A method comprising: irradiating ultraviolet light on at least one solid composite electrode comprising at least one semiconductor material (or a colloidal form of the material) which is in contact with at least one liquid solution (e.g., water-based liquid solution) comprising carbon dioxide and at least one polymerization monomer; wherein the carbon dioxide and the polymerization monomer participate in an oligomerization and/or polymerization reaction. Carbon dioxide is photochemically converted at or near a semiconductor material to an oligomer and/or polymer reaction product such as urea-formaldehyde, phenol formaldehyde, or melamine-formaldehyde resin. The semiconductor material can include ZnS and binders can be used such as polytetrafluoroethylene. Acidic or basic conditions can be used. The chain reaction provides for efficient use of the carbon dioxide.