The present invention relates to a method for image and video compression by means of vectorisation, and to a device for executing the method, in the form of an integrated circuit or chip, for mobile and fixed equipment. The method comprises a logical structure of steps and is executed in the machine language of the executor device, the method consisting in: detecting the outlines of the monochrome segments or polygons of the image or video frame; and subsequently converting the vertex coordinates of each segment or polygon into corresponding vectors. Thus, the method enables lossless storage and compression of only the vectors, instead of compressing all the pixels of each image segment. The executor device is a combination of a multi-cell core having predictive and parallel computation, with a slave vector matrix and a LZW lossless data compression core. All the components are connected by two separate, independent, wide, asynchronous buses. Compression by means of vectorisation frees significant broadband and storage space in devices and equipment, and achieves greater transmission speed per video unit and lower power consumption.