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1. (WO2017096044) ADAPTIVE SMART TEXTILES, METHOD OF PRODUCING THEM, AND APPLICATIONS THEREOF
Note: Text based on automatic Optical Character Recognition processes. Please use the PDF version for legal matters

CLAIMS

1. An article of manufacture, comprising:

a dual pane fabric arrangement comprising a first pane of fabric and a second pane of fabric separated by an intra-layer gap; and

an insert layer disposed in the intra-layer gap, wherein the insert layer causes a thickness of the intra-layer gap to change responsive to changes in ambient temperature.

2. The article of claim 1, wherein the insert layer causes the thickness of the intra-layer gap to change due to bending in at least a part of the insert layer due to changes in the ambient temperature.

3. The article of claim 1, wherein the insert layer comprises a repeatable shape memory structure that wrinkles on temperature change.

4. The article of claim 1 , wherein the insert layer comprises a shape memory structure comprising an array of circular shaped, oval shaped, trilobal shaped, ribbon shaped or random shaped fibers or partially flattened fibers with an off-centered relative arrangement of the two elongated materials having different coefficients of thermal expansion,

5. The article of claim 4, wherein the two elongated materials comprise a metal-metal, a metal polymer, a polymer-polymer, or a polymer-composite combination,

6. The article of claim 4, wherein with a dimension of an overall diameter or equivalent diameter of the shape memory structure is in the range of 5 - 5,000 um.

7. The article of claim 4, wherein with a dimension of an overall diameter or equivalent diameter of the shape memory structure is in the range of 20 - 1 ,000 um,

8. The article of claim 4, wherein with a dimension of an overall diameter or equivalent diameter of the shape memory structure is in the range of 50 - 500 um,

9. The article of claim 3, wherein wrinkling of the shape memory structure causes a dimensional change along a thickness direction to cause the dual pane fabric thickness to expand and increase thermal insulation,

10. The article of claim 9, wherein with the thickness change of dual-pane fabric being at least 1 mm over a temperature change of 10°C.

11. The article of claim 9, wherein with the thickness change of dual-pane fabric being at least 5 mm over a temperature change of 10°C.

12. The article of manufacture of claim 1 , wherein the changes in the thickness of the intra-layer gap causes a thermal insulative property of the dual pane fabric arrangement to change.

13. An article of manufacture, comprising:

a single pane fabric having cut-out portions; and

an array of bilayer flaps attached onto top or bottom surface of cut-out portions of the single pane in such a way that when the array of bilayer flaps bends upon a temperature change, a corresponding attached fabric portion in contact with each of the flaps also bend upward or downward to alter flow of ambient medium in and out of the fabric plane.

14. An article of manufacture, comprising:

a dual pane fabric arrangement comprising a first pane of fabric and a second pane of fabric separated by an intra-layer gap, wherein at least one of the first pane and the second pane comprises an array of bilayer attached flaps move upward or downward controllable to alter flow of ambient medium in and out of the intra-layer gap; and

an insert layer disposed in the intra-layer gap, wherein the insert layer is coupled to the array of flaps to control opening and closing of the array of flaps to alter the flow of the ambient medium in and out of the intra-layer gap.

15. The article of manufacture of claim 14, wherein the ambient medium comprises air.

16. The article of manufacture of claim 1 or 14, wherein the insert layer comprises a first portion having a first coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and a second portion having a second, different CTE, the first portion and the second portion being connected to each other to change shape in response to changes in the ambient temperature.

17. The article of manufacture of claim 16, wherein the first CTE and the second CTE are different at least by 10 ppm/°C,

18. The article of manufacture of claim 17, wherein the first CTE and the second CTE are different at least by 20 ppm/°C,

19. The article of manufacture of claim 8, wherein the first CTE and the second CTE are different at least by 50 ppm/°C.

20. The article of manufacture of claim 1 or 13 or 14, wherein the insert layer is attached to the bilayer arrangement using at least one of stitching, adhesive bonding, stapling, magnets, zippers, velcros, or buttons.

21. The article of manufacture of claim 1 or 13 or 14, wherein the article comprises at least one of a textile, a clothing item, a curtain, a drapery material, a camping tent, or a sleeping bag.

22. The article of manufacture of claim 16, wherein the first portion comprises a lower CTE material and the second portion comprises a higher CTE material, and wherein the first portion and the second portion are bonded for coupling, and the lower CTE material is made of a shape memory alloy with distributed phase transformation temperatures with a linear change of dimension with temperature.

23. The article of manufacture of claim 22, wherein the lower CTE material has a negative CTE value.

24. The article of manufacture of claim 23, wherein the lower CTE material having the negative CTE value is fabricated from Cu-Al-Zn, Cu-Al-Mn, Ni-Ti or other alloys having a near-room-temperature phase transition with distributed phase transition temperatures, and/or a shape memory polymer.

25. The article of manufacture of claim 22, wherein the higher CTE material comprises cellulose acetate, an Al alloy, an Mg alloy, Cu alloy, or austenitic stainless steel.

26. The article of manufacture of claim 22, 23, 24 or 25, wherein metallic components in the bilayer comprise higher yield strength metals or alloys having a creep deformation resistant characteristics using a work-hardened structure or precipitation-hardened structure.

27. The article of manufacture of claim 26, wherein the metallic components possess an increased yield strength by at least 30% as compared to metals or alloys without work-hardened structure or precipitation-hardened structure.

28. The article of manufacture of claim 26, wherein the metallic components possess an increased yield strength by at least 100% as compared to metals or alloys without work-hardened structure or precipitation-hardened structure

29. The article of manufacture of claim 22, wherein both the lower CTE material and the higher CTE material each comprise a polymeric material having increased strength employing higher molecular weight or dispersion hardened structure, or fiber- or mesh-inclusion-hardened structure, so that the creep-induced loss of temperature induced dimension change is minimized.

30. The article of manufacture of claim 22, wherein the lower CTE material has a dispersion hardened polymer structure, glass-fiber or carbon-fiber reinforced polymer structure, or a mesh-inclusion-hardened polymer structure, with a base polymer selected from one of PBI (Polybenzimidazole), PAI (Polyamide-imide), PEI (Polyetherimide), PEEK

(Polyetheretherketone), or glass-fiber-reinforced nylon, or a low CTE aromatic polyamide or Kevlar or negative CTE Kevlar material,

31. The article of manufacture of claim 22, wherein the higher CTE material comprises one of a strengthened cellulose acetate, polyester, PB (Polybutylene), PE (Polyethylene),

UHMWPE (ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene), PVDF (Polyviylidenefluoride), PTFE (Polytetrafluoroethylene), acrylic PMMA (Polymethyl methacrylate), spandex. orlon, rayon, or polycarbonate, such that the polymer-polymer bilayer has reduced creep-induced loss of temperature induced dimension change compared to otherwise.

32. The article of manufacture of claim 22, wherein the each of the two strengthened polymer material comprising the bilayer has a higher stiffness with the elastic modulus being at least 0.2 GPa,

33. The article of manufacture of claim 22, wherein the each of the two strengthened polymer material comprising the bilayer has a higher stiffness with the elastic modulus being at least 0.6 GPa,

34. The article of manufacture of claim 22, wherein the each of the two strengthened polymer material comprising the bilayer has a higher stiffness with the elastic modulus being at least 1 GPa,

35. The article of manufacture of claim 22, wherein the strength of the base polymer is made higher by at least 50%,

36. The article of manufacture of claim 22, wherein the strength of the base polymer is made higher by at least 100%.

37. The article of manufacture of claim 22, wherein the strength of the base polymer is made higher by at least 200%.

38. The article of manufacture of claim 22, wherein the higher CTE material has a CTE value of at least 15 ppm/°C.

39. The article of manufacture of claim 16, wherein the first portion comprises a lower CTE material and the second portion comprises a higher CTE material, wherein the lower CTE material and the higher CTE material are bonded for coupling, and the lower CTE material comprises a near-zero CTE type materials

40. The article of manufacture of claim 39, wherein the lower CTE material includes an Invar alloy a refractive metal alloy, or a Kevlar type low CTE or negative CTE polymer.

41. The article of manufacture of claim 22 wherein the lower CTE material has a CTE value of less than 10 ppm/°C.

42. The article of manufacture of claim 16, wherein the first portion and the second portion are bonded by adhesives, solder layers, cold welding laminations, spot welding, or RF heating.

43. The article of manufacture of claim 16, wherein the bond layer between the first portion and the second portion is at most 20 um thickness.

44. The article of manufacture of claim 16, wherein the bond layer between the first portion and the second portion is at most 5 um thick.

45. The article of manufacture of claim 16, wherein the insert layer comprises two layer materials that are structured with at least one layer having an array or pores, an array of strips, or surface roughness of nano or micropatterning.

46. The article of manufacture of claim 16, wherein the insert layer comprises at least two bilayers, wherein each bilayer is shaped as a strip and the at least two bilayers are connected at long ends of the strip to form a bow structure.

47. The article of claim 46, wherein at least two bow structures are combined to form a star-like shape memory structure configuration exhibiting repeatable thermal expansion or contraction properties, and the star structure that causes the thickness of the intra-layer gap to change due to changes in the ambient temperature through vertically aligned movement of thermal expansion or contraction.

48. The article of manufacture of Claims 1 -16 wherein the dual layer fabric arrangement containing temperature-responsive inserts is stacked into a multilayer configuration in at least some selected regions of the fabric location to amplify the thickness changes, or to provide a thicker layer and warmer composite structures with flap openable structures.

49. The article of manufacture of claim 48, comprising a plurality of the bow structures arranged as an array between a dual pane fabric to enable the thickness to increase when the ambient temperature decreases, and the thickness gets reduced when the ambient temperature increases.

50. The article of manufacture of claim 48, comprising a plurality of the bow structures arranged as a high density packed array in the form of a triangular array or a square array.

51. The article of manufacture of claim 1 , wherein the insert layer comprises a material that causes the thickness of the bilayer arrangement to change at least 0.1 mm per degree C change of environment temperature,

52. The article of manufacture of claim 1 , wherein the insert layer comprises a material that causes the thickness of the bilayer arrangement to change at least 0.5 cm per degree C change of environment temperature.

53. The article of manufacture of claim 14, wherein the insert layer is responsive to temperature without being responsive to a changes in ambient humidity and illumination.

54. The article of manufacture of claim 14, wherein the opening and closing of the array of flaps causes a change in perceived color of the article of manufacturer.

55. The article of manufacture of claim 54 wherein selected local area color or light-reflection is altered by temperature-responsive flap opening using a CTE mismatched bilayer fabric so as to provide unique design characteristics with enhanced aesthetic properties.

56. The article of manufacture of claim 16 wherein the change in the thickness of the intra-layer gap or the opening of the array of flap enhances aesthetic properties of the article of manufacturer.

57. The article of manufacture of claim 16 wherein bilayer arrangement is stacked into a multilayer configuration in at least some selected regions to amplify the thickness changes or to provide a thicker layer composite structures with flap openable structures.

58. The article of manufacture of Claim 54 wherein a temperature at which the at least two bilayer materials connected into the bow shape is set flat controls a starting temperature of bending of the insert layer.

59. The article of manufacture of Claim 1 with a thickness changeable structure wherein the maximum temperature beyond which the thickness-change no longer occurs is set at a pre-set temperature.

60. The article of manufacture of claim 16 wherein the temperature at which one bilayer material or two bilayer material connected into a bow shape is set flat

at a specific temperature using a method of i) using a round mandrel to press a curved bilayer against to remove the existing curvature, ii) passing the curved bilayer through a rolling mill with tension, iii) using asymmetrical roll diameter pair, iv) applying an upward or downward tension during cold rolling to control/adjust the curvature, or v) applying deformation to one side of the bilayer.

61. The article of manufacture of Claim 1 wherein the insert is in the form of bendable beam or ribbon, in the form of screw, or in the form of wave spring, or bow-style form.

62. The article of manufacture of Claim 16 having friction reducing structures on the ends of temperature responsive, CTE mismatched bilayer ribbons, with slippery spheres attached at the end, ribbon ends curved up, or ribbon ends curved down.

63. The article of manufacture of Claim 16 wherein the thickness changeable structure is combined with porosity generating or flap openable structure, so that flap opening on temperature rise for air flow makes the wearer feel cooler, while the dual pane getting thicker on temperature decrease for more thermal insulation to make the wearer feel warmer.

64. The article of manufacture of Claim 16, wherein a surface of the article has an attached active functional device array or functional coating layer on the surface of thickness-changeable fabric for augmented comfort or luxurious feeling including at least one of a solar cell array, an ultraviolet (UV), near-infrared (NIR) or IR reflective layer, UV, NIR or IR absorbing layer, UV, NIR or IR transmitting layer, superhydrophobic non-wettable layer, water evaporative cooling device, batteries for heating, thermoelectrics for cooling/heating, ultrasonic device for vibration for easier air transport through fabric, de-odorant device or layer, color-changing device or layer, scent-generating device, acoustic or radio type device, display device, camera, sensors for temperature, humidity, UV light, gas, human pulse, noise, or a Wi-Fi receiving or transmitting device.

65. The article of manufacture of Claim 13 Claim 14 or Claim 16 wherein a surface of the article has an attached active functional device array or functional coating layer for augmented comfort or luxurious feeling including at least one of a solar cell array, an ultraviolet (UV), near-infrared (NIR) or IR reflective layer, UV, NIR or IR absorbing layer, UV, NIR or IR reflective transmitting layer, superhydrophobic non-wettable layer, water evaporative cooling device, batteries for heating, thermoelectrics for cooling/heating, ultrasonic device for vibration for easier air transport through fabric, de-odorant device or layer, color-changing device or layer, scent-generating device, acoustic or radio type device, display device, camera, sensors for temperature, humidity, UV light, gas, human pulse, noise, or a Wi-Fi receiving or transmitting device.

66. The article of manufacture of Claim 13, Claim 14 or Claim 16 wherein at least one of at least one of a solar cell array, an ultraviolet (UV), near-infrared (NIR) or IR reflective layer, UV, NIR or IR absorbing layer, UV, NIR or IR reflective transmitting layer, superhydrophobic non-wettable layer, water evaporative cooling device, batteries for heating, thermoelectrics for cooling/heating, ultrasonic device for vibration for easier air transport through fabric, de-odorant device or layer, color-changing device or layer, scent-generating device, acoustic or radio type device, display device, camera, sensors for temperature, humidity, UV light, gas, human pulse, noise, or a Wi-Fi receiving or transmitting device, is incorporated with the smart textile with porous electrical wiring arrangement so that the natural air flow through the regular fabric is minimally blocked, and the mechanical compliance of the fabric comprising the functional devices is ensured.

67. The article of manufacture of Claims 64 to 66, wherein the IR or body heat transmitting layer fabric is selected from nylon or polyethylene.

68. The article of manufacture of Claims of 64 to 66 wherein the IR or body heat transmitting layer fabric exhibits a desired degree of IR transmission of at least 40%.

69. The article of manufacture of Claims of 64 to 66 wherein the IR or body heat transmitting layer fabric exhibits a desired degree of IR transmission of at least 70%,

70. The article of manufacture of Claims of 64 to 66 wherein the IR or body heat transmitting layer fabric exhibits a desired degree of IR transmission of at least 85%.

71. The article of manufacture of Claims of 64 to 66 wherein the IR or body heat transmitting layer fabric is made of nano or micro structured ensemble of microfibers or nanofibers having an average fiber diameter dimension in the range of 50 nm to 50 um.

72. The article of manufacture of Claims of 64 to 66 wherein the IR or body heat transmitting layer fabric is made of nano or micro structured ensemble of microfibers or nanofibers having an average fiber diameter dimension in the range of 100 nm to 5 um,

73. The article of manufacture of Claims of 64 to 66 wherein the IR or body heat transmitting layer fabric is made of nano or micro structured ensemble of microfibers or nanofibers having an average fiber diameter dimension in the range of 200 nm to 2 um.

74. An article of manufacture comprising the structures, materials, devices having thickness-changeable or insulation changeable textiles of Claim 1 or porosity-changeable structures of Claim 12 or 14, having optional functional devices attached, with the applications of the articles and methods including but not limited to, apparels, curtains, back packs, outdoor or indoor camping equipment such as tents, sleeping bags, beach picnic equipment such as adjustable sunlight blockable/transmissible curtains or awnings or beach umbrellas, thermally regulated military personnel clothing, athletes clothing such as downhill or cross-country skiers, ice skaters, mountain hikers, special garments for extreme environments.

75. A process of manufacturing an insert layer, comprising:

producing an arrangement of materials by adhesively bonding a first laminar material having a first coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) with a second laminar material having a second CTE that is different from the first CTE using an intermediate bonding material; and roller compressing the arrangement of materials to produce the insert layer.

76. The process of claim 75, further including:

curing, in situ, the intermediate bonding material to make secure adhesion bonding.

77. The process of claim 75, wherein the first CTE has a value that is lower than that of the second CTE.

78. The process of claim 77, wherein the value of the first CTE is zero or a negative number.

79. A humidity responsive porosity-changeable arrangement, comprising:

a fabric; and

a hygroscopic layer attached at a bottom or top of the fabric, the hygroscopic layer having geometrical pores that allow air to flow to and away from the fabric.

80. The arrangement of claim 79, comprising a two-layered humidity responsive material that includes a hydrophobic top layer bonded with a diluted hygroscopic layer that reduces a feeling of wetness by at least 50%, with a viscosity enhanced by at least 30%, wherein the two-layered humidity responsive material bonded onto the upper regular fabric.

81. The arrangement of claim 80, wherein the two-layered humidity responsive material includes hydrophobic PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) and with the diluted hygroscopic material layer comprising cellulose acetate and the hygroscopic material layer of 5 - 30 volume %.

82. The humidity responsive porosity-changeable fabrics of claims 79 to 81, wherein the hygroscopic material layer is selected from e.g., PDMS or PDHS (Polydihexylsilane) with monomer-wise mixed hygroscopic molecules of PEG selected from PEG dimethacrylate, PEG methacrylate, PEG diacrylate, which also exhibits mechanical flexibilioty and stretchability between 30% and 100%.

83. The humidity responsive porosity-changeable arrangement of Claims 79 to 82 wherein porosity of at least 5% is introduced by drying of pre-absorbed water.

84. The humidity responsive porosity-changeable arrangement of Claims 79 to 82 wherein porosity of at least 30% is introduced by drying of pre-absorbed water.

85. The humidity responsive porosity-changeable arrangement of Claims 79 to 83 wherein the porosity is introduced in the hydrophobic layer, hygroscopic layer or both.

86. The humidity responsive porosity-changeable arrangement of Claim 85, wherein for the porosity in the hydrophobic layer, an elastic modulus is reduced by at least 10% and a flap opening height increased by at least 10%.

87. The humidity responsive porosity-changeable arrangement of Claim 85, wherein, for the porosity in the hygroscopic layer, the kinetics of humidity penetration is desirably increased by at least 10% faster time to reach a same flap height for an identical conditions as compared to an absence of porosity in the hygroscopic layer.

88. The humidity responsive porosity-changeable arrangement of Claim 79, the geometric pores are covered by a flap having a rectangular, a triangular, an oval, a circular, or a random geometry shape.

89. The humidity responsive porosity-changeable arrangement of Claim 88, wherein the flap has an elongation aspect ratio of at least 0.5.

90. The humidity responsive porosity-changeable arrangement of Claim 88, wherein the flap has an elongation aspect ratio of at least 2.

91. The humidity responsive porosity-changeable arrangement of Claim 79, wherein the geometric pores are covered by a flap, wherein the flap is made up of a one piece opening up, two or more split pieces opening up simultaneously, with the flap ends optionally curved to reduce frictional feeling.

92. A method of assembly to produce humidity responsive porosity-changeable fabrics or clothing or other wearable or non-wearable structures, comprising:

attaching a humidity absorbable material layer to a regular fabric using imprint bonding, utilizing dip coated, spin coated, spray coated or ink-jet coated liquid layer.

93. A method of assembly to produce humidity responsive porosity-changeable fabrics or clothing or other wearable or non-wearable structures, comprising:

attaching a humidity absorbable material layer to a regular fabric using one of a stitching or a pressure lamination or an adhesive lamination technique.

94. A method of assembly to produce humidity responsive porosity-changeable fabrics, clothing or other wearable or non-wearable structures, comprising:

attaching a humidity absorbable material layer to the regular fabric using a single layer or a two layer spray coating technique.

95. The humidity responsive, porosity-changeable textile of Claims 79-91 , wherein a surface of the article has an attached active functional device array or functional coating layer on the surface of thickness-changeable fabric for augmented comfort or luxurious feeling including at least one of a solar cell array, an ultraviolet (UV), near-infrared (NIR) or IR reflective layer, UV, NIR or IR absorbing layer, UV, NIR or IR reflective transmitting layer, superhydrophobic non-wettable layer, water evaporation cooling device, batteries for heating, thermoelectrics for cooling/heating, ultrasonic device for vibration for easier air transport through fabric, de-odorant device or layer, color-changing device or layer, scent-generating device, acoustic or radio type device, display device, camera, sensors for temperature, humidity, UV light, gas, human pulse, noise, or a Wi-Fi receiving or transmitting device.

96. The textile of 95 wherein the IR transmitting layer fabric one of a nylon or a polyethylene material.

97. An article of manufacturer comprising structures, materials, devices having humidity responsive, porosity-changeable textiles, as described in the present document.

98. The article of claim 97, wherein the article includes an indoor or outdoor apparel, a back pack, or an outdoor or indoor tent.