) the packets (or copies thereof) to interface 228; and packet-filtering system 200 may provision tap device 252 with one or more of rules 212 configured to cause tap device 252 to identify packets traversing link 254 that correspond to specified criteria and route (or forward) the packets (or copies thereof) to interface 232. In some embodiments, packet-filtering system 200 may comprise one or more of tap devices 238, 242, 248, and 252 or network devices 240 and 250.

FIGs. 3A-C, 4A-C, 5A-B, and 6A-B depict illustrative event sequences for rule-based network-threat detection for encrypted communications in accordance with one or more aspects of the disclosure. The depicted steps are merely illustrative and may be omitted, combined, or performed in an order other than that depicted; the numbering of the steps is merely for ease of reference and does not imply any particular ordering is necessary or preferred.

Referring to FIG. 3A, at step #1, threat-intelligence providers 140 may communicate one or more threat-intelligence reports to rule providers 138. The threat-intelligence reports may include one or more network-threat indicators, for example, domain names (e.g., fully qualified domain names (FQDNs)), URIs, network addresses, or the like. At step #2, rule providers 138 may utilize the threat-intelligence reports to generate one or more packet-filtering rules configured to identify packets comprising data corresponding to the network-threat indicators. At step #3, rule providers 138 may communicate the packet-filtering rules to rule gate 120. As indicated by the crosshatched boxes over the lines extending downward from network 104, rule gate 128, and gateway 134, the packet-filtering rules may traverse network 104, rule gate 128, and gateway 134. For example, network 104 and gateway 134 may interface rule providers 138 and rule gate 120, and rule gate 128 may interface a communication link interfacing network 104 and gateway 134. Rule gate 120 may receive the packet-filtering rules generated by rule providers 138 and, at step #4, may utilize the received packet-filtering rules to configure rules 212 to cause packet-filtering system 200 to identify packets comprising data corresponding to at least one of the plurality of network-threat indicators.

At step #5, host 106 may generate a request. For example, host 106 may execute a web browser, and the web browser may generate a request in response to user input (e.g., navigation of the web browser to a URI). The request may comprise a domain name, and host 106 may generate a DNS query comprising the domain name and, at step #6, may communicate the DNS query toward DNS 130. Rule gate 126 may interface a communication link interfacing host 106 and DNS 130, the domain name included in the request may correspond to one or more of the network-threat indicators, and rules 212 may be configured to cause rule gate 126 to one or more of identify one or more packets comprising the DNS query, determine that the packets comprise the domain name corresponding to the network-threat indicators, and responsive to one or more of identifying the packets or determining that the packets comprise the domain name corresponding to the network-threat indicators, one or more of log (as indicated by the diamond-patterned box over the line extending downward from rule gate 126) or drop the packets. Rule gate 126 may generate log

data (e.g., one or more entries in logs 214) for the packets. For example, the packets may comprise a network address of host 106 (e.g., as a source address in their network-layer headers), and rule gate 126 may generate log data indicating the network address of host 106. As depicted by step #6A, the packets may be communicated to DNS 130. In some embodiments, rules 212 may be configured to cause rule gate 126 to, responsive to one or more of identifying the packets or determining that the packets comprise the domain name corresponding to the network-threat indicators, drop the packets, preventing them from reaching DNS 130, as depicted by step #6B.

DNS 130 may generate a reply to the DNS query and, at step #7, may communicate the reply toward host 106. The reply may comprise the domain name corresponding to the network-threat indicators, and rules 212 may be configured to cause rule gate 126 to one or more of identify one or more packets comprising the reply, determine that the packets comprise the domain name corresponding to the network-threat indicators, and responsive to one or more of identifying the packets or determining that the packets comprise the domain name corresponding to the network-threat indicators, one or more of log or drop the packets. Rule gate 126 may generate log data (e.g., one or more entries in logs 214) for the packets. For example, the packets may comprise the network address of host 106 (e.g., as a destination address in their network-layer headers), and rule gate 126 may generate log data indicating the network address of host 106. Similarly, the domain name may correspond to host 142, the packets may comprise a network address of host 142 (e.g., DNS 130 may have resolved the domain name included in the query to the network address of host 142.), and rule gate 126 may generate log data indicating the network address of host 142. As depicted by step #7A, the packets may be communicated to host 106. In some embodiments, rules 212 may be configured to cause rule gate 126 to, responsive to determining that the packets comprise the domain name corresponding to the network-threat indicators, drop the packets, preventing them from reaching host 106, as depicted by step #7B.

Packet-filtering system 200 may be configured to correlate packets identified by packet-filtering system 200 (e.g., the packets comprising the reply to the DNS query) with packets previously identified by packet-filtering system 200 (e.g., the packets comprising the DNS query). For example, packet-filtering system 200 may be configured to determine that packets identified by packet-filtering system 200 (e.g., the packets comprising the reply to the DNS query) are one or more of associated with, related to, or the product of packets previously identified by packet-filtering system 200 (e.g., the packets comprising the DNS query). Packet-filtering system 200 may be configured to correlate packets identified by packet-filtering system 200 with packets previously identified by packet-filtering system 200 based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., the log data generated by rule gate 126 in steps #6 and #7).

For example, for one or more packets logged by packet-filtering system 200 (e.g., the packets comprising the DNS query or the packets comprising the reply to the DNS query), logs 214 may comprise one or more entries indicating one or more of network-layer information (e.g., information derived from one or more network-layer header fields of the packets, such as a protocol type, a destination network address, a source network address, a signature or authentication information (e.g., information from an Internet protocol security (IPsec) encapsulating security payload (ESP)), or the like), transport-layer information (e.g., a destination port, a source port, a checksum or similar data (e.g., error detection or correction values, such as those utilized by the transmission control protocol (TCP) or the user datagram protocol (UDP)),or the like), application-layer information (e.g., information derived from one or more application-layer header fields of the packets, such as a domain name, a uniform resource locator (URL), a uniform resource identifier (URI), an extension, a method, state information, media-type information, a signature, a key, a timestamp, an application identifier, a session identifier, a flow identifier, sequence information, authentication information, or the like), other data in the packets (e.g., payload data), or one or more environmental variables (e.g., information associated with but not solely derived from the packets themselves, such as one or more arrival (or receipt) or departure (or transmission) times of the packets (e.g., at or from one or more of rule gates 120, 122, 124, 126, or 128, tap devices 238, 242, 248, or 252, or network devices 240 or 250), one or more ingress or egress identifiers (e.g., associated with one or more physical or logical network interfaces, ports, or communication-media types of one or more of rule gates 120, 122, 124, 126, or 128, tap devices 238, 242, 248, or 252, or network devices 240 or 250 via which the packets were one or more of received or transmitted), one or more device identifiers (e.g., associated with one or more of rule gates 120, 122, 124, 126, or 128, tap devices 238, 242, 248, or 252, or network devices 240 or 250 via which the packets were one or more of received or transmitted), or the like), and packet-filtering system 200 may utilize such entries to correlate one or more packets identified by packet-filtering system 200 with one or more packets previously identified by packet-filtering system 200.

In some embodiments, packet-filtering system 200 may implement one or more aspects of the technology described in U.S. Patent Application Serial No. 14/618,967, filed February 10, 2015, and entitled "CORRELATING PACKETS IN COMM UN ICATIONS NETWORKS," the disclosure of which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety and made part hereof, or similar technology (e.g., to correlate one or more packets identified by packet-filtering system 200 with one or more packets previously identified by packet-filtering system 200).

Host 106 may generate one or more packets destined for host 142 comprising data (e.g., a TCP: SYN handshake message) configured to establish a connection (e.g., a TCP connection or tunnel) between hosts 106 and 142 and, at step #8, may communicate the packets toward host 142. Rule gate 120 may interface a communication link interfacing hosts 106 and 142, and rules 212 may be configured to cause rule gate 120 to one or more of identify the packets or determine (e.g., based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers) that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, by correlating the packets with one or more of the packets comprising the DNS query or the reply to the DNS query based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., the log data generated by rule gate 126 in one or more of steps #6 or #7).

At step #9, rule gate 120 may route the packets comprising the data configured to establish the connection between hosts 106 and 142 to proxy device 112 and, at step #10, may communicate the packets to proxy device 112. For example, rules 212 may be configured to cause rule gate 120 to route the packets to proxy device 112 based on data in the packets, for example, one or more ports (e.g., port 443) indicated by transport-layer headers in the packets, indicating the connection between hosts 106 and 142 will be utilized to establish an encrypted communication session or tunnel (e.g., a session established in accordance with the transport layer security (TLS) protocol, secure sockets layer (SSL) protocol, secure shell (SSH) protocol, or the like). In some embodiments, rules 212 may be configured to cause rule gate 120 to route the packets to proxy device 112 based on a determination that one or more of hosts 106 or 142 is associated with a network address for which rules 212 indicate encrypted communications should be established via one or more of proxy devices 112, 114, or 116. For example, proxy devices 112, 114, and 116 may be part of a proxy system (e.g., a SSL/TLS proxy system) that enables packet-filtering system 200 to filter packets comprising encrypted data based on information within the encrypted data, and rules 212 may be configured to cause rule gate 120 to route the packets to proxy device 112 based on a determination that host 142 is associated with a network address of a domain corresponding to the network-threat indicators.

Additionally or alternatively, network 102 may include one or more hosts for which rules 212 indicate connections utilized to establish encrypted communication sessions (e.g., connections with hosts corresponding to network-threat indicators) should be established via one or more of proxy devices 112, 114, or 116, as well as one or more hosts for which rules 212 indicate connections utilized to establish encrypted communication sessions should not be established via one or more of proxy devices 112, 114, and 116, for example, hosts that generate sensitive data (e.g., personally identifiable information (Pl l)), inspection of which may present privacy or regulatory concerns (e.g., data subject to the health insurance portability and accountability act (HIPAA), or the like), and rules 212 may be configured to cause rule gate 120 to route the packets to proxy device 112 based on a determination

that host 106 is associated with a network address for which rules 212 indicate encrypted communications should be established via one or more of proxy devices 112, 114, or 116.

For example, link 236 may interface host 106 with rule gate 120, link 244 may interface rule gate 120 with host 142, link 246 may interface rule gate 120 with proxy device 112, link 254 may interface proxy devices 112 and 114 and may comprise a communication link internal to a proxy system comprising proxy devices 112 and 114, and rules 212 may be configured to cause rule gate 120 to route (or redirect) packets received from host 106 via one or more of interfaces 216, 218, or 220 and destined for host 142 (or a portion thereof (e.g., packets comprising data configured to establish a connection between hosts 106 and 142 and indicating the connection will be utilized to establish an encrypted communication session)) to host 142 via interface 226. Additionally or alternatively, rules 212 may be configured to cause rule gate 120 to forward copies of (or mirror) packets received from host 106 via one or more of interfaces 216, 218, 220, or 222 and destined for host 142 (or a portion thereof (e.g., packets comprising data configured to establish a connection between hosts 106 and 142 and indicating the connection will be utilized to establish an encrypted communication session)) to proxy device 112 via interface 226.

At step #11, proxy devices 112 and 114 may exchange one or more parameters determined from the packets comprising the data configured to establish the connection between hosts 106 and 142, for example, one or more network addresses in network-layer headers of the packets (e.g., network addresses of hosts 106 and 142) or ports indicated by transport-layer headers in the packets (e.g., indicating the type of encrypted communication session the connection will be utilized to establish). Proxy device 112 may utilize the parameters to generate packets comprising data configured to establish a connection between proxy device 112 and host 106 (e.g., a TCP: SYN-ACK handshake message) and, at step #12, may communicate the packets to host 106. Rules 212 may be configured to cause rule gate 120 to one or more of identify the packets, determine (e.g., based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers) that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, by correlating the packets with one or more of the packets comprising the DNS query or the reply to the DNS query based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., the log data generated by rule gate 126 in one or more of steps #6 or #7), and one or more of log or drop the packets.

Similarly, proxy device 114 may utilize the parameters to generate packets comprising data configured to establish a connection between proxy device 114 and host 142 (e.g., a TCP: SYN handshake message) and, at step #13, may communicate the packets to host 142. Rule gate 128 may interface a communication link interfacing proxy device 114 and host 142, and rules 212 may be configured to cause rule gate 128 to one or more of identify the packets, determine (e.g., based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers) that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, by correlating the packets with one or more packets previously determined by packet-filtering system 200 to comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., log data generated by packet-filtering system 200 in one or more of steps #6, #7, or #12), and one or more of log or drop the packets.

Responsive to receiving the packets from proxy device 112, host 106 may generate packets comprising data configured to establish the connection between proxy device 112 and host 106 (e.g., a TCP: ACK handshake message) and, at step #14, may communicate the packets to proxy device 112. Rules 212 may be configured to cause rule gate 120 to one or more of identify the packets, determine (e.g., based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers) that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, by correlating the packets with one or more packets previously determined by packet-filtering system 200 to comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., log data generated by packet-filtering system 200 in one or more of steps #6, #7, #12, or #13), and one or more of log or drop the packets.

Responsive to receiving the packets from proxy device 114, host 142 may generate packets comprising data configured to establish the connection between proxy device 114 and host 142 (e.g., a TCP: SYN-ACK handshake message) and, at step #15, may communicate the packets to proxy device 114. Rules 212 may be configured to cause rule gate 128 to one or more of identify the packets, determine (e.g., based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers) that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, by correlating the packets with one or more packets previously determined by packet-filtering system 200 to comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., log data generated by packet-filtering system 200 in one or more of step #s 6, 7, or 12-14), and one or more of log or drop the packets.

Responsive to receiving the packets from host 142, proxy device 114 may generate packets comprising data configured to establish the connection between proxy device 114 and host 142 (e.g., a TCP: ACK handshake message) and, at step #16, may communicate the packets to host 142. Rules 212 may be configured to cause rule gate 128 to one or more of identify the packets, determine (e.g., based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers) that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, by correlating the packets with one or more packets previously determined by packet-filtering system 200 to comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., log data generated by packet-filtering system 200 in one or more of step #s 6, 7, or 12-15), and one or more of log or drop the packets.

Referring to FIG. 3B, proxy device 112 may receive the packets comprising data configured to establish the connection between proxy device 112 and host 106 communicated by host 106 in step #14, and connection 302 (e.g., a TCP connection) between proxy device 112 and host 106 may be established. Similarly, host 142 may receive the packets comprising data configured to establish the connection between proxy device 114 and host 142 communicated by proxy device 114 in step #16, and

connection 304 (e.g., a TCP connection) between proxy device 114 and host 142 may be established.

At step #17, proxy device 112 and host 106 may communicate packets comprising data configured to establish encrypted communication session 306 (e.g., a SSL/TLS session) between proxy device 112 and host 106 via connection 302. Rules 212 may be configured to cause rule gate 120 to one or more of identify the packets, determine (e.g., based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers) that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, by correlating the packets with one or more packets previously determined by packet-filtering system 200 to comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., log data generated by packet-filtering system 200 in one or more of step #s 6, 7, or 12-16), and one or more of log or drop the packets. Additionally or alternatively, rules 212 may be configured to cause rule gate 120 to one or more of identify the packets or determine that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators based on data included in the packets. For example, in some embodiments, host 106 may comprise a client (e.g., web browser), host 142 may comprise a server (e.g., web server), the packets may comprise one or more handshake messages configured to establish session 306 that comprise unencrypted data including a domain name corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, a hello message generated by the client (e.g., including the domain name in the server name indication extension, or the like) or a certificate message generated by the server (e.g., including the domain name in one or more of the subject common name field or the extension subjectAltName (of type dNSName), or the like), and rules 212 may be configured to cause rule gate 120 to one or more of identify the packets or determine that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators based on data included in the one or more handshake messages configured to establish session 306. In such embodiments, rules 212 may be configured to cause packet-filtering system 200 to one or more of identify the packets or determine that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators based on the certificate message comprising other data (e.g., in addition to or in lieu of the domain name) corresponding to one or more of the network-threat indicators, for example, data indicating at least one of a serial number (or type thereof) indicated by rules 212, an issuer (or type thereof) indicated by rules 212, a validity time-range (or type thereof) indicated by rules 212, a key (or type thereof) indicated by rules 212, a digital signature (e.g., fingerprint) (or type thereof) indicated by rules 212, or a signing authority (or type thereof) indicated by rules 212.

Similarly, at step #18, proxy device 114 and host 142 may communicate packets comprising data configured to establish encrypted communication session 308 (e.g., a SSL/TLS session) between proxy device 114 and host 142 via connection 304, and rules 212 may be configured to cause rule gate 128 to one or more of identify the packets, determine (e.g., based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers) that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, by correlating the packets with one or more packets previously determined by packet-filtering system 200 to comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., log data generated by packet-filtering system 200 in one or more of step #s 6, 7, or 12-17) or the packets comprising one or more handshake messages configured to establish session 308 that comprise unencrypted data (e.g., including the domain name) corresponding to the network-threat indicators, and one or more of log or drop the packets.

Host 106 may generate packets comprising data encrypted in accordance with one or more parameters of session 306 and, at step #19, may communicate the packets to proxy device 112 via session 306. Rules 212 may be configured to cause rule gate 120 to one or more of identify the packets, determine (e.g., based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers) that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, by correlating the packets with one or more packets previously determined by packet-filtering system 200 to comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., log data generated by packet-filtering system 200 in one or more of step #s 6, 7, or 12-18), and one or more of log (as indicated by the triangles over the line extending downward from rule gate 120) or drop the packets.

Proxy device 112 may receive the packets and decrypt the data in accordance with the parameters of session 306. The packets may comprise a request (e.g., a hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) request), and proxy device 112 may comprise an ICAP client, which, at step #20, may communicate the packets to ICAP server 132. Rule gate 126 may interface a communication link interfacing proxy device 112 and ICAP server 132, and rules 212 may be configured to cause rule gate 126 to one or more of identify the packets, determine (e.g., based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers) that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, by correlating the packets with one or more packets previously determined by packet-filtering system 200 to comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., log data generated by packet-filtering system 200 in one or more of step #s 6, 7, or 12-19), and one or more of log or drop the packets.

ICAP server 132 may generate packets comprising data responsive to the request (e.g., a response, modified request, or the like) and, at step #21, may communicate the packets to proxy device 112. Rules 212 may be configured to cause rule gate 126 to one or more of identify the packets, determine (e.g., based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers) that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, by correlating the packets with one or more packets previously determined by packet-filtering system 200 to comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., log data generated by packet-filtering system 200 in one or more of step #s 6, 7, or 12-20), and one or more of log or drop the packets. Additionally or alternatively, rules 212 may be configured to cause rule gate 126 to one or more of identify the packets or determine that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators based on data included in the packets, for example, the data responsive to the request (e.g., a modified request) may comprise data (e.g., a domain name, U I, or the like) corresponding to the network-threat indicators.

Proxy device 112 may generate packets (e.g., based on the data generated by ICAP server 132) and, at step #22, may communicate the packets to proxy device 114. Rule gate 124 may interface a communication link internal to the proxy system comprising proxy devices 112 and 114, and thus packets traversing the communication link may comprise unencrypted data (e.g., rule gate 124 may be "the man in the middle" of proxy devices 112 and 114), and rules 212 may be configured to cause rule gate 124 to one or more of identify the packets, determine (e.g., based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers) that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, by correlating the packets with one or more packets previously determined by packet-filtering system 200 to comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., log data generated by packet-filtering system 200 in one or more of step #s 6, 7, or 12-21), and one or more of log or drop the packets.

Additionally or alternatively, rules 212 may be configured to cause rule gate 124 to one or more of identify the packets or determine that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators based on data included in the packets, for example, unencrypted data in the packets corresponding to one or more of the network-threat indicators. For example, in some embodiments, packet-filtering system 200 may implement one or more aspects of the technology described in U.S. Patent Application Serial No. 13/795,822, filed March 12, 2013, and entitled "FILTERING NETWORK DATA TRANSFERS," the disclosure of which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety and made part hereof, or similar technology, and rules 212 may be configured to cause rule gate 124 to one or more of identify the packets or determine that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators based on the packets comprising one or more of a URI specified by rules 212, data indicating a protocol version specified by rules 212, data indicating a method specified by rules 212, data indicating a request specified by rules 212, or data indicating a command specified by rules 212. Additionally or alternatively, rules 212 may be configured to cause rule gate 124 to one or more of identify the packets or determine that the packets comprise data corresponding to the one or more network-threat indicators based on unencrypted data in the packets comprising a U I meeting or exceeding a threshold size specified by rules 212 (e.g., a URI likely being utilized to exfiltrate data).

Proxy device 114 may receive the packets and generate one or more corresponding packets comprising data encrypted in accordance with one or more parameters of session 308 and, at step #23, may communicate the packets to host 142. Rules 212 may be configured to cause rule gate 128 to one or more of identify the packets, determine (e.g., based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers) that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, by correlating the packets with one or more packets previously determined by packet-filtering system 200 to comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., log data generated by packet-filtering system 200 in one or more of step #s 6, 7, or 12-22), and one or more of log or drop the packets.

Host 142 may generate one or more packets comprising data encrypted in accordance with one or more parameters of session 308 and, at step #24, may communicate the packets to proxy device 114. Rules 212 may be configured to cause rule gate 128 to one or more of identify the packets, determine (e.g., based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers) that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, by correlating the packets with one or more packets previously determined by packet-filtering system 200 to comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., log data generated by packet-filtering system 200 in one or more of step #s 6, 7, or 12-23), and one or more of log or drop the packets.

Proxy device 114 may receive the packets and generate one or more corresponding packets comprising unencrypted data and, at step #25, may communicate the

packets to proxy device 112. Rules 212 may be configured to cause rule gate 124 to one or more of identify the packets, determine (e.g., based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers) that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, by correlating the packets with one or more packets previously determined by packet-filtering system 200 to comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., log data generated by packet-filtering system 200 in one or more of step #s 6, 7, or 12-24), and one or more of log or drop the packets.

Proxy device 112 may receive the packets and generate one or more corresponding packets comprising data encrypted in accordance with one or more parameters of session 306 and, at step #26, may communicate the packets to host 106. Rules 212 may be configured to cause rule gate 120 to one or more of identify the packets, determine (e.g., based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers) that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, by correlating the packets with one or more packets previously determined by packet-filtering system 200 to comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., log data generated by packet-filtering system 200 in one or more of step #s 6, 7, or 12-25), and one or more of log or drop the packets.

Host 106 may generate one or more packets comprising data encrypted in accordance with one or more parameters of session 306 and, at step #27, may communicate the packets toward proxy device 112. Rules 212 may be configured to cause rule gate 120 to one or more of identify the packets, determine (e.g., based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers) that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, by correlating the packets with one or more packets previously determined by packet-filtering system 200 to comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., log data generated by packet-filtering system 200 in one or more of step #s 6, 7, or 12-26), and one or more of log or drop the packets.

Proxy device 112 may receive one or more of the packets and generate one or more corresponding packets comprising unencrypted data and, at step #28, may communicate the packets toward proxy device 114. Rules 212 may be configured to cause rule gate 124 to one or more of identify the packets, determine (e.g., based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers) that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, by correlating the packets with one or more packets previously determined by packet-filtering system 200 to comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., log data generated by packet-filtering system 200 in one or more of step #s 6, 7, or 12-27), and one or more of log or drop the packets.

Proxy device 114 may receive one or more of the packets and generate one or more corresponding packets comprising data encrypted in accordance with one or more parameters of session 308 and, at step #29, may communicate the packets toward host 142. Rules 212 may be configured to cause rule gate 128 to one or more of identify the packets, determine (e.g., based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers) that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, by correlating the packets with one or more packets previously determined by packet-filtering system 200 to comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., log data generated by packet-filtering system 200 in one or more of step #s 6, 7, or 12-28), and one or more of log or drop the packets.

Host 142 may generate one or more packets comprising data encrypted in accordance with one or more parameters of session 308 and, at step #30, may communicate the packets toward proxy device 114. Rules 212 may be configured to cause rule gate 128 to one or more of identify the packets, determine (e.g., based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers) that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, by correlating the packets with one or more packets previously determined by packet-filtering system 200 to comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., log data generated by packet-filtering system 200 in one or more of step #s 6, 7, or 12-29), and one or more of log or drop the packets.

Proxy device 114 may receive one or more of the packets and generate one or more corresponding packets comprising unencrypted data and, at step #31, may communicate the packets toward proxy device 112. Rules 212 may be configured to cause rule gate 124 to one or more of identify the packets, determine (e.g., based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers) that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, by correlating the packets with one or more packets previously determined by packet-filtering system 200 to comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., log data generated by packet-filtering system 200 in one or more of step #s 6, 7, or 12-30), and one or more of log or drop the packets.

Proxy device 112 may receive one or more of the packets and generate one or more corresponding packets comprising data encrypted in accordance with one or more parameters of session 306 and, at step #32, may communicate the packets toward host 106. Rules 212 may be configured to cause rule gate 120 to one or more of identify the packets, determine (e.g., based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers) that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, by correlating the packets with one or more packets previously determined by packet-filtering system 200 to comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., log data generated by packet-filtering system 200 in one or more of step #s 6, 7, or 12-31), and one or more of log or drop the packets.

Referring to FIG. 3C, at step #33, rule gate 120 may one or more of update a console (or interface) associated with packet-filtering system 200 running on host 108 or receive one or more updates to rules 212 via the console. For example, the console may provide data regarding one or more threats to network 102 corresponding to the network-threat indicators, and rule gate 120 may update the console based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., log data generated by packet-filtering system 200 in one or more of step #s 6, 7, or 12-32). In some embodiments, the console may provide data identifying network threats associated with one or more of hosts 106, 108, 110, 142, 144, or 146, and rule gate 120 may update data associated with one or more of hosts 106 or 142 based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., log data generated by packet-filtering system 200 in one or more of step #s 6, 7, or 12-32).

At step #34, rule gate 120 may reconfigure rules 212 based on one or more of updates received via the console or data stored in logs 214 (e.g., log data generated by packet-filtering system 200 in one or more of step #s 6, 7, or 12-32). For example, packet-filtering system 200 may implement one or more aspects of the technology described in U.S. Patent Application Serial No. 14/690,302, filed April 17, 2015, and entitled "RULE-BASED NETWORK-TH EAT DETECTION," the disclosure of which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety and made part hereof, or similar technology, and rule gate 120 may reconfigure rules 212 based on one or more risk scores updated to reflect data stored in logs 214 (e.g., log data generated by packet-filtering system 200 in one or more of step #s 6, 7, or 12-32).

Host 106 may generate one or more packets comprising data encrypted in accordance with one or more parameters of session 306 and, at step #35, may communicate the packets toward proxy device 112. Rules 212 (e.g., one or more of rules 212 reconfigured in step #34) may be configured to cause rule gate 120 to one or more of identify the packets, determine (e.g., based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers) that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, by correlating the packets with one or more packets previously determined by packet-filtering system 200 to comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., log data generated by packet-filtering system 200 in one or more of step #s 6, 7, or 12-32), and one or more of log or drop the packets.

Proxy device 112 may receive one or more of the packets and generate one or more corresponding packets comprising unencrypted data and, at step #36, may communicate the packets toward proxy device 114. Rules 212 (e.g., one or more of rules 212 reconfigured in step #34) may be configured to cause rule gate 124 to one or more of identify the packets, determine (e.g., based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers) that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, by correlating the packets with one or more packets previously determined by packet-filtering system 200 to comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., log data generated by packet-filtering system 200 in one or more of step #s 6, 7, 12-32, or 35), and one or more of log or drop the packets.

Proxy device 114 may receive one or more of the packets and generate one or more corresponding packets comprising data encrypted in accordance with one or more parameters of session 308 and, at step #37, may communicate the packets toward host 142. Rules 212 (e.g., one or more of rules 212 reconfigured in step #34) may be configured to cause rule gate 128 to one or more of identify the packets, determine (e.g., based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers) that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, by correlating the packets with one or more packets previously determined by packet-filtering system 200 to comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., log data generated by packet-filtering system 200 in one or more of step #s 6, 7, 12-32, 35, or 36), and one or more of log or drop the packets.

Host 142 may generate one or more packets comprising data encrypted in accordance with one or more parameters of session 308 and, at step #38, may communicate the packets toward proxy device 114. Rules 212 (e.g., one or more of rules 212 reconfigured in step #34) may be configured to cause rule gate 128 to one or more of identify the packets, determine (e.g., based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers) that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, by correlating the packets with one or more packets previously determined by packet-filtering system 200 to comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., log data generated by packet-filtering system 200 in one or more of step #s 6, 7, 12-32, or 35-37), and one or more of log or drop the packets.

Proxy device 114 may receive one or more of the packets and generate one or more corresponding packets comprising unencrypted data and, at step #39, may communicate the packets toward proxy device 112. Rules 212 (e.g., one or more of rules 212 reconfigured in step #34) may be configured to cause rule gate 124 to one or more of identify the packets, determine (e.g., based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers) that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, by correlating the packets with one or more packets previously determined by packet-filtering system 200 to comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., log data generated by packet-filtering system 200 in one or more of step #s 6, 7, 12-32, or 35-38), and one or more of log or drop the packets.

Proxy device 112 may receive one or more of the packets and generate one or more corresponding packets comprising data encrypted in accordance with one or more parameters of session 306 and, at step #40, may communicate the packets toward host 106. Rules 212 (e.g., one or more of rules 212 reconfigured in step #34) may be configured to cause rule gate 120 to one or more of identify the packets, determine (e.g., based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers) that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, by correlating the packets with one or more packets previously determined by packet-filtering system 200 to comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., log data generated by packet-filtering system 200 in one or more of step #s 6, 7, 12-32, or 35-39), and one or more of log or drop the packets.

Host 142 may generate one or more packets destined for one or more of hosts 106, 108, or 110 and, at step #41, may communicate the packets toward gateway 134. Rules 212 (e.g., one or more of rules 212 reconfigured in step #34) may be configured to cause rule gate 128 to one or more of identify the packets, determine (e.g., based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer

headers) that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, by correlating the packets with one or more packets previously determined by packet-filtering system 200 to comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., log data generated by packet-filtering system 200 in one or more of step #s 6, 7, 12-32, or 35-40), and one or more of log or drop the packets.

Host 108 may generate one or more packets and, at step #42, may communicate the packets to host 142. Rules 212 (e.g., one or more of rules 212 reconfigured in step #34) may be configured to cause rule gates 120 and 128 to one or more of identify the packets, determine (e.g., based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers) that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, by correlating the packets with one or more packets previously determined by packet-filtering system 200 to comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., log data generated by packet-filtering system 200 in one or more of step #s 6, 7, 12-32, or 35-41), and one or more of log or drop the packets.

Host 106 may generate one or more packets destined for hosts 108, 142, 144, and 146 and, at step #43, may communicate the packets toward hosts 108, 142, 144, and 146. Rules 212 (e.g., one or more of rules 212 reconfigured in step #34) may be configured to cause rule gate 120 to one or more of identify the packets, determine (e.g., based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers) that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, by correlating the packets with one or more packets previously determined by packet-filtering system 200 to comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., log data generated by packet-filtering system 200 in one or more of step #s 6, 7, 12-32, or 35-42), and one or more of log or drop the packets.

Referring to FIG. 4A, step #s 1-5 substantially correspond to step #s 1-5 of FIG. 3A.

Host 106 (e.g., the web browser) may be configured to utilize web proxy 118 and responsive to the request, may generate packets comprising data configured to establish a connection between host 106 and web proxy 118 (e.g., a TCP: SYN handshake message) and, at step #6, may communicate the packets to web proxy 118. Rule gate 120 may interface a communication link interfacing host 106 and web proxy 118, and rules 212 may be configured to cause rule gate 120 to one or more of identify the packets, for example, based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers (e.g., a network address of web proxy 118) or one or more ports (e.g., port 80) indicated by transport-layer headers in the packets, and one or more of log or drop the packets.

Responsive to receiving the packets from host 106, web proxy 118 may generate packets comprising data configured to establish the connection between host 106 and web proxy 118 (e.g., a TCP: SYN-ACK handshake message) and, at step #7, may communicate the packets to host 106. Rules 212 may be configured to cause rule gate 120 to one or more of identify the packets, for example, based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers (e.g., a network address of web proxy 118) or one or more ports (e.g., port 80) indicated by transport-layer headers in the packets, and one or more of log or drop the packets.

Responsive to receiving the packets from web proxy 118, host 106 may generate packets comprising data configured to establish the connection between host 106 and web proxy 118 (e.g., a TCP: ACK handshake message) and, at step #8, may communicate the packets to web proxy 118. Rules 212 may be configured to cause rule gate 120 to one or more of identify the packets, for example, based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers (e.g., a network address of web proxy 118) or one or more ports (e.g., port 80) indicated by transport-layer headers in the packets, and one or more of log or drop the packets.

Web proxy 118 may receive the packets from host 106, and connection 402 (e.g., a TCP connection) between host 106 and web proxy 118 may be established. Host 106 may generate packets comprising a request (e.g., an HTTP CONNECT request), and, at step #9, may communicate the packets to web proxy 118 via connection 402.

Rules 212 may be configured to cause rule gate 120 to one or more of identify the packets, for example, based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers (e.g., a network address of web proxy 118) or one or more ports (e.g., port 80) indicated by transport-layer headers in the packets, determine the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, a domain name (e.g., FQ.DN) in the request, and one or more of log or drop the packets.

Web proxy 118 may generate a DNS query comprising the domain name and, at step #10, may communicate the DNS query toward DNS 130. The domain name included in the request may correspond to one or more of the network-threat indicators, and rules 212 may be configured to cause rule gate 126 to one or more of identify one or more packets comprising the DNS query, determine that the packets comprise the domain name corresponding to the network-threat indicators, and one or more of log or drop the packets. For example, the packets may comprise a network address of web proxy 118 (e.g., as a source address in their network-layer headers), and rule gate 126 may generate log data indicating the network address of web proxy 118. As depicted by step #10A, the packets may be communicated to DNS 130. In some embodiments, rules 212 may be configured to cause rule gate 126 to, responsive to determining that the packets comprise the domain name corresponding to the network-threat indicators, drop the packets, preventing them from reaching DNS 130, as depicted by step #10B.

DNS 130 may generate a reply to the DNS query and, at step #11, may communicate the reply toward web proxy 118. The reply may comprise the domain name corresponding to the network-threat indicators, and rules 212 may be configured to cause rule gate 126 to one or more of identify one or more packets comprising the reply, determine that the packets comprise the domain name corresponding to the network-threat indicators, and one or more of log or drop the packets. For example, the packets may comprise the network address of web proxy 118 (e.g., as a destination address in their network-layer headers), and rule gate 126 may generate log data indicating the network address of web proxy 118. Similarly, the domain name may correspond to host 142, the packets may comprise a network address of host 142 (e.g., DNS 130 may have resolved the domain name included in the query to the network address of host 142.), and rule gate 126 may generate log data indicating the network address of host 142. As depicted by step #11A, the packets may be communicated to web proxy 118. In some embodiments, rules 212 may be configured to cause rule gate 126 to, responsive to determining that the packets comprise the domain name corresponding to the network-threat indicators, drop the packets, preventing them from reaching web proxy 118, as depicted by step #11B.

Web proxy 118 may generate one or more packets destined for host 142 comprising data (e.g., a TCP: SYN handshake message) configured to establish a connection (e.g., a TCP connection or tunnel) between web proxy 118 and host 142 and, at step #12, may communicate the packets toward host 142. Rule gate 122 may interface a communication link interfacing web proxy 118 and host 142, and rules 212 may be configured to cause rule gate 122 to one or more of identify the packets or determine (e.g., based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers) that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, by correlating the packets with one or more of the packets comprising the request, the DNS query, or the reply to the DNS query based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., the log data generated by rule gates 120 and 126 in one or more of step #s 6-11).

At step #13, rule gate 122 may route the packets comprising the data configured to establish the connection between web proxy 118 and host 142 to proxy device 112 and, at step #14, may communicate the packets to proxy device 112. For example, rules 212 may be configured to cause rule gate 122 to route the packets to proxy device 112 based on data in the packets, for example, one or more ports (e.g., port 443) indicated by transport-layer headers in the packets, indicating the connection between web proxy 118 and host 142 will be utilized to establish an encrypted communication session or tunnel (e.g., a session established in accordance with the transport layer security (TLS) protocol, secure sockets layer (SSL) protocol, secure shell (SSH) protocol, or the like).

Referring to FIG. 4B, at step #15, proxy devices 112 and 114 may exchange one or more parameters determined from the packets comprising the data configured to establish the connection between web proxy 118 and host 142, for example, one or more network addresses in network-layer headers of the packets (e.g., network addresses of web proxy 118 and host 142) or ports indicated by transport-layer headers in the packets (e.g., indicating the type of encrypted communication session the connection will be utilized to establish). Proxy device 112 may utilize the parameters to generate packets comprising data configured to establish a connection between proxy device 112 and web proxy 118 (e.g., a TCP: SYN-ACK handshake message) and, at step #16, may communicate the packets to web proxy 118. Rules 212 may be configured to cause rule gate 122 to one or more of identify the packets or determine (e.g., based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers) that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, by correlating the packets with one or more of the packets comprising the request, the DNS query, or the reply to the DNS query based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., the log data generated by rule gates 120 and 126 in one or more of step #s 6-11).

Similarly, proxy device 114 may utilize the parameters to generate packets comprising data configured to establish a connection between proxy device 114 and host 142 (e.g., a TCP: SYN handshake message) and, at step #17, may communicate the packets to host 142. Rules 212 may be configured to cause rule gate 128 to one or more of identify the packets, determine (e.g., based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers) that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, by correlating the packets with one or more packets previously determined by packet-filtering system 200 to comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., log data generated by packet-filtering system 200 in one or more of step #s 6-11 or 16), and one or more of log or drop the packets.

Responsive to receiving the packets from proxy device 112, web proxy 118 may generate packets comprising data configured to establish the connection between proxy device 112 and web proxy 118 (e.g., a TCP: ACK handshake message) and, at step #18, may communicate the packets to proxy device 112. Rules 212 may be configured to cause rule gate 122 to one or more of identify the packets, determine (e.g., based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers) that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, by correlating the packets with one or more packets previously determined by packet-filtering system 200 to comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., log data generated by packet-filtering system 200 in one or more of step #s 6-11, 16, or 17), and one or more of log or drop the packets.

Responsive to receiving the packets from proxy device 114, host 142 may generate packets comprising data configured to establish the connection between proxy device 114 and host 142 (e.g., a TCP: SYN-ACK handshake message) and, at step #19, may communicate the packets to proxy device 114. Rules 212 may be configured to cause rule gate 128 to one or more of identify the packets, determine (e.g., based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers) that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, by correlating the packets with one or more packets previously determined by packet-filtering system 200 to comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., log data generated by packet-filtering system 200 in one or more of step #s 6-11 or 16-18), and one or more of log or drop the packets.

Responsive to receiving the packets from host 142, proxy device 114 may generate packets comprising data configured to establish the connection between proxy device 114 and host 142 (e.g., a TCP: ACK handshake message) and, at step #20, may communicate the packets to host 142. Rules 212 may be configured to cause rule gate 128 to one or more of identify the packets, determine (e.g., based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers) that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, by correlating the packets with one or more packets previously determined by packet-filtering system 200 to comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., log data generated by packet-filtering system 200 in one or more of step #s 6-11 or 16-19), and one or more of log or drop the packets.

Proxy device 112 may receive the packets comprising data configured to establish the connection between proxy device 112 and web proxy 118 communicated by web proxy 118 in step #18, and connection 404 (e.g., a TCP connection) between proxy device 112 and web proxy 118 may be established. Similarly, host 142 may receive the packets comprising data configured to establish the connection between proxy device 114 and host 142 communicated by proxy device 114 in step #20, and connection 406 (e.g., a TCP connection) between proxy device 114 and host 142 may be established.

At step #21, proxy device 112 and host 106 may communicate packets comprising data configured to establish encrypted communication session 408 (e.g., a SSL/TLS session) between proxy device 112 and host 106 via connections 402 and 404. Rules 212 may be configured to cause one or more of rule gates 120 or 122 to one or more of identify the packets, determine (e.g., based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers) that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, by correlating the packets with one or more packets previously determined by packet-filtering system 200 to comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., log data generated by packet-filtering system 200 in one or more of step #s 6-11 or 16-20) or the packets comprising one or more handshake messages configured to establish session 408 that comprise unencrypted data (e.g., including the domain name) corresponding to the network-threat indicators, and one or more of log or drop the packets.

Similarly, at step #22, proxy device 114 and host 142 may communicate packets comprising data configured to establish encrypted communication session 410 (e.g., a SSL/TLS session) between proxy device 114 and host 142 via connection 406, and rules 212 may be configured to cause rule gate 128 to one or more of identify the packets, determine (e.g., based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers) that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, by correlating the packets with one or more packets previously determined by packet-filtering system 200 to comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., log data generated by packet-filtering system 200 in one or more of step #s 6-11 or 16-21) or the packets comprising one or more handshake messages configured to establish session 410 that comprise unencrypted data (e.g., including the domain name) corresponding to the network-threat indicators, and one or more of log or drop the packets.

Referring to FIGs. 4B-C, step #s 23-47 substantially correspond to step #s 19-43 of FIGs. 3B-C; however, rules 212 may be configured to cause one or more of rule gates 120 or 122 to one or more of identify, drop, or log the packets communicated in one or more of step #s 23, 30, 31, 36, 39, or 44 of FIGs. 4B-C.

Referring to FIG. 5A, step #s 1-7 substantially correspond to step #s 1-7 of FIG. 3A.

Host 106 may generate one or more packets destined for host 142 comprising data (e.g., a TCP: SYN handshake message) configured to establish a connection (e.g., a TCP connection or tunnel) between hosts 106 and 142 and, at step #8, may communicate the packets to host 142. Rules 212 may be configured to cause one or more of rule gates 120 or 128 to one or more of identify the packets or determine (e.g., based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers) that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, by correlating the packets with one or more of the packets comprising the DNS query or the reply to the DNS query based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., the log data generated by rule gate 126 in one or more of steps #6 or #7).

Responsive to receiving the packets from host 106, host 142 may generate packets comprising data configured to establish the connection between hosts 106 and 142 (e.g., a TCP: SYN-ACK handshake message) and, at step #9, may communicate the packets to host 106. Rules 212 may be configured to cause one or more of rule gates 120 or 128 to one or more of identify the packets or determine (e.g., based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers) that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, by correlating the packets with one or more of the packets comprising the DNS query or the reply to the DNS query based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., the log data generated by rule gate 126 in one or more of steps #6 or #7).

Responsive to receiving the packets from host 142, host 106 may generate packets comprising data configured to establish the connection between hosts 106 and 142 (e.g., a TCP: ACK handshake message) and, at step #10, may communicate the packets to host 142. Rules 212 may be configured to cause one or more of rule gates 120 or 128 to one or more of identify the packets or determine (e.g., based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers) that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, by correlating the packets with one or more of the packets comprising the DNS query or the reply to the DNS query based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., the log data generated by rule gate 126 in one or more of steps #6 or #7).

Host 142 may receive the packets comprising data configured to establish the connection between hosts 106 and 142 communicated by host 106 in step #10, and connection 502 (e.g., a TCP connection) between hosts 106 and 142 may be established.

At step #11, hosts 106 and 142 may communicate packets comprising data configured to establish encrypted communication session 504 (e.g., a SSL/TLS session) between hosts 106 and 142 via connection 502. Rules 212 may be configured to cause one or more of rule gates 120 or 128 to one or more of identify the packets, determine (e.g., based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers) that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, by correlating the packets with one or more packets previously determined by packet-filtering system 200 to comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., log data generated by packet-filtering system 200 in one or more of step #s 6-10) or the packets comprising one or more handshake messages configured to establish session 504 that comprise unencrypted data (e.g., including the domain name) corresponding to the network-threat indicators, and one or more of log or drop the packets.

Host 106 may generate packets comprising data encrypted in accordance with one or more parameters of session 504 and, at step #12, may communicate the packets to host 142. Rules 212 may be configured to cause one or more of rule gates 120 or 128 to one or more of identify the packets, determine (e.g., based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers) that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, by correlating the packets with one or more packets previously determined by packet-filtering system 200 to comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., log data generated by packet-filtering system 200 in one or more of step #s 6-11), and one or more of log or drop the packets.

Host 142 may generate packets comprising data encrypted in accordance with one or more parameters of session 504 and, at step #13, may communicate the packets to host 106. Rules 212 may be configured to cause one or more of rule gates 120 or 128 to one or more of identify the packets, determine (e.g., based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers) that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, by correlating the packets with one or more packets previously determined by packet-filtering system 200 to comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., log data generated by packet-filtering system 200 in one or more of step #s 6-12), and one or more of log or drop the packets.

Host 106 may generate packets comprising data encrypted in accordance with one or more parameters of session 504 and, at step #14, may communicate the packets toward host 142. Rules 212 may be configured to cause one or more of rule gates 120 or 128 to one or more of identify the packets, determine (e.g., based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers) that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, by correlating the packets with one or more packets previously determined by packet-filtering system 200 to comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., log data generated by packet-filtering system 200 in one or more of step #s 6-13), and one or more of log or drop the packets.

Host 142 may generate packets comprising data encrypted in accordance with one or more parameters of session 504 and, at step #15, may communicate the packets toward host 106. Rules 212 may be configured to cause one or more of rule gates 120 or 128 to one or more of identify the packets, determine (e.g., based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers) that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, by correlating the packets with one or more packets previously determined by packet-filtering system 200 to comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., log data generated by packet-filtering system 200 in one or more of step #s 6-14), and one or more of log or drop the packets.

Referring to FIG. 5B, steps #16 and #17 substantially correspond to steps #33 and #34 of FIG. 3C.

Host 106 may generate packets comprising data encrypted in accordance with one or more parameters of session 504 and, at step #18, may communicate the packets toward host 142. Rules 212 (e.g., one or more of rules 212 reconfigured in step #17) may be configured to cause one or more of rule gates 120 or 128 to one or more of identify the packets, determine (e.g., based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers) that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, by correlating the packets with one or more packets previously determined by packet-filtering system 200 to comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., log data generated by packet-filtering system 200 in one or more of step #s 6-15), and one or more of log or drop the packets.

Host 142 may generate packets comprising data encrypted in accordance with one or more parameters of session 504 and, at step #19, may communicate the packets toward host 106. Rules 212 (e.g., one or more of rules 212 reconfigured in step #17) may be configured to cause one or more of rule gates 120 or 128 to one or more of identify the packets, determine (e.g., based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers) that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, by correlating the packets with one or more packets previously determined by packet-filtering system 200 to comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., log data generated by packet-filtering system 200 in one or more of step #s 6-15 and 18), and one or more of log or drop the packets.

Step #s 20-22 substantially correspond to step #s 41-43 of FIG. 3C.

Referring to FIG. 6A, step #s 1-11 substantially correspond to step #s 1-11 of FIG. 4A.

Web proxy 118 may generate one or more packets destined for host 142 comprising data (e.g., a TCP: SYN handshake message) configured to establish a connection (e.g., a TCP connection or tunnel) between web proxy 118 and host 142 and, at step #12, may communicate the packets to host 142. Rules 212 may be configured to cause one or more of rule gates 122 or 128 to one or more of identify the packets or determine (e.g., based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers) that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, by correlating the packets with one or more of the packets comprising the DNS query or the reply to the DNS query based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., the log data generated by rule gate 126 in one or more of steps #10 or #11).

Responsive to receiving the packets from web proxy 118, host 142 may generate packets comprising data configured to establish the connection between web proxy 118 and host 142 (e.g., a TCP: SYN-ACK handshake message) and, at step #13, may communicate the packets to web proxy 118. Rules 212 may be configured to cause one or more of rule gates 122 or 128 to one or more of identify the packets or

determine (e.g., based on one or more network addresses included in their network- layer headers) that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, by correlating the packets with one or more of the packets comprising the DNS query or the reply to the DNS query based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., the log data generated by rule gate 126 in one or more of steps #10 or #11).

[98] Responsive to receiving the packets from host 142, web proxy 118 may generate packets comprising data configured to establish the connection between web proxy 118 and host 142 (e.g., a TCP: ACK handshake message) and, at step #14, may communicate the packets to host 142. Rules 212 may be configured to cause one or more of rule gates 122 or 128 to one or more of identify the packets or determine (e.g., based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers) that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, by correlating the packets with one or more of the packets comprising the DNS query or the reply to the DNS query based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., the log data generated by rule gate 126 in one or more of steps #10 or #11).

[99] Referring to FIG. 6B, host 142 may receive the packets comprising data configured to establish the connection between web proxy 118 and host 142 communicated by web proxy 118 in step #14, and connection 604 (e.g., a TCP connection) between web proxy 118 and host 142 may be established.

[100] At step #15, hosts 106 and 142 may communicate packets comprising data configured to establish encrypted communication session 606 (e.g., a SSL/TLS session) between hosts 106 and 142 via connections 602 and 604. Rules 212 may be configured to cause one or more of rule gates 120, 122, or 128 to one or more of identify the packets, determine (e.g., based on one or more network addresses included in their network-layer headers) that the packets comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators, for example, by correlating the packets with one or more packets previously determined by packet-filtering system 200 to comprise data corresponding to the network-threat indicators based on data stored in logs 214 (e.g., log data generated by packet-filtering system 200 in one or more of step #s 6-15) or the packets comprising one or more handshake messages configured to establish session 606 that comprise unencrypted data (e.g., including the domain name) corresponding to the network-threat indicators, and one or more of log or drop the packets.

[101] Step #s 16-26 substantially correspond to step #s 12-22 of FIGs. 5A-B; however, rules

212 may be configured to cause one or more of rule gates 120, 122, or 128 to one or more of identify, drop, or log the packets communicated in one or more of step #s 16-19, 22, or 23 of FIG. 6B.

[102] FIG. 7 depicts an illustrative method for rule-based network-threat detection for encrypted communications in accordance with one or more aspects of the disclosure. Referring to FIG. 7, in step 702, a packet-filtering system may receive data indicating network-threat indicators. For example, packet-filtering system 200 may receive packet-filtering rules generated by rule provides 138 based on network- threat indicators provided by threat-intelligence providers 140. In step 704, the packet-filtering system may configure packet-filtering rules in accordance with which it is configured to filter packets. For example, packet-filtering system 200 may configure rules 212.

[103] In step 706, the packet-filtering system may identify packets comprising unencrypted data. For example, packet-filtering system 200 may identify packets comprising a DNS query, a reply to a DNS query, or a handshake message configured to establish an encrypted communication session. In step 708, the packet-filtering system may identify packets comprising encrypted data. For example, packet-filtering system 200 may identify packets encrypted in accordance with one or more parameters of sessions 306, 308, 408, 410, 504, or 606.

[104] In step 710, the packet-filtering system may determine based on a portion of the unencrypted data corresponding to the network-threat indicators that the packets comprising encrypted data correspond to the network-threat indicators. For example, packet-filtering system 200 may determine that a domain name included in the DNS query, the reply to the DNS query, or the handshake message corresponds to the network-threat indicators, and packet-filtering system 200 may determine that one or more of the packets encrypted in accordance with the parameters of sessions 306, 308, 408, 410, 504, or 606 correlate to one or more packets comprising the DNS query, the reply to the DNS query, or the one or more handshake messages.

[105] The functions and steps described herein may be embodied in computer-usable data or computer-executable instructions, such as in one or more program modules, executed by one or more computers or other devices to perform one or more functions described herein. Generally, program modules include routines, programs, objects, components, data structures, etc. that perform particular tasks or implement particular abstract data types when executed by one or more processors in a computer or other data-processing device. The computer-executable instructions may be stored on a computer-readable medium such as a hard disk, optical disk, removable storage media, solid-state memory, RAM, etc. As will be appreciated, the functionality of the program modules may be combined or distributed as desired. In addition, the functionality may be embodied in whole or in part in firmware or hardware equivalents, such as integrated circuits, application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs), field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA), and the like. Particular data structures may be used to more effectively implement one or more aspects of the disclosure, and such data structures are contemplated to be within the scope of computer-executable instructions and computer-usable data described herein.

[106] Although not required, one of ordinary skill in the art will appreciate that various aspects described herein may be embodied as a method, system, apparatus, or one or more computer-readable media storing computer-executable instructions. Accordingly, aspects may take the form of an entirely hardware embodiment, an entirely software embodiment, an entirely firmware embodiment, or an embodiment combining software, hardware, and firmware aspects in any combination.

[107] As described herein, the various methods and acts may be operative across one or more computing devices and networks. The functionality may be distributed in any

manner or may be located in a single computing device (e.g., a server, client computer, or the like).

Aspects of the disclosure have been described in terms of illustrative embodiments thereof. Numerous other embodiments, modifications, and variations within the scope and spirit of the appended claims will occur to persons of ordinary skill in the art from a review of this disclosure. For example, one of ordinary skill in the art will appreciate that the steps illustrated in the illustrative figures may be performed in other than the recited order and that one or more illustrated steps may be optional. Any and all features in the following claims may be combined or rearranged in any way possible.