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1. (WO2016191057) OXYGEN EVOLUTION CATALYST ELECTRODES, AND METHODS OF MAKING AND USING THE SAME
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What is claimed is:

1. An oxygen evolution reaction electrode comprising, in order:

an ion conducting membrane having first and second generally opposed major surfaces;

nanostructured whiskers with an oxygen evolution reaction electrocatalyst thereon, the electrocatalyst comprising at least one layer, wherein any layer of the oxygen evolution reaction electrocatalyst comprises collectively at least 95 atomic percent Ir, and not greater than 5 atomic percent Pt, based on the total collective cation and elemental metal content of the respective layer; and

a first fluid transport layer comprising an electrically conductive, corrosion resistant, porous metal, wherein the nanostructured whiskers are adjacent to the first major surface of the ion conducting membrane, and wherein the ion conducting membrane, the nanostructured whiskers having the oxygen evolution reaction electrocatalyst thereon, and the first fluid transport layer collectively have an electrical conductance of at least 0.1 S cm"2.

2. The oxygen evolution reaction electrode of claim 1, wherein the Ir is present at least in part as Ir oxide.

3. The oxygen evolution reaction electrode of either claim 1 or 2, wherein the oxygen evolution reaction catalyst comprises not greater than 0.001 atomic percent Pt, based on the total collective cation and elemental metal content of the respective layer.

4. The oxygen evolution reaction electrode of any preceding claim, wherein the first fluid transport layer comprises Ti.

5. The oxygen evolution reaction electrode of any preceding claim, wherein the ion conducting membrane comprises a proton exchange membrane.

6. The oxygen evolution reaction electrode of any preceding claim, wherein the nanostructured whiskers comprise organic pigment perylene red.

7. The oxygen evolution reaction electrode of any preceding claim, wherein the nanostructured whiskers are at least partially embedded in the ion conducting membrane.

8. The oxygen evolution reaction electrode of any preceding claim, wherein the oxygen evolution reaction electrocatalyst is a continuous layer on the nanostructured whiskers.

9. An electrochemical device comprising the oxygen evolution reaction electrode of any preceding claim.

10. The electrochemical device of claim 9, further comprising a hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst adjacent the second major surface of the ion conducting membrane and an electrically conducting second fluid transport layer in electrical contact with the hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst.

11. The electrochemical device of claim 10, wherein the hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst comprises nanostructured whiskers having a major surface with a hydrogen evolution reaction electrocatalyst comprising Pt thereon.

12. The electrochemical device of any of claims 9, 10, or 11, wherein the device is a water electrolyzer.

13. The electrochemical device of any claims 9, 10, or 11, wherein the device is a CO2 electrolyzer.

14. A method of generating hydrogen and oxygen from water, the method comprising:

providing an oxygen evolution reaction electrode membrane electrode assembly comprising an anode and a cathode catalyst, the anode being an oxygen evolution reaction electrode of any of claims 1 to 8, and having the cathode catalyst adjacent the second major surface of the ion conducting membrane; providing water in contact with the anode; and

providing an electrical potential with sufficient current across the membrane electrode assembly to convert at least a portion of the water to hydrogen and oxygen on the cathode and anode, respectively.