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[ EN ]


1. A phased array antenna apparatus comprising:

an array of radiating elements;

two or more waveguides connected to an array port, the waveguides each having a variable propogation constant; and

a plurality of couplers, each disposed between a respective one of the radiating elements and the waveguide, the waveguide couplers controlling phasing of signals fed to the respective radiating element.

2. The apparatus of claim 1 whereing the couplers further comprise:

a coupling slot formed adjacent the waveguide; and

a probe disposed between the waveguide and radiating element.

3. The apparatus of claim 2 wherein the couplers further comprise:

a load disposed adjacent the probe, coupling slots and waveguide.

4. The apparatus of claim 1 wherein each coupler comprises a pair of probes coupled to the respective radiation in quadrature.

5. The apparatus of claim 1 wherein the coupler further comprises one or more mirrors, positioned to further control delay.

6. The apparatus of claim 1 wherein the waveguide is operated in two modes, where each mode has a different propogation constant.

7. An antenna apparatus comprising:

a waveguide having a top surface, a bottom surface, an excitation end, and a load end, the waveguide formed of two or more layers, with gaps formed between the layers;

a control element arranged to adjust a size of the gaps, where the control element may be a piezoelectric, electroactive material or a mechanical position control; and

two or more delay elements disposed along the waveguide.

8. The apparatus of claim 7 wherein a delay introduced by repective delay elements decrease with position from the excitation end to the load end.

9. The apparatus of claim 8 wherein a cumulative additional delay introduced by the the delay elements effectively cancels a delay introduced by the waveguide.

10. The apparatus of claim 1 wherein the control element addtionally comprises: holes disposed in each of the layers of the waveguide, with the holes in a given layer arragned in a grid and aligned with holes in an adjacent layer;

actuator material strips positioned along rows of the holes; and

pins disposed in the holes.

11. The apparatus of claim 10 wherein the holes are plated and the pins are metallic such that an electrical signal can propogate therethrough to the actuator material strips.

12. The apparatus of claim 1 additionally comprising:

an array of scattering elements disposed on the top surface of the waveguide.

13. The apparatus of claim 12 wherein the scattering elements are disposed in a Cartesian grid pattern.

14. The apparatus of claim 13 wherein the scattering elements are disposed in a concentric circular array pattern.

15. The apparatus of claim 1 additionally comprising a feed network configured to provide Left Hand Circular Polarization (LHCP) and/or Right Hand Circular Polarization (RHCP) to the array.

16. The apparatus of claim 7 wherein the control element is a piezoelectric actuator comprising a dielectric elastomer disposed between a pair of electrodes.